Transport Operators; skill development in cold chain


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Keynote Address: NHB organised preliminary training session for grass-root reefer truck operators (Mar-2012)

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  • Innovate
  • Transport Operators; skill development in cold chain

    1. 1. Captain Pawanexh KohliFounder, CrossTree techno-visors
    2. 2.  You provide dedicated and non dedicated services across regions and transport goods with temperature ranging from +25 to -25 °C You charge on different basis e.g trip wise, km wise, kg wise, palette wise depending upon customer. Cater to Pharma Industry, Processed Food , FMCG and Fruits and Vegetables, Butter, Ice cream etc.
    3. 3.  There are Four stakeholders in the cold chain industry:  Cold storage owner (stationary).  Equipment manufacturer.  Refrigerated logistics owner (transport).  Produce Owner – links the complete value chain. ------------------------------------------------------------- Almost 80% of cold chain assets are individual owned with fragmented chain of custody. Produce owner requires Integrated Service by and to assign professional onus on cargo care.
    4. 4.  Dedicated Infrastructure  Current (Rs 1000 cr) ▪ Pre-Cooling / Blast Freezers movement management ▪ Buffer Storage market: ▪ IQF and processing  Frozen Range ▪ Market: 4% (Rs 40 cr) Transportation - Point to point  Chilled Range ▪ To consumer ▪ Market: 39% (Rs 390 cr) ▪ To cold warehouse  Mild Chill Range Transportation – milk run ▪ Market: 57% (Rs 570 cr) ▪ DC to retail  Perishable Load segments: ▪ Full truck loads (almost 80%) Distribution Multi temp-zones. Monitoring, Control & Traceability.  Part Load movement ▪ Vaccines and Drugs Demand and Supply Mapping. ▪ Life Sciences Financial and Insurance. ▪ Demand in other areas voiced.
    5. 5. Product Pickup Reefer Transport Cold Warehouse •Centrally located hub function•Optimised Routing, multi-modal options. •Multi Modal Connectivity •Documentation and routing•Both innovative & conventional modes. •Consolidation of handling•Single connected Chain of Custody. •Air Express for fast track.•Brand Assurance and Quality Assurance. •‘Pit-Stop’ Express: Reefer Fleet.•Life cycle Management. •Milk-run Express: Reefer Fleet. •Active cooled Boxes remote loads Delivery Reefer Transport Cold Warehouse
    6. 6. Port-side Trading Trader Side Logistics Trawlers/Catch Storage in at Sea Flaked Ice IQF/Belt Frzr Frozen Product Quality Check/Packaging Sorting Milk-run deliveries to Retail Stores Transport to Storage at Distributors Distributor facility
    7. 7. Composite Milk Processing Plants Raw Milk collected from Co-operatives/ Chilled Milk Transported milk producers, farmers to Dairies and chilled Dairy by-products: Processed Butter, Cheese and Packaged alike Milk storageDistribution to Retail Locations Intra-city Transportation to deliveries Distributors Storage at Distributors
    8. 8. Sausage Processing Meat Cutting and Ready to eat FreezingMeat Packaging Bacon & Ham processing Milk-run deliveries to Retail Stores Transport to Distributor Storage Facility Storage
    9. 9. Procurement from Collection at Sorting/ Grading Farms Centralized FacilityProduct Packaging IQF Unit Cleaning/ Processing Milk-run deliveries to Retail Stores Transport to Distributor Storage Facility Storage
    10. 10.  Minimal touch points; Cold Supply Chain Technology Driven DSD or DC as preferred OD Pairs; Cold Supply Chain Spoke Cold Supply Chain Cold Supply Chain Traceablity & speed; Knowledge Driven Spoke Spoke Cold Supply Chain HUB Specialised packaging; Speed Driven Spoke Perishability (Product knowledge) strives to be. and Everything the ordinary Supply Chain Existing (Layered) Supply Chain
    11. 11.  Frozen Products:  Primarily temperature care (-18 °C or below)  Machine optimisation prime concern. Pharma – Chilled:  Range of 2 to 6 °C available.  Speed and cargo care prime concern. Fresh Chill and Mild Chill:  Precise temperature requirements.  Product compatibilities of concern.  Temperature, air quality and humidity of concern.  HACCP compliance more strict.
    12. 12. Packaging • Resusable, sustainable, breathable, saleable Conditioning • Grading, Precooling, coating, HACCP Transport • Cooling, vibration, insulation, tracking Product Life Cycle Storage • Insulation, air change, energy saving, HACCP Distribution • TMS, JIT, Replenishment, Shelf presence Monitoring • Traceability, tracking, shelf life, HACCP FEFO • Smart picking, customer demand, quality Atmosphere • Life, Humidity, disease, EOP, tainting Vibration • Aging, damage salability, packagingTrade Processes • Shelf presence, shrinkage, Aging, speed
    13. 13. End of Deck
    14. 14. All living tissues • Oxidizing various components to provide respire: energy to continue life.Fruit & Vegetables are • Continue to live even in absence of living tissues: nutrient transfer. F&V have a delicate • Flavors, colors, nutritional components, balance: etc. A slight change makes a difference. Not all are created • Yet most Fruits & Vegetables are 90-95% equal: water.Ultimately all F&V die: • And become unusable or unmarketable.
    15. 15. • Cooling requires energy and tends to invite Tainting: compartment sharing and other shortcuts. • Cooling effects external environment andMoisture Loss: changes ambient conditions. • Cooling creates condensate which encourages Disease: disease and rots. • Cooling is ineffective if the medium spread is Stowage: in-correct. Control: • Cooling causes chill injuries and even death. 15
    16. 16.  Physiological respiratory processes of fresh produce continues after harvesting. This requires oxygen (O2) and in turn generates heat and releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and ethylene. High concentrations of CO2 & Ethylene degrades or kills the produce. These gases must be replenished with Fresh Air employing a ventilation system. Efficient air circulation enhances cooling & removes trapped pockets of gaseous by-products.
    17. 17.  Products stored in common spaces must be compatible for shared storing temperatures, moisture levels (RH), volatility (ethylene), odour (tainting), etc. Cross contamination through incompatible product mix can lead to an un-saleable produce. Cross-transfer of odours and/or stimulated maturing leading to subsequent decay is to be avoided. 17
    18. 18.  Fresh horticultural commodities are unique packages of water! In fact Freshness Sells and freshness is water! Water loss is one main cause of loss of quality & marketability of fresh fruits and vegetables. Low Humidity levels are inherent to poorly designed refrigerated spaces.
    19. 19.  With inefficient packaging and storing, the cooling medium (air or water) does not spread contact with the produce leading to cooling inefficiencies & product damage. Shoulder Vents allow vertical air flow Panel Vents allow horizontal air flow Packaging must Protect, easy on FIFO, tolerate & allow preferred Cooling method, enhance Space Utilisation and have Sales Appeal. Some packaging can simulate CA conditions.
    20. 20.  Safe sanitation, hygienic conditions and abidance with laws of food regulatory authorities is a must. Prudent care is applied to keep the fresh produce clean dirt, insect & microorganism infestation. All water used to be pre-treated. Anti fungal treatments are regularly applied. Between subsequent uses, the cold room space sanitisaton is required. To identify and apply controls, HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) procedures are useful. Regular internal quality audits, checks and training is a must.
    21. 21.  Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Field Worker Hygiene Farm Equipment Sanitation Water Sanitation Crate Sanitation Temperature Control and Cold Store Sanitation Transport Sanitation
    22. 22. End of Deck
    23. 23. Link OD Pairs for Customer Value CargoPreservation Reefer Delivery Trucking Personal Conform Monitor to Service Cargo Levels Status
    24. 24. Saleable Quality Moisture Color PotencyShrinkage Firmness Rot Disease Efficacy
    25. 25. Sale ValueShelf Life Hardware ExcursionsShrinkage Quality Air Quality Chill Injury Moisture Infestation Tainting FailureIronically, most reefer cargo damage not always occurs due to technical reasons,but due to poor communication, management practices or cargo procedures.
    26. 26. ManagementEquipment Protocols Emergency Trained Staff Plan
    27. 27.  Pre-cooling – yes or no? Temperature Control – cargo dependant. Air Freshening – cargo dependant. Cleaning and cross contamination. Insulation and refrigeration. Quality – product and packaging. Handling (pre-shipment and post shipment). Trip time – journey time. En-route Contingency plans.
    28. 28. End of Deck
    29. 29.  NO!!!!  Pre-cool only in specific conditions.  Pre-cool to ambient air ingress temperatures.  Too much cooling causes condensate to form.  Leads to moisture damage and icing on coils.  Iced coils do not allow efficient heat exchange.  Results in shorter defrost cycles on initial load up. Pre-cool when sealed docks are provided.
    30. 30. Supply Fresh AirAir Intake Return Air
    31. 31.  Cold air as medium to counter heat ingress from peripheral walls. Cold air is medium to counter respiratory heat. Air as medium to extract odours and hot pockets. Air as medium to freshen environment.
    32. 32.  To maximise cooling for hand stacked loads (top-air delivery)  Use airflow loading pattern for respiring cargo. ▪ Build starter stack against front with vertical flow channels. ▪ Load top boxes in solid layer end to end. ▪ Build end stacks against door with brick lay to diffuse flow. ▪ Again, load top boxes in solid layer end to end. ▪ This pattern is used reefer vans without forced bottom up circulation.
    33. 33.  To maximise cooling for frozen cargos  Use block stow pattern for inert cargo. ▪ Build all stacks clear from side wall contact. ▪ Allow air to envelope cargo and dissipate heat ingress from external walls. ▪ As cargo does not produce heat, air flow directly through cargo not necessary.
    34. 34. DURING LOADING Use proper stowage as per cargo types. Never leave blank spots to allow short cycling of air. Do NOT run reefer unit when doorsTop down circulation are open. Stop genset during stuffing to avoid exhaust gas reaching chamber. Bottom-up circulation Use electric powered forklifts when possible. Use strip curtains to trap precious energy. Check cargo core temperature frequently during loading period. Check cargo packaging integrity frequently during loading.
    35. 35. Complete pre-trip checks on vehicle and recordthe same.Demand all parameters required for safetransport of cargo, including- Temperature range in transit. Set point required. Air freshening if any. Loading temperature permitted. Packaging type to be deployed. Shelf life of product.Get sign off on cleanliness before loading.Request recommended stowage pattern.Record start of loading time.
    36. 36. Do NOT leave areas uncovered on floor plate ofvehicle.Check no over stow of cargo beyond limit line.Check that cargo is stable for transit.Bracing of cargo preferred with dunnage, airbags or cargo nets.Ensure bracing does not block floor channels onends.Ensure no loose packing or wrapping materialwhich can create blockage of fan.Reconfirm set point and other parameters.
    37. 37.  Avoid multiple point loading. Avoid delayed loading process. If required by customer, insist on indemnity. When forced into such situation, stop the evaporator fans. Secondary load “must” be at the requisite carriage temperature. Loading should preferably be at sealed docks.
    38. 38. Vehicle doors not properly sealed.Incorrect pre-cooling of vehicle.Keeping fans running during loading.Improper cargo status on loading.Cargo packaging compromised.Quality of cargo previously compromised.Hot spots in cargo chamber.Incorrect set point parameters.Overloading in chamber.Poor maintenance of equipment.
    39. 39. Profitability Revenue Costs Infrastructure Sales KAM CapitalCoverage Pricing Maintenance Manpower Receivables Leakage Sourcing Pipeline Practices Infusion Operating Subsidy Scheduling Transport VAS Processes Own / Lease Costs Grants Holding / Optimisation Solution Solution Spares Partner Investors  Transport Business staged for progressive growth  Business management tools a must before growth.  Reserve Logistics for reefer trade.  Asset monitoring and tracking tools required.  Innovative model for sourcing transport and drivers.  Exports hinge on production parameters  Tap into Existing exports and pace growth.  Facilitate back end through cold chain initiators.  Liaise with rail infra to fast track export lane.
    40. 40. Note: Inter-regional reefer air transport share is negligibleSource: Ministry of Current Affairs; logistics player interviews; TL analysis 47
    41. 41. Thank You