Air &       Packing
                     Temperature
                                       &
                       Contr...
• India’s cold chain will remain nascent, unless
  challenges inherent are countered.
• Imported designs based on differin...
• Each facility will be designed on modular
  concept allowing scope to expand and to cater
  to stake holders capacity.
•...
• Module design driven by core/ basic opportunities on focus
  crop; add on opportunities to be used for improving
  utili...
• Large provision for manual sorting and grading
  is recommended.
 ▫ To offset electricity usage.
 ▫ To take advantage of...
• For every module, calculated space for packers
  to be provided. Estimated time to pack 5MT
  will be 1 hr.
 ▫ 10 mins f...
Eg. Litchi


by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
• Facilitates Cold Chain Introduction
  ▫ Can be created with smallest module size, and be
    upgraded with increasing vo...
Farm                   Transportation           Unloading in           Quality check
Procurement                  to Spoke...
Harvest at        Aggregate at
• Precooler 5MT; 2°C, 90% RH                  Farm               Spoke


• Cold Store 20 MT...
• Manual sorting grading on conveyor belt or
                                                           Receiving Shed
  s...
Harvest at         Aggregate at
• Precooler 5MT; 12°C, 90% RH                 Farm                Spoke


• Store 20 MT; 1...
• Desapping racks can be added to existing
                                                         Receiving Shed
  litch...
Including Equipment Examples for other F&V

                             by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
Primary
                                            Harvest at
                                                           ...
Primary
                                     Harvest at
                                                        Sorting at...
• Minimal process requirement.
                                        Receiving Shed
• Preliminary cold wash and
  packin...
by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
Primary
                                          Harvest at
                                                            S...
3            5
                                     5
                        3
                                     5

  ...
• External Handling yard for             Receiving
                                        Sorting Shed
  grading, washing...
Primary
                                           Harvest at
                                                            ...
Primary
                                     Harvest at
                                                        Sorting at...
Primary
                                                    Harvest at
                                                   ...
Primary
                                          Harvest at
                                                             ...
• Keep local human flavor in      • Effluent water should be utilised
  mind when providing working       for sanitation o...
Equipment                   Type                       Remarks
Precoolers                0-5 ºC, 5-15 ºC, 0-15 ºC      5 M...
Basic   Opportunity                                   Selection process/ rationale
busi
ness    1.
         1   Categories...
Key challenge               Suggested mitigation
Underutilization of asset
                            Farmer management (...
Cater Two Supply Chains – from Spoke
                                                              Farm

   COLD Supply C...
32



Email: Contact@Crosstree.info   Cell: +91-9990399-638

                THANK YOU




        Helping link the Farm-t...
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Cold Chain Infrastructure

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Cold chain spokes, Pack house, farm-gate Infrastructure, Product life cycle, farm to fork.

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Cold Chain Infrastructure

  1. 1. Air & Packing Temperature & Control Hygiene Humidity Introduce technology in modular fashion – pace infrastructure to the developing market. Topic Focus: agri-base…. Creating a sensible cold-chain !
  2. 2. • India’s cold chain will remain nascent, unless challenges inherent are countered. • Imported designs based on differing scales of operations cannot provide early viability. ▫ Cater to the human backdrop. ▫ Cater to low yield land holding. ▫ Cater to & add affiliation with producers/farmers. ▫ Cater to varied evacuation modes to market. • Focus on saleable quality for domestic trade. • If in-house experience limited go for modular designs. • Keep storage close to market – move the young crop, do not store at production site (barring a few crops). • Keep the facility ‘green’ and in tune with nature. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  3. 3. • Each facility will be designed on modular concept allowing scope to expand and to cater to stake holders capacity. • Each module will satisfy cold chain precooling and storage requirements. • Produce specific equipment for other post harvest processes can be easily incorporated. • As far as practicable, manual sorting and grading is utilised and space allowed for use for other varied produce. Modular Concept by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  4. 4. • Module design driven by core/ basic opportunities on focus crop; add on opportunities to be used for improving utilisation of assets. • Capacity must be modeled on peak demand/ utilisation - seasonality factors for calculating peak demand. • Pre cooling to happen at initiating centers; three runs a day considered per pre cooler. • Provision for one (and half) days storage at each centre; short duration of storage removes need for separate storage chambers. • Configuration selection driven by desire for modularity as well as achieving minimum economies of scale. • A menu of options (different configurations of facilities created) – catchment area wise decision to be based on F&V items and locations. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  5. 5. • Large provision for manual sorting and grading is recommended. ▫ To offset electricity usage. ▫ To take advantage of labor costs; and provide local employment. • A Conveyor type sorting table for handling peak arrival loads is incorporated. • Scope for further mechanised equipment installation can be provided. • For High value crop like mango, a complete mechanised sorting line is advisable. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  6. 6. • For every module, calculated space for packers to be provided. Estimated time to pack 5MT will be 1 hr. ▫ 10 mins for each 10 kg package. ▫ 4 workers per table, 2MT per hour per table. • Packing Tables of stainless steel and suitable design to be positioned (per module). • In cases, as required, additional treatment areas (for fumigation, acid dip treatment, etc) to be provided. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  7. 7. Eg. Litchi by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  8. 8. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  9. 9. • Facilitates Cold Chain Introduction ▫ Can be created with smallest module size, and be upgraded with increasing volumes. ▫ Reduces initial capital cost during farmer integration and interface period. ▫ Operational learnings from fist module sets can be incorporated in subsequent additions. ▫ Allows multiple user participation along catchment. • Multi Utility Use ▫ In overlap seasons, each module can function for independent produce types. ▫ Segregation of produce and quality criteria facilitated. ▫ Reduces risk of contamination and by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  10. 10. Farm Transportation Unloading in Quality check Procurement to Spoke receiving bay Weigh, Pay Segregate Wash/ Select / Sort / QC / Packing Flow / Treat / Grade Trim nt Dehanding Ripening in Pre-cooling as ripening needed chambers Quality Check Transport to Cold Buffer Market Weigh by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  11. 11. Harvest at Aggregate at • Precooler 5MT; 2°C, 90% RH Farm Spoke • Cold Store 20 MT; 2-5°C, 85% RH • S&G Manual & Conveyor Tables Sorting and Grading Quality Criteria Check • Fumigation Treatment Room • Packing Area with Tables Fumigation Packing SO2 Treatment Unitisation • Module size from 20MT to 80MT per day (1x to 4x). Buffer Store Precooling • Also suitable for handling , await transport 2-5°C / 85% RH 2°C / 90% RH , okra. Bulk Storage at • For mango, added equipments required. Market end Shelf Life 7 °C / 85% RH 3-5 weeks by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  12. 12. • Manual sorting grading on conveyor belt or Receiving Shed static tables. • Fumigation room to have sulphur extraction; ventilation and scrubbing system. S&G Area • Create external Handling yard outside facility for banana handling and packing. Fumigation Room Packing • Add one module with mango handling Area options. • Note: Banana and Mango storage requires Precooling Dispatch & Storage higher temp 12-14°C refrigeration) 2°C / 90% RH by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  13. 13. Harvest at Aggregate at • Precooler 5MT; 12°C, 90% RH Farm Spoke • Store 20 MT; 12-15°C, 85% RH Quality • Desapping Racks Desapping Washing Grading Criteria Check • Washing Waxing Sizing Conveyor • Boiler for Heat/Vapour Treatment. Vapour, Packing Waxing and Unitisation • Packing Area with Tables Sizing • Module size from 20MT to 80MT per day Buffer Store (1x to 4x). await transport Precooling 12°C / 90% RH 12-15°C / 85% RH • Module suitable for handling also. Ripen at Market Shelf Life 21 °C / 85% RH 2-4 weeks by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  14. 14. • Desapping racks can be added to existing Receiving Shed litchi facility. • Mango washing waxing grading line to be De- Sorting Area installed. sapping • For heat treatment solar thermal heaters Packing Area with electric backup. Washing, Grading • Create external Handling yard outside Area facility for banana handling and packing. • Note: Banana and Mango storage requires Precooling Dispatch & Storage higher temp 12-14°C refrigeration) than 12°C / 90% RH litchi. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  15. 15. Including Equipment Examples for other F&V by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  16. 16. Primary Harvest at Sorting at Farm • Precooler 5MT; 1°C, 95% RH Farm • Store 20 MT; 1 - 4°C, 95% RH Spoke - • Triming, Grading Tables Clean Trim Quality Criteria Check • Packing Area with Tables • Module size from 20MT per day (1x). Sizing, Grading Packing Unitisation • Module suitable for handling , also. Buffer Store await transport Precooling 1°C / 95% RH 1-4°C / 95% RH • Module can be part of existing Litchi facility. Open Retail at Shelf Life Market 3-4 weeks by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  17. 17. Primary Harvest at Sorting at Farm • Precooler 5MT; 2°C, 95% RH Farm • Store 20 MT; 1 - 3°C, 95% RH Spoke - • Sorting and Grading area. Sorting Quality Criteria Check • Washing Area. • Packing Area with Tables Wash, Size, Packing Grade Unitisation • Module size 20MT per day (1x). • Module can be part of Buffer Store Precooling await transport 1°C / 95% RH 1-3°C / 95% RH facility. Retail at Shelf Life Market 1-3 weeks by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  18. 18. • Minimal process requirement. Receiving Shed • Preliminary cold wash and packing required. • Can be incorporated in existing Sorting Area litchi facility. Washing, Grading Area • Create external Handling yard Packing outside facility for banana Area handling and packing. • Other products can also cross- Precooling Dispatch dock bypassing cold chain. & Storage 1 °C / 95% RH by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  19. 19. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  20. 20. Primary Harvest at Sorting at Farm • Precooler 5MT; 13°C, 95% RH Farm • Store 20 MT; 13 - 14°C, 95% RH Dehand, Spoke - Wash, Size, Quality • Dehanding and Grading area. Grade Criteria Check • Washing Area (if required). Packing Precooling • Packing Area with Tables Unitisation 13°C / 95% RH • Module size from 20 to 80MT per day Buffer Store (1x to 4x). Ripening Rooms await transport 13-14°C / 90% RH • Module can be part of Open Retail at Shelf Life facility. Market 2-4 weeks by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  21. 21. 3 5 5 3 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5 3 5 3 5 1. Receiving Area 6. Box inspection 2. Dehanding Tank 7. Palletisation Area 3. Flotation Tank 8. Dispatch – precooler; 4. Air Brush, Weighing market or ripening 5. Retail Packing, Stickers by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  22. 22. • External Handling yard for Receiving Sorting Shed grading, washing, packing. • Fast packing process time critical. Washing, Grading Shed • Non cold chain material can Water Troughs bypass cold facility. Packing • Easy to incorporate with other Shed mild chill facility, eg mango. • Can be used to supply local Precooling Dispatch markets with preliminary & Storage grading. 13 °C / 95% RH by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  23. 23. Primary Harvest at Sorting at • Precooler 5MT; 10°C, 95% RH Farm Farm • Store 20 MT; 10 - 14°C, 95% RH Spoke - • Sorting and Grading area. Wash, Size, Grade Quality Criteria Check • Washing Area. • Packing Area with Tables Precooling Packing Unitisation • Module size 20MT per day (1x). 10°C / 95% RH • Module can be part of Buffer Store Ripen Store await transport or in Transit facility. 10-14°C / 95% RH • No optical grading system advised due market dynamics. Retail at Shelf Life Market 1-3 weeks by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  24. 24. Primary Harvest at Sorting at Farm • Precooler 5MT; 7°C, 95% RH Farm • Store 20 MT; 7 - 10°C, 95% RH Spoke - Sorting, Quality Washing • Sorting Conveyor or Manual Criteria Check Tables. Packing Dry, Grade Unitisation • Grading and Packing Area. • Module size 20MT per day (1x). Buffer Store await transport Precooling 7°C / 95% RH 7-10°C / 95% RH • Module can be part of facility. Retail at Shelf Life Market 7-10 days by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  25. 25. Primary Harvest at Sorting at • Precooler 5MT; 5°C, 95% RH Farm Farm • Store 20 MT; 5-10°C, 90-95% RH Spoke - ▫ Can be stored for 2 months. Clean Trim Quality Criteria Check ▫ Season Arbitrage possible with larger on site storage. Packing Sizing, Grading • Washing Waxing Sizing Conveyor Unitisation • Packing Area with Tables Buffer Store • Module size from 20MT to 40MT per day (1x await transport Precooling 5°C / 95% RH 5-10°C / 90% RH to 2x). • Module suitable for handling also. Open Retail at Shelf Life Market 2-3 months by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  26. 26. Primary Harvest at Sorting at • Precooler 5MT; 0°C, 95% RH Farm Farm • Store 20 MT; 0 - 4°C, 95% RH Spoke - Wash, Size, • Packing Area with Tables Grade Quality Criteria Check • Module size from 20 to 80MT per day (1x to 4x). Packing Precooling Unitisation 13°C / 95% RH • Large export potential, cold chain critical. Buffer Store Ripening Rooms await transport • Good supply chain management 13-14°C / 90% RH required in immediately post harvest. Open Retail at Shelf Life Market 2-8 weeks by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  27. 27. • Keep local human flavor in • Effluent water should be utilised mind when providing working for sanitation or for ground water space. recharging. • Sufficient appended waste • Understand HACCP needs & handling area to be incorporate controls in the incorporated. infrastructure layout. • Solar heat used during winter • Waste recycling into compost or months or for blanching other uses. requirements where needed. • Receiving will not be in unitised • Apply basic food safety designs loads, leave sufficient design to keep hygienic conditions. leeway for myriad incoming types. • Plan to stage each custody • Plan for power cycling to optimise change procedure. operating costs. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  28. 28. Equipment Type Remarks Precoolers 0-5 ºC, 5-15 ºC, 0-15 ºC 5 MT, Forced Air, High Humidity Cold storage As above 20 MT, High Humidity Conveyor System 2 MT and 5 MT per hour Belt with separator sections SS Tables Sorting and Packing Mango Line 5 MT per hour capacity Power Generators 50Kva, 75Kva, 125 Kva Material Handling Equip Trolleys, pallet handlers Water Tanks, Plumbing Dual for EOD process 3000L, or more. Water Heaters Solar or Electric Testing Lab Quality Assurance Open Shed Mini Auction and cross dock To cater to local market and off seasons by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  29. 29. Basic Opportunity Selection process/ rationale busi ness 1. 1 Categories with opportunity to expand F&V items where harvest season is restricted oppo availability in non season periods (1-4 months) rtuni ties 1. 2 Categories where with opportunity to Where production base is restricted – 3 to 4 expand consumer base across regions states account for 80% Add on 1. Categories with large export potential Highly traded F&V items where India’s share 3 oppo of world export is significantly less than rtuni ties India’ share of world production + leading export categories 1. Radius of coverage (catchment area per centre)– 1 to 2 hrs (20 to 40 Kms). 2. Variations to optimize locations basis separation between two catchment centers or increase handling capacity of center. 3. Location and distance to railheads or other efficient transport means. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  30. 30. Key challenge Suggested mitigation Underutilization of asset Farmer management (detailed separately). Utilising F&V rejections Asset being sub scale Configuration to be designed for initial viability; not included in config decisions; Module add-ons possible. Managing wastage Pre cooler + contingency storage. Grading and sorting processes . Transportation 3 PL management; partner with players; acquisition. management Peak season may require ~300 reefer trucks (10 T)/ day or ~1500 overall.  Accept quality deficient produce to pass through for local mandi sales.  Associations with large farmers and via them also attract the smaller farm holders.  Defined procurement process and guidelines – overall as well as location specific.  Arrange for crop to be picked up from farm in mobile vans (after quality checks) and ease the logistics for the farmers  Speedy and transparent (cash??) payments to produce accepted on quality.  Alliances with reefer transport companies.  Include railways in project scope. by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  31. 31. Cater Two Supply Chains – from Spoke Farm  COLD Supply Chain Spoke -  Spoke as originator of cold Collection supply chain. Centre  Spoke as supplier to process plants. Normal Supply Cold Chain Chain  Normal GREEN Chain Distant  Spoke as aggregator for Process Plants mandis. HUB or Local Perishable Regional Processing  Spoke as aggregator for Mandi Plants Export Centres processors. National Retail Markets by Capt. Pawanexh Kohli
  32. 32. 32 Email: Contact@Crosstree.info Cell: +91-9990399-638 THANK YOU Helping link the Farm-to-Fork

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