Presented by Pyaephyo Swe
Gender and Development Studies
Asian Institute of Technology
8/27/2013 1
 The flow of workers from labor abundant to labor scare
countries.
 Different in wages causes workers from the low wage ...
 Thailand – origin, transit and destination country for migration
process in the age of globalization.
 Semi-skilled and...
Source : Thailand’s Low Skilled Migrant Policy: Progress and Challenges ,2010
8/27/2013 4
Cited in Thailand Migration Report, 2011
8/27/2013 5
Cited in Agenda for Labor Migration Policy in Thailand,2010
8/27/2013
6
Push Factors
Unfavorable conditions in the
place of origin like
• Unemployment
• low wages
• Environmental problems
• Poli...
 Domestic and care Work
 Unskilled labors in production industries
 General workers in agricultural sectors and fish an...
Cited in Agenda for Labor Migration Policy in Thailand, 2010
8/27/2013 9
 Long working hours but low wages
 Lack of holiday (only one holiday per week)
 Poor working environment
 Lack of heal...
 Female migrants in domestic work, manufacturing, service work and
entertainment are at risk of physical and sexual abuse...
 Migration is gendered.
 Less of job opportunities that offer formal channel of
migration.
 Exploited by brokers, smugg...
Aree Jampaklay, J. B. (2009). Gender and Labor Migration in Asia: Gender and Migration from Cambodia,
Laos and Myanmar to ...
8/27/2013 14
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Vulnerability of Women Migrant Workers in Thailand

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This power point slides are prepared for my classroom activities. I just want to share my knowledge and understanding on Gender and Migration. I hope that it will give some information for university students like me.

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  • Low skilled – generally have low levels of education, young and from rural areas.
  • Reasons for migration are poverty, escape from personal problems and personal fulfillment. However, Migration is gendered because men and women experience the migration process differently. Feminization of migration.
  • Most of them are 3D jobs ( dirty, dangerous and difficult ), low salary and low status because of their low levels of education, awareness on labor rights and information.
  • Vulnerability of Women Migrant Workers in Thailand

    1. 1. Presented by Pyaephyo Swe Gender and Development Studies Asian Institute of Technology 8/27/2013 1
    2. 2.  The flow of workers from labor abundant to labor scare countries.  Different in wages causes workers from the low wage country to move to the high wage country.  Feminization of migration: in the global care chain, the demand for domestic work in the wealthy household is met by a female migrant from a developing countries as the Philippines. (Carling,2005) 8/27/2013 2
    3. 3.  Thailand – origin, transit and destination country for migration process in the age of globalization.  Semi-skilled and unskilled workers from neighboring countries (Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar) move to Thailand for economic purpose.  Both registered and unregistered(irregular) migrants 8/27/2013 3
    4. 4. Source : Thailand’s Low Skilled Migrant Policy: Progress and Challenges ,2010 8/27/2013 4
    5. 5. Cited in Thailand Migration Report, 2011 8/27/2013 5
    6. 6. Cited in Agenda for Labor Migration Policy in Thailand,2010 8/27/2013 6
    7. 7. Push Factors Unfavorable conditions in the place of origin like • Unemployment • low wages • Environmental problems • Political instability • Human right violation Favorable conditions in an external location like • Job and education opportunities • Better living conditions • High wages • Political stability • Economic booming of a country Pull Factors 8/27/2013 7
    8. 8.  Domestic and care Work  Unskilled labors in production industries  General workers in agricultural sectors and fish and fish processing industries.  Entertainment and service industry workers  Street vendors and general workers in shops 8/27/2013 8
    9. 9. Cited in Agenda for Labor Migration Policy in Thailand, 2010 8/27/2013 9
    10. 10.  Long working hours but low wages  Lack of holiday (only one holiday per week)  Poor working environment  Lack of health insurance and social security  No freedom of communication( e.g. not allow to use mobile phone) and restricted personal mobility  Physical and mental exploitation in the work places  Verbal and physical sexual harassment in the work places  No right to organize union 8/27/2013 10
    11. 11.  Female migrants in domestic work, manufacturing, service work and entertainment are at risk of physical and sexual abuse .(panam et al., 2004)  Agricultural and domestic works earn the lowest wages and wage structure varies by type of work and gender (Tangchonlatip, Richter, 2011 )  Vulnerability to HIV/AIDs and other diseases  Loss of income earned due to illegal channels of remittances  Violence at the hands of recruiters, employers and other agents during migration  Lack of legal protection (many informal sector jobs are not recognized as “work” in national laws)  Women migrants are less likely than their male counterparts to know the language(s) of the host country, and they appear to face greater barriers in acquiring language skills 8/27/2013 11
    12. 12.  Migration is gendered.  Less of job opportunities that offer formal channel of migration.  Exploited by brokers, smuggler and traffickers  Invisible work force not cover by labor laws  Discriminate since race, sex, ethnic and social status  Double work burden  Additional concerns of sexual harassment and rape, and being dismissed from work due to pregnancy  No compensation for accidents in work places 8/27/2013 12
    13. 13. Aree Jampaklay, J. B. (2009). Gender and Labor Migration in Asia: Gender and Migration from Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar to Thailand . Geneva, Switzerland : IOM: International Labor Organization. Hewison, D. A. (2006). Transnational Migration and Work in Asia - Exploitation in global supply chain : Burmese migrant workers in Mae Sot , Thailand . (K. H. KenYoung, Ed.) New York: Routledge, 10: 165-190 ILO. (2007). International Labor Standards on Migrani Workers' Right: Guide for Policymakers and Practitioners in Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok: ILO : Internaional Labor Organization. Jerrold W. Huguet, A. C. (2011). Thailand Migration Report 2011 - Migration for Development in Thailand : Overview and Tools for Policymakers . Bangkok : ILO: International Labor Organization . Kusakabe, R. P. (2012). Thailand's Hidden Workforce: Burmese Migrant Women Factrory Workers. New York , Landon: Zed Book, 4:77-105 Vasuprasat, P. (2010). Agenda for labor Migration Policy in Thailand: Towards long term competitiveness. Geneva, Switzerland: ILO: International Labor Organization,19-26 Hall, A. (2010). Thailand's Low Skilled Migration Policy: Progress and Challanges . Bangkok : Institute for Population and Soical Research, Mehidol University . 8/27/2013 13
    14. 14. 8/27/2013 14

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