Bicyclist and Pedestrian Safety and Mobility in Europe

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  • Pictures: Left – Blue cycle crossing in Copenhagen, Denmark (JM8470)Left center – Pedestrian crosswalk at Hauptbahnhoff in Bern, Switzerland (ST5948)Right center – Colored bike lane in Bristol, UK (JM0175)Right – Pedestrian street in Winterthur, Switzerland (ST6066)
  • City names appear after 1st click
  • Pictures:Bottom left – Blue cycle crossing (double-wide) in Copenhagen, Denmark (ST5526)Bottom right – Blue cycle crossing in Copenhagen, Denmark (ST5262)
  • Pictures:Top right– Pedestrian sensors for PUFFIN crossing in Bristol, UK (ST6183)Bottom right – Near-side pedestrian and bike signal in Bristol, UK (JM0157)
  • Pictures:Top right – Median refuge island at roundabout exit in London (Wimbledon), UK (ST6166)Bottom left – Raised crosswalk at 2-lane roundabout exit in Malmo, Sweden (JK0679)Bottom right – Railing at offset pedestrian crossing in London, UK (JM0072)
  • Pictures:Top right – Heated convex mirror (Trixi mirror) in Bern, Switzerland (JM7520)Bottom left – Bike box in London, UK (JM9027)Bottom center – Bicycle traffic signal in Potsdam, Germany (ST5735)Bottom right – Advance stop line for bike lane in Bern, Switzerland (JM0030)
  • Pictures:Top right – Cycle track in Copenhagen, Denmark (ST5253)Bottom center – Two-way cycle path in Winterthur, Switzerland (ST5864)Bottom right – Cycle lane on the outside of a tram stop in Bern, Switzerland (ST6039)
  • Pictures:Top right – Dashed bike lane in Osnabruck, Germany (ST4846)Bottom left – Bike symbols for turning vehicles in Berlin, Germany (ST6032)Bottom right – Colored bike lane in Winterthur, Switzerland (ST5689)
  • Pictures:Bottom left – 20-km/hr pedestrian priority street in Bern, Switzerland (ST5873)Bottom right - Pedestrian street in Winterthur, Switzerland (ST6066)4 Conditions for UseUsed in “special places”Speeds of different modes should be similarFlows of different modes should be similar“See and be seen” is critical design element
  • Pictures:Top right - Red light camera in Bern, Switzerland (JM7519)
  • Pictures:Top right – Aerial photo from Google Earth of “Traffic Garden” in Winterthur, SwitzerlandBottom right - Blue cycle crossing in Copenhagen, Denmark (JM8470)Bottom center – clip art from website of Children’s Traffic Club in the UK
  • Pictures:Top right – Indoor secure bike parking at main train station in Lund, Sweden (JM8658)Bottom right – Bike on train in Berlin, Germany (JM8913)
  • Pictures:Top right - Chart is a page from Copenhagen’s 2006 Bicycle AccountBottom right – bike barometer in Copenhagen, Denmark (ST5234)
  • Deploy nowPassive detectionAccessible confirmation for pedestrian pushbuttonsCrossing islandsRaised crosswalks at unsignalized pedestrian crossingsConvex mirrorsAdvanced stop bars for bike lanesSeparated facilitiesPavement markingsEvaluateNear side pedestrian signalsNear side traffic signals at midblock pedestrian crossingBike boxesBicycle traffic signals
  • Deploy nowPassive detectionAccessible confirmation for pedestrian pushbuttonsCrossing islandsRaised crosswalks at unsignalized pedestrian crossingsConvex mirrorsAdvanced stop bars for bike lanesSeparated facilitiesPavement markingsEvaluateNear side pedestrian signalsNear side traffic signals at midblock pedestrian crossingBike boxesBicycle traffic signals
  • Deploy nowPassive detectionAccessible confirmation for pedestrian pushbuttonsCrossing islandsRaised crosswalks at unsignalized pedestrian crossingsConvex mirrorsAdvanced stop bars for bike lanesSeparated facilitiesPavement markingsEvaluateNear side pedestrian signalsNear side traffic signals at midblock pedestrian crossingBike boxesBicycle traffic signals
  • Pictures:Top right – scan team at Swiss Federal Roads Office (FEDRO) in Bern, Switzerland (JM7664)
  • Bicyclist and Pedestrian Safety and Mobility in Europe

    1. 1. International Scan on Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility: May 2009<br />Sponsored by<br />Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)<br />American Association of State Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO)<br />National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)<br />N C H R P<br />
    2. 2. Outline<br />Introduction<br />General Findings: broader issues and themes that provide context for later details<br />Key Findings: details for the 5E’s<br /><ul><li>Engineering
    3. 3. Education
    4. 4. Enforcement
    5. 5. Encouragement
    6. 6. Evaluation (Monitoring)</li></ul>Recommendations<br />2<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    7. 7. Scan Team<br />Ed Fischer Traffic Safety Engineer Oregon DOT<br />Gabe Rousseau Bike/Ped Program Mgr. -FHWA<br />Shawn Turner (Report Facilitator), Texas Transportation Institute<br />Ernie Blais, FHWA, Vermont Division<br />Cindy Engelhart, Virginia DOT<br />David Henderson, Miami‐Dade County MPO<br />Jon Kaplan, Bike/Ped Program Mgr. - Vermont AOT<br />Kit Keller, Association of Pedestrian & Bicycle Professionals<br />James Mackay, Bicycle Technical Committee, National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices<br />Priscilla Tobias,Traffic Safety Enginer Illinois DOT<br />Diane Wigle, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration<br />Charlie Zegeer, The University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center<br />
    8. 8. Scan Tour Objectives<br /><ul><li>Improving Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety and Mobility
    9. 9. Policy
    10. 10. Engineering
    11. 11. Education
    12. 12. Enforcement
    13. 13. Safe Routes to School Programs
    14. 14. Monitoring Usage Levels and Exposure
    15. 15. Safety Research and Evaluation</li></ul>4<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    16. 16. May 2009 Scan Tour<br />5<br />Copenhagen<br />Lund<br />Sweden<br />Denmark<br />Malmö<br />Nakskov<br />Berlin<br />Germany<br />Potsdam<br />Bristol<br />London<br />United Kingdom<br />Winterthur<br />Switzerland<br />Bern<br />
    17. 17. City Populations<br />Bern, CH – 343,600<br />Winterthur, CH – 100,000<br />Copenhagen, DK – 520,000<br />Nakskov, DK – 14,000<br />Lund, SE – 76,000<br />Malmo, SE – 290,000<br />Berlin, GE – 3.4M<br />Potsdam, GE – 152,000<br />Bristol, UK – 421,000<br />London, UK – 7.5M<br />
    18. 18. Overall Framework<br />POLICIES<br />Engineering<br />Enforcement<br />Education<br />Encouragement<br />Evaluation (Monitoring)<br />7<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    19. 19. Deliberate Combinationof Policies and Practices<br /><ul><li>Urban and land use policy
    20. 20. Political support at all levels, not just staff
    21. 21. Motor vehicle operating costs
    22. 22. Parking policies
    23. 23. Enforcement policies
    24. 24. Street design hierarchy
    25. 25. Integration with public transport
    26. 26. Connected on-street and off-street networks
    27. 27. Traffic safety education for children
    28. 28. Many other details that make walking and bicycling easy, convenient, and enjoyable</li></ul>8<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    29. 29. Historical Perspective<br />9<br />Bicycling Mode Share - %<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    30. 30. Conscious Effort to Change<br />Forty years ago Copenhagen was just as car-clogged as anywhere else but now 37% of commuters crossing the city boundary ride bicycles each day. That number rises to 55% in the city proper. Copenhagenizing is possible anywhere. <br />www.copenhagenize.com<br />
    31. 31. Winterthur, Switzerland<br />11<br />Pedestrian Priority Zone in<br />Historical City Center, 2009<br />(Source: Presentation by Stefan Gerber, City of Winterthur, Switzerland)<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    32. 32. 12<br />1980<br />2000<br />Winterthur, Switzerland<br />1955<br />1970<br />(Source: Presentation by Stefan Gerber, City of Winterthur, Switzerland)<br />
    33. 33. Strøget, Copenhagen, 1960<br />13<br />Source: Gehl and Gemzøe, New City Spaces, 2000<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    34. 34. Strøget, Copenhagen, 2000<br />14<br />Source: Gehl and Gemzøe, New City Spaces, 2000<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    35. 35. Bern, Switzerland, 1960s/70s<br />15<br />Source: http://www.parlament.ch<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    36. 36. Bern, Switzerland, 2009<br />16<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    37. 37. Safety-in-Numbers(Awareness-in-Numbers)<br />When pedestrians and bicyclists are a common element on/along streets, motorists expect their presence<br />For this reason, biking and walking is actively promoted beyond providing “asphalt and concrete”<br />17<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    38. 38. Engineering Measures for Pedestrians<br />Passive detection to call, truncate, extend, or cancel pedestrian phase (PUFFIN signal)<br />Near-side pedestrian signal heads<br />18<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    39. 39. Engineering Measures for Pedestrians<br />Crossing islands<br />Railing to direct pedestrians to preferred crossing locations<br />Raised crosswalks at unsignalized crossings<br />19<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    40. 40. Pedestrian Refuge - Bern<br />
    41. 41. Ped Crossing - Bristol<br />
    42. 42. Raised intersection - Bern<br />
    43. 43. Engineering Measures for Bicyclists<br />Intersection safety<br />Convex mirrors<br />Advanced stop bars<br />Bicycle-specific traffic signals<br />Bike boxes<br />23<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    44. 44. Advanced stop line - Copenhagen<br />
    45. 45. Bike Box - London<br />
    46. 46. Bike Signals – Copenhagen/Berlin<br />
    47. 47. Engineering Measures for Bicyclists<br />Separated facilities<br />Cycle tracks<br />Cycle paths<br />27<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    48. 48. Cycle Track - Copenhagen<br />
    49. 49. Cycle Path - Bern<br />
    50. 50. Engineering Measures for Bicyclists<br />Pavement markings<br />Dashed bike lanes through intersections<br />Color at conflict points<br />Longitudinal bike symbols<br />30<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    51. 51. Colored bike lane - Winterthur<br />
    52. 52. Bike lane - Berlin<br />
    53. 53. Bike lane - Berlin<br />
    54. 54. Low-Speed Street Design<br />Residential and commercial areas<br />20 mph, 20 to 30 kilometers per hour<br />4 conditions for use<br />34<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    55. 55. Pedestrian Shopping Street - Copenhagen<br />
    56. 56. Pedestrian Plaza - Copenhagen<br />
    57. 57. Pedestrian Shopping Street - Winterthur<br />
    58. 58. Widespread Photo Enforcement<br />Not just a tool for motor vehicle safety<br />Better motorist compliance with speed limits and traffic signals improves walking and biking safety<br />38<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    59. 59. Traffic Safety Education<br />Pervasive, widespread, ongoing education programs for children<br />Participation from wide range of agencies and organizations<br />Branded traffic safety campaigns<br />39<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    60. 60. Traffic Garden - Winterthur<br />
    61. 61. Encouragement<br />Promotion was important for both mode share and safety goals<br />Variety of programs and activities<br />Route signing and maps<br />Online travel planners<br />Employer-sponsored programs (bike-to-work)<br />Public health-sponsored programs<br />Government marketing campaigns<br />41<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    62. 62. Wayfinding Signs<br />
    63. 63. Integration With Public Transport<br />Plentiful, convenient bike parking at stations<br />Bikes on trains & buses, even during peaks<br />Bike rental or sharing near stations<br />Channels/ramps on stairways for bike access<br />43<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    64. 64. Bicycle Parking - Lund<br />
    65. 65. Bicycle Parking – Sweden and Switzerland<br />
    66. 66. Transit Center - Bern<br />
    67. 67. Evaluation (Monitoring)<br />Regular performance reports that measure progress toward policy goals<br />Pedestrian and bicyclist mode share<br />Pedestrian and bicyclist safety<br />“Showcase” counters in highly visible location <br />47<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    68. 68. Path Amenities - Sweden<br />
    69. 69. A Different Attitude - Bern<br />
    70. 70. The Alps - Bern<br />
    71. 71. Wind Power - Sweden<br />
    72. 72. Working Bikes - Copenhagen<br />
    73. 73. Public Life<br />
    74. 74. Recommended Implementation<br />Establish policies that gives biking & walking modes highest priority in the road user hierarchy<br />Collect transportation and land use policies and strategic plans<br />Draft examples of successful policies<br />54<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    75. 75. Recommended Implementation<br />Develop & implement a performance reporting program that regularly measures progress toward stated goals<br />Performance measure framework<br />Data collection systems<br />55<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    76. 76. Recommended Implementation<br />Deploy engineering measures for pedestrian and bicyclist safety (under consideration)<br />Passive detection<br />Accessible confirmation for ped pushbuttons<br />Crossing islands<br />Raised crosswalks at unsignalizedped crossings<br />Convex mirrors<br />Advanced stop bars for bike lanes<br />Separated facilities<br />Bicyclist pavement markings<br />56<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    77. 77. Recommended Implementation<br />Evaluate engineering measures in US context (under consideration)<br />Near side pedestrian signals<br />Near side traffic signals at midblock pedestrian crossing<br />Bike boxes<br />Bicycle traffic signals<br />57<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    78. 78. Recommended Implementation<br />Evaluate applicability of lower-speed street design in commercial and residential areas<br />Develop guidance on best practices for integrating biking and walking with public transit<br />Review available TCRP synthesis/case studies<br />58<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    79. 79. Recommended Implementation<br />Institutionalize ongoing traffic safety education at an early age<br />Unify all US traffic safety campaigns under a single national brand<br />Promote the use of photo enforcement as a tool to improve pedestrian and bicyclist safety<br />Develop & implement programs that encourage and enable regular walking and biking<br />59<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    80. 80. Next Steps<br />Scan team identified numerous approaches<br />Have already started implementation phase<br />Will also rely on “champions” in the U.S. to implement policies and practices<br />60<br />WANTED:<br />CHAMPIONS<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />
    81. 81. Implementation in Vermont<br />Wider use of pedestrian refuges to enhance crossing safety<br />Passive detection incorporated into ped signals<br />Regional “Traffic Garden” for youth to practice on-road cycling skills<br />Crash data/bike-ped count report<br />Enhanced bicycle/public transit coordination<br />Introduction<br />General Findings<br />Key Findings<br />Recommendations<br />61<br />

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