E.g. The natural sciences, physics, chemistry biology etc.
We have seen about 100 years of psychology attempting to make itself a natural science.
(Upper right hand quadrant of the next slide? Misses out on a lot of areas of psychology??)
There is ‘science’ as a process:
E.g. the research cycle. Now more commonly used as the argument for psychology being a ‘science’.
‘ I ‘ Interior individual ‘ IT ’ Exterior Individual – Objective measures ‘ We ’ Collective Cultural ‘ ITS ’ Social system Environment (Adapted and developed from different writing of Ken Wilber.) Psychodynamics. Instincts. Ego. Id. Intrapersonal. Phenomenology. Self-actualization. Experimental psychology. Cognitive psychology. ‘ Brain’. ‘Organism’. Behaviourism. Interpersonal. Relationships. ‘ Object relations’ theory Group psychology? Family ‘system’. ‘Super ego’? Humanistic psychology. Cross-cultural psychology. ‘ Generalized’ psychology. Organisational psychology. Source of the ‘super ego’?
Knowledge of how the world works. For the purposes of prediction and control .
Based on theories – giving us a means of making predictions. (p83).
The ‘research cycle’. The ‘scientific process’. Theory Question Hypothesis Prediction Identifying a method appropriate to the research question. Data gathering Controlled conditions. Defined methods and standards. Data analysis A means appropriate to both research question and data. Results Data? Proven theory? New theory? Something else? New research ideas? (Start the cycle again??) Report results
This illustrates how ‘scientists’ think and work:
Recognise a problem (or question).
Define a problem (or question). Predict an answer.
Constructing a strategy / method to explore or answer a problem.
Obtaining and organising information to examine a problem or question.
“ The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing. One cannot help but be in awe when (you) contemplates the mysteries of eternity, of life, of the marvellous structure of reality. It is enough if one tries merely to comprehend a little of this mystery every day. Never lose a holy curiosity.”
Your research methods project as a means of gaining experience.
If you are familiar with psychology ...
Consider where else the research cycle can be used (e.g. other than just experiments).
Challenge what ‘can’ and can’t’ be studied.
Summary (2) Characteristics of science ? The Research Cycle …. Meeting certain ‘types’ of goals – see below : Explanation Description Prediction Control Via a particular professional process : Verifiable Cumulative Public Parsimonious