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Rhetoric

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  • 1. Rhetoric The art of persuasion
  • 2. Why Art? • Rhetoric has a ‘poetic’, ‘aesthetic’ and moral element. • What works in one circumstance will not work in another • Ambiguity of human speech is the key to rhetoric
  • 3. A brief history • 5th BC teacher of Tisias (who Courtier of Hieron In Syracuse. • Introduction; narration; argument; digression and epilogue • Giorgias emigrated to Athens and worked as a rhetoric teacher training ‘citizens’ for politics and court cases. The first ‘sophist’ Corax Giorgias • Put some order to rhetoric as a ‘teachable’ skill’. • Ethos, Pathos and LogosAristotle Cicero
  • 4. Ethos • Ethos: the foundation, the connection between you and your audience: Can I trust you? Are you like us? • JFK was a berliner; • Bill Clinton: ‘I feel your pain’ • ‘Any woman who understands the problems of running a home will be nearer to understanding the problems of running a country.’ Margaret Thatcher
  • 5. Human, civic and community • Friends, Romans, Countr ymen, lend me your ears………. I am no orator as Brutus is, but as you know me all, a plain blunt man, that love my friend,
  • 6. Logos: • Beyond reasonable doubt. Logos is not always logic. • For Aristotle, sounding reasonable is not the same as possessing reason. • Enthymemes, cultural scripts and beliefs are all important…
  • 7. Before the Iraq war • Iraq was constantly compared to Nazi Germany • Party treasurers are compared to Andalucian ERE’s • Logos is about persuasion not truth.
  • 8. Pathos: Make them laugh, make them cry, make them agree… • Pathos appeals to emotion, shared emotion, and here’s a fine example: • Emotions provide the structure for most cognition. Without emotions, there is no thought. Blair on Diana's death
  • 9. Pathos • ‘Tricky Dickie’ Nixon resorted to Checkers, the dog the dog after being accused of illegal financing
  • 10. • Winston Churchill famously spent ‘most of his adult life preparing impromptu (spontaneous) speeches.’
  • 11. Activity Mind Heart Hand