ATMOSPHEREENVIRONMENTPRESENTORS:Tanuyan, EdhrianMarco GalanonggoTrinidad, Ronald
The Atmosphere Environment• This chapter discusses:1. What is the composition of the Atmosphere2. What are the layers of the atmosphere3. What are the factors affecting weather, climate and season4. What are some weather disturbances aand their effects5. How does PAGASA monitor weather disturbances
Atmosphere• Earth Has 4 main systems that interact: – The Atmosphere • Mostly Nitrogen and Oxygen • Water vapor is responsible for clouds and precipitation • Has layers • Protects us from meteors and comets, x-rays, gamma rays, ultra violet light – The Hydrosphere – The Biosphere – The Geosphere
Atmospheric GasesNitrogen, oxygen, argon, watervapor, carbon dioxide, and most othergases are invisible.Clouds are not gas, but condensedvapor in the form of liquid droplets.Ground based smog, which isvisible, contains reactants of nitrogenand ozone.Ozone – is the primary ingredient ofsmog!
Earths Atmosphere99% of atmospheric gases, including water vapor, extend only 30kilometer (km) above earths surface.Most of our weather, occurs within the first 10 to 15 km.
Earth’s Atmosphere• The present atmosphere of the Earth is probably not its original atmosphere. Our current atmosphere is what chemists would call an oxidizing atmosphere, while the original atmosphere was what chemists would call a reducing atmosphere. In particular, it probably did not contain oxygen.• The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%) that surrounds Earth. High above the planet, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space. It is divided into five layers. Most of the weather and clouds are found in the first layer.• The atmosphere is an important part of what makes Earth livable. It blocks some of the Suns dangerous rays from reaching Earth. It traps heat, making Earth a comfortable temperature. And the oxygen within our atmosphere is essential for life.
Composition of Earth’s atmosphere• Earth Has 4 main systems that interact: – The Atmosphere • layers – Exosphere – Thermosphere – Mesosphere – Stratosphere – Troposphere – The Hydrosphere – The Biosphere – The Geosphere
COMPOSITION OF EARTH’s ATMOSPHERETroposphere• Is the lowest major atmospheric layer, and is located from the Earth.s surface up to the bottom of the stratosphere• Troposphere is where all the earth’s weather occurs.• Air in the troposphere also contains water vapor and small amounts of traces of gases such as methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, Hydrogen and Ozone, These gases are in tiny amounts,but they are what makes the atmosphere an insulating blanket around the planet. Without this blanket,it would be too cold on earth to sustain life
Troposphere and Clouds• Among other gases there is water vapor in the troposphere.• Clouds—form when air rises, cools to its dew point, and becomes saturated (moist).
.Stratosphere• Is the second major layer of earth’s atmosphere,• It is stratified in temperature,with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down this is in contrast to the troposphere near the earth’s surface(cooler higher up/warmer farther down) – 10 km to 50 km – contains ozone that absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. – Gets warmer as you go up.
Mesosphere• The mesosphere (from the greek word mesos meaning middle and sphaire meaning ball)• Is the layer of the earth’s atmosphere that directly above the stratosphere.• The mesosphere is located from abbove 50km to 80-90km altitude above the Earth’s surface
Thermosphere• Is the layer of the Earth’s Atmosphere directly above the mesosphere.Within this layer, Ultraviolet radiation causes ionization.the location is 200-300km above the earth’s surface
Exosphere• Extends to 10,000 km above the Earth’s Surface• Is the upper most layer of the atmosphere. In exosphere, an upward travelling molecule can escape to space.• The exosphere is the highest layer of the atomosphere
Atmosphere Exosphere--The last layer of the atmosphere, Difficult to tell where it stops and space begins, Very few atoms in this layer of the atmosphere Thermosphere-- The air is really thin that high up. The temperature changes with the solar activity. If the sun is active, temperatures in the thermosphere can get up to 1,500°C or higher! Mesosphere--The temperature drops when you go higher, like it does in the troposphere. Coldest part of the atmosphere Stratosphere--from 10 km to 50 km above Earth’s surface, this layer contains ozone that absorbs much of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Troposphere--Contains most clouds and weather., Most of the troposphere’s heat is from Earth, Temperature cools about 6.5 degrees Celsius per kilometer of altitude.