Overview of Extractive Industries in Asia Pacific, Maryati Abdullah, PWYP Indonesia

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Overview on Extractive Industries Commodities (crude oil, natural gas, timber and palm oil) on reserve, trade movement, and good governance issues in Asia Pacific. Presented by Maryati Abdullah-National Coordinator of Publish What You Pay Indonesia at the workshop of Ford Foundation on the 'Reversing the Resources Curse" Initiative.

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Overview of Extractive Industries in Asia Pacific, Maryati Abdullah, PWYP Indonesia

  1. 1. Overview of Extractive Industries in Asia Pacific Maryati Abdullah National Coordinator, Publish What You Pay Indonesia Steering Committee Member of Open Government Partnership (OGP) Presented at the Workshop on ‘Reversing the Resources Curse’, held by Ford Foundation. Ghana, Accra August 25th – 30th, 2013 Photo by maryati at Newmont Nusa Tenggara, West Sumbawa, Indonesia
  2. 2. Primary Energy World Consumption in1992, 2002 and 2012 Percentage Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  3. 3. Distribution of Proved Oil Reserves in1992, 2002 and 2012 Percentage Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  4. 4. Oil Production/Consumption by region Million barrels daily Production by region Consumption by region Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  5. 5. Total Oil Supply in Asia & Oceania 2008 – 2012 thousand Barrels per Day Australia Bangladesh Brunei Burma (Myanmar) China India Indonesia Japan Korea, North Korea, South Malaysia Mongolia New Zealand Pakistan Papua New Guinea Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Timor-Leste (East Timor) Vietnam -7500 0 7500 15000 22500 30000 Source : Processed from US Energy Information & Administration, www.eia.go , accessed in August 23th, 2013
  6. 6. Major Oil Trade Movement 2012 Trade flows worldwide (million tones) Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  7. 7. Crude Oil Price 1861 – 2012 US Dollars per barrel, world events Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  8. 8. Distribution of Proved Gas Reserves in1992, 2002 and 2012 Percentage Sources : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  9. 9. Gas Production/Consumption by region Billion cubic metre Production by region Consumption by region Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  10. 10. Production of Marketed Natural Gas in Asia & Oceania, 2008 - 2011 Billion Cubic Feet 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Afghanistan Australia Bangladesh Brunei Burma6(Myanmar) China India Indonesia Japan Korea,6South Malaysia New6Zealand Pakistan Papua6New6Guinea Philippines Taiwan Thailand Vietnam Sources : Processed from US Energy Information & Administration, www.eia.gov , accessed in August 25th, 2013
  11. 11. Major Gas Trade Movement 2012 Trade flows worldwide (million tonnes) Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  12. 12. Oil&Gas Comsumption per capita 2012 Gas in Tonnes oil equivalentOil in Tonnes Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  13. 13. Distribution of Proved Coal Reserves in1992, 2002 and 2012 Percentage Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  14. 14. Coal Production/Comsumption by Region Million tones oil equivalent Production by region Consumption by region Source : Statistical Review of World Energy, BP 2013
  15. 15. Asia Leads Growth in Global Coal Production Since 1980 ¡  Link for ½ minutes video http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=4210 Source : Processed from US Energy Information & Administration, www.eia.gov , accessed in August 25th, 2013
  16. 16. Total Primary Coal Production in Asia & Oceania 2008 – 2012 thousand short tons 0 500000 1000000 1500000 2000000 2500000 3000000 3500000 4000000 4500000 2008 2009 2010 2011 Source : Processed from US Energy Information & Administration, www.eia.gov , accessed in August 25th, 2013
  17. 17. Timber Trade Flow Tropical Timber Top Production and Export Sources : http://www.idhsustainabletrade.com/hout-tropical-timber-trade-flow, accessed in August 25th, 2013
  18. 18. Major Trade Flow of Palm Oil economic impacts of Palm oil production regions for palm oil (Malaysia and Indonesia), and their Indonesia, China, EU, and the U.S.). Palm oil production is economically vital for Malaysia and Indonesia and their rural communities. Oil palm 6 mt of global palm oil consumption 1 mt of global palm oil consumption 5.4 mt of global palm oil consumption 7 mt of global palm oil consumption u.s. e.u. inDiA ChinA produce of global palm oil consume of global palm oil inDonesiA and mAlAysiA mt = million tonnes Source: WWF, 2011 Source : WWF Report 2012, Accessed from www.rspo.org, August 25th, 2013
  19. 19. Key Issues & Good Governance in Extractive Industries
  20. 20. ¡  Social & Human Right Issues ¡  Indigenous people right (and FPIC requirement) ¡  Militarization on EI operation security ¡  Land grabbing & right to livelihood of community ¡  Violation & social conflict ¡  Gender & Child right ¡  Environment, Land & Spatial Issues ¡  Trans-boundary haze, Over-lapping Concession & spatial transparency ¡  Deforestation & Biodiversity loss (such us sumatra tiger habitat, elephant, etc) ¡  palm oil in the peat land (making Indonesia among the top emitter of Green Gas Houses) ¡  Pollution, and emergency contingency plan implementation in EI areas ¡  Corporate Accountability on EI Operations ¡  Economic & Good Governance Issues ¡  Potential loss of revenue, tax illicit, EITI and contract transparency ¡  Revenue sharing, peak production & revenue windfall management ¡  Development plan, poverty alleviation and sustainable spending ¡  Economic sustainability, social corporate responsibility and local content issue ¡  Natural resources/ Sovereight wealth funds ¡  Bribery & money laundering issues on anticorruption ¡  Regulatory framework, and institutionalization of EI governance ¡  Down-streaming the economic scale of mining & natural resources Key Issues on Extractive Industries
  21. 21. Decision  to   extract/not  to   extract   Awarding   of   contracts/   licenses   Fiscal  Terms   Extrac8on   prosess   Trading  of   commodi8es   Tax  and   revenue   collec8on     Development   project/ policies   Revenue  Mngt     and  alloca8on   I 87% II 43% III 18% IV 56% V 12% VI 56% VII 56% VIII 56% Source : Revenue Watch Institute, 2009 Concentration of NGO Work Along the EI Value Chain in 10 Asia Pacific Countries
  22. 22. OECD Indexscores(groupaverage) Latin America & Caribbean Eurasia & South Asia East Asia & Pacific Sub- Saharan Africa Middle East & North Africa Composite Score Institutional & Legal Setting Reporting Practices Safeguards & Quality Controls Enabling Environment es ailing Vietnam nancial es over- effec- ecisions. region’s ut se to ceived govern- of law. poorly 00 the ever, tries. ning port- tive Note: The OECD region includes five countries; the Latin America & Caribbean nine countries; Eurasia & South Asia six countries; East Asia & Pacific 10 countries; Sub-Saharan Africa 17 countries; and the Middle East and North Africa 11 countries. Figure 2: Average country score by region and component 100 80 60 40 20 0 Resources Governance Index Average Country Scored by Region and Average Resource : Resources Governance Index, RWI 2013
  23. 23. Note: Ranks are out of 58 countries and appear in front of country names; composite scores appear below each column. Figure 1: East Asia and Pacific Index scores and ranking 0 20 40 60 80 100 13 .T im o r-L e ste 14 . In d o n e sia 2 3 .P h ilip p in e s 2 6 .M o n g o lia 3 4 .M a la ysia3 6 .C h in a 3 9.P a p u a N ew G u in ea 4 3 .V ietn a m 5 2 .C a m b o d ia 5 8 .M ya n m a r 100 80 60 40 20 0 68 66 54 51 46 43 43 41 29 4SCORE Satisfactory Partial Weak Failing cific e e 1), percent e in oks at h laws, te tition. d encour- t. ures law, clear frameworks for resource revenue collection. China, Malaysia and Myanmar lack laws and institutions that encour- age integrity and openness, leading to poor performance. Resources Governance Index East Asia and Pacific Index Score and Ranking Resource : Resources Governance Index, RWI 2013
  24. 24. Maryati Abdullah can be reached out at : maryati@pwyp-indonesia.org; marymaryati@yahoo.com Publish What You Pay Indonesia, Civil Society Coalition on Transparency and Accountability of Extractive Industries and Natural Resources. Jl. Intan No.81, Cilandak Barat, South of Jakarta, Indonesia T/F : +62-21 – 7512503, E-mail : sekretariat@pwyp-indonesia.org Web : www.pwyp-indonesia.org

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