Passion-Based Learning ISACS Workshop

1,518 views
1,370 views

Published on

Slides for workshop on Passion-Based Learning at ISACS 2011 conference. More info available here:
http://pwoessner.wikispaces.com/ISACS_2011

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,518
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
122
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
21
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Introduction This presentation draws upon my experiences teaching a 7 th grade Digital Literacy course
  • Digital Literacy course: 1 Semester 11 lessons 8 sections ~140 students Pass/Fail
  • Source: Barbara R. Jones-Kavalier and Suzanne L. Flannigan: Connecting the Digital Dots: Literacy of the 21st Century ; http://connect.educause.edu/Library/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/ConnectingtheDigitalDotsL/39969 Question: What is your definition of digital literacy? Video Timer Source: Video Source: 4noF. “[2 min] Timer.” Video. 10 Sept. 2010. YouTube. 28 Oct. 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=juHx72qmbok&feature=fvst Source: Jenkins, Henry, Puroshotma, Ravi, Clinton, Katherine, Weigel, Margaret, & Robison, Alice J. (2005). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century, available at http://www.newmedialiteracies.org/files/working/NMLWhitePaper.pdf .
  • Video Source: Jenkins, Henry. “The New Media Literacies.” Video. 11 Nov. 2008. YouTube. 14 Oct. 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pEHcGAsnBZE
  • Source: Robert J.Vallerant, Professor of Psychology at Universite du Quebec a Montreal. Vallerand, R. et al (2003). Les passions de l’aˆ me: on obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 85 (56), 756-767. Retrieved from http://www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/documents/2003_VallerandBlanchardMageauKoesterRatelleLeonardGagne_JPSP.pdf Question: What is your definition of passion? Remember: we are focusing on STUDENT passion, not YOUR passion or making them passionate about your class Motivation in action  learning Video Timer Source: Video Source: 4noF. “[2 min] Timer.” Video. 10 Sept. 2010. YouTube. 28 Oct. 2011. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=juHx72qmbok&feature=fvst
  • Source: Motivation Problems Scene from Office Space Movie (1999) | MOVIECLIPS . Dir. Mike Judge. Perf. Ron Livingston. MOVIECLIPS: Movie Trailers, Previews, Clips of Old, New & Upcoming Films . MovieClips.com. Web. 14 Oct. 2011. http://movieclips.com/2pyJo-office-space-movie-motivation-problems This clip is from Office Space; do you see any parallels with your students and/or have you ever taught a student like him?
  • In What Works in Schools, Marzano identified three types of factors that influence learning. Admins focus on School-level factors Source: Marzano, Robert J. What Works in Schools Translating Research into Action. Alexandria: Assn Supervn & Curr Dev, 2003. Print.
  • PD often focuses on teacher-level factors Source: Marzano, Robert J. What Works in Schools Translating Research into Action. Alexandria: Assn Supervn & Curr Dev, 2003. Print.
  • We can’t overlook the student-level factors because motivation affects learning. Source: Marzano, Robert J. What Works in Schools Translating Research into Action. Alexandria: Assn Supervn & Curr Dev, 2003. Print.
  • If it were only this easy… Source: "Motivation Demotivator® - The Original Demotivational Posters." Despair, Inc. - Creators of Demotivators® Posters, Calendar, Coffee Mugs, Apparel and More . Web. 17 Oct. 2011. http://www.despair.com/motivation.html
  • Source: Kellaghan, Thomas, and George F. Madaus. The Use of External Examinations to Improve Student Motivation. Washington: American Educational Research Association, 1997. Print.
  • It’s important to have a framework for designing learning experiences. I chose Understanding by Design (UbD) to bring structure to the course. Source: Wiggins, Grant P., and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2006. Print.
  • An Essential Question: causes genuine and relevant inquiry into the big ideas and core content; provokes deep thought, lively discussion, sustained inquiry, and new understanding as well as more questions; requires students to consider alternatives, weigh evidence, support their ideas, and justify their answers; stimulates vital, on-going rethinking of big ideas, assumptions, and prior lessons; sparks meaningful connections with prior learning and personal experiences; naturally recurs, creating opportunities for transfer to other situations and subjects.
  • These are the big content and skills “take-aways” from the course
  • This is how we’ll know if we achieved our goals.
  • These five topics are our focus today
  • It’s important to understand that the DL course has two strands for student work(flow): Internal and External
  • The CITE Instrument was administered to our students via a Google Form and the results presented in an individualized student report. The Learning Specialist helped students interpret the results; these results were shared with parents and advisors. Source: Babich, Burdine, Albright, & Randol (1976). C.I.T.E. Learning Styles Instrument. WVABE Instructor Handbook, Section 3, 2003-04. Retrieved October 17, 2011 from http://wvabe.org/CITE/cite.pdf.
  • These 9 categories represent the most common forms of student learning styles. When students understand how they learn best, they can more effective use technology to support their learning. Question: Which style(s) would you expect to be the most popular? Question: Which styles do you most frequently use in your classroom?
  • The two lowest areas are Auditory-Language and Expressiveness-Oral. The differences between boys and girls on these two areas is pronounced.
  • Developed by University of Connecticut professor Joseph S. Renzulli, the Interest-A-Lyzer is a questionnaire devised to help students examine and focus their interests. There are versions for younger students, MS/HS Students, and Adults This activity takes TIME because it causes the students to reflect Students were asked to share their results with their advisor, friends, and family The results could ultimately be added to a student portfolio Source: Renzulli, Joseph S., Mary Rizza, Thomas P. Hébert, Michelle F. Sorenson, Vidabeth Bensen, and Ann McGreevy. Interest-a-lyzer Family of Instruments . Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning, 1997. Print. Available online from: http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/CurriculumCompacting/SEC-IMAG/ialsecon.pdf
  • Source: Renzulli, Joseph S., Mary Rizza, Thomas P. Hébert, Michelle F. Sorenson, Vidabeth Bensen, and Ann McGreevy. Interest-a-lyzer Family of Instruments . Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning, 1997. Print. Available online from: http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/CurriculumCompacting/SEC-IMAG/ialsecon.pdf
  • Educators frequently speak about the power of networks; how many use them with students? The Digital Literacy Learning Network, powered by Schoology, connects students in a walled garden. Source: "'Millennials' Leading the Way on Social Media | Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project." Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project . Web. 18 Oct. 2011. <http://www.pewinternet.org/Media-Mentions/2010/Millennials-leading-the-way-on-social-media.aspx>.
  • Students complete their profile and discuss what/what not to share Students can browse classmates’ profiles and make connections Creating this network provides perfect opportunity to discuss online behavior Resource: http://www.schoology.com
  • Source: Hill, Karhmir. "How To Teach Kids 'Digital Literacy'? Build A Private Social Network Playground For Them. - Forbes." Information for the World's Business Leaders - Forbes.com . Forbes, 13 Oct. 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2011/10/13/how-to-teach-kids-digital-literacy-build-a-private-social-network-playground-for-them/>
  • These topics are fairly mainstream but students need a context for exploring them. Ideally, they would be connected to the other core subjects but this isn’t always feasible given the varying pace of curricula
  • The research project is used to teach/connect the important digital literacy skills The topic for the project is the student’s choice (i.e. his passion) Each student learns the same core course content and skills but within the context of his topic of choice
  • The research project was outlined on our DL Wiki (Wikispaces Private Label) Each student has his/her own page This made it easy to monitor student progress and provide feedback
  • We chose to make the wiki public to the school but private to the outside world. At present the wiki is open for the benefit of this presentation. Displaying work online helps students develop a sense of audience.
  • The affinity groups remove the teacher as the content-area expert This is one of the hardest, but most important, aspects of this project Henry Jenkins would refer to this as a participatory culture
  • Although students have diverse expression styles, we often limit their forms of expression to oral and written work. Source: Kettle, Karen E., Joseph S. Renzulli, and Mary G. Rizza. "Exploring Student Preferences For Product Development." Neag Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development . University of Connecticut. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. http://www.gifted.uconn.edu/sem/exprstyl.html
  • These 10 styles represent the most common forms of student expression. This approach facilitates differentiation and provides CHOICE Question: Which style(s) would you expect to be the most popular?
  • Question: which style(s) do you use most frequently with your students? Question: Which styles(s) do you use most often as a teacher?
  • Once students identified their preferred ES, they were directed to supporting technologies. https://docs.google.com/document/d/1OnRMXvjsgJiR9OPTLgYRM2zWsFIGIFfmN6m84oipQA0/edit?hl=en_US
  • These projects were visible to the School only but have been opened up for this presentation
  • Creating a rubric to assess different project types is challenging, but if you have the UbD framework it’s a lot easier.
  • I graded each project (pass/fail) and wrote a comment to the student Each student presented his project to his advisory The public nature of presentations cuts both ways; some kids were outstanding, some were lacking, but most enjoyed the experience and learned a lot about themselves and each other We now have a window into each student that can help us help them succeed Source: "Motivation Demotivator® - The Original Demotivational Posters." Despair, Inc. - Creators of Demotivators® Posters, Calendar, Coffee Mugs, Apparel and More . Web. 17 Oct. 2011. http://www.despair.com/recognition.html
  • This student’s project was featured in a local paper and has been viewed ~15,000 times online since it was published in Nov 2010
  • Remember: passion was used to master the content and skills more deeply; they can now be applied to other subjects
  • The more support you get from colleagues the more powerful the learning experience
  • Passion-Based Learning ISACS Workshop

    1. 1. Fostering Digital Literacy Through Passion-Based Learning Patrick Woessner ISACS Annual Conference 2011 http:// bitly.com/isacs2011
    2. 2. Session Goals <ul><li>Identify key elements of Digital Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the importance of passion in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Empower students to identify their passion </li></ul><ul><li>Design learning experiences that leverage passion to foster Digital Literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Enable students to share their passion with the world </li></ul>
    3. 3. Session Goals
    4. 4. What is Digital Literacy? <ul><li>“ A person’s ability to perform tasks effectively in a digital environment... Literacy includes the ability to read and interpret media, to reproduce data and images through digital manipulation, and to evaluate and apply new knowledge gained from digital environments.” 1 </li></ul><ul><li>What is your definition of digital literacy? </li></ul><ul><li>My definition: “Digital Literacy is participatory culture.” 2 </li></ul>
    5. 5. Why Digital Literacy Matters
    6. 6. What is Passion? <ul><li>“ A strong inclination toward an activity that people like, find important, and in which they invest time and energy.” 4 </li></ul><ul><li>What is your definition of passion? </li></ul><ul><li>My definition: “Passion is motivation in action.” </li></ul>
    7. 7. Why Passion Matters
    8. 8. Factors that Influence Learning <ul><li>School-Level Factors : </li></ul><ul><li>• A Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>• Challenging Goals and Effective Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>• Parent and Community Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>• Safe and Orderly Environment </li></ul><ul><li>• Collegiality and Professionalism </li></ul>
    9. 9. Factors that Influence Learning <ul><li>Teacher-Level Factors : </li></ul><ul><li>• Instructional strategies </li></ul><ul><li>• Classroom management </li></ul><ul><li>• Classroom curriculum design </li></ul>
    10. 10. Factors that Influence Learning <ul><li>Student-Level Factors : </li></ul><ul><li>• Home Environment </li></ul><ul><li>• Learned Intelligence and Background Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>• Student Motivation </li></ul>
    11. 11. What Motivates Students?
    12. 13. What Motivates Students? <ul><li>“ Students respond positively to tasks that they perceive as challenging but “do-able” and that have relevance (value) to them. Also, creative tasks, which provide the student a degree of freedom in their resolution (e.g., creating artworks that use design principles and functions to solve specific visual art problems embodied in the standards; composing a musical composition) can be a source of personal pride and intrinsic motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>To maximize motivation, then, teachers should develop tasks that are authentic , appropriately challenging, relevant , and creative .” 7 </li></ul>Passion Motivates Students!
    13. 15. Digital Literacy Framework: UbD <ul><li>Stages of Backwards Design </li></ul><ul><li>Identify desired results. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine acceptable evidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan learning experiences and instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish Curricular Priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Worth being familiar with </li></ul><ul><li>Important to know and do </li></ul><ul><li>Enduring understanding </li></ul>
    14. 16. Digital Literacy: Essential Questions <ul><li>Over the course of this semester, you will work toward answering two essential questions: </li></ul><ul><li>How does technology affect and reflect who you are as a person and learner? </li></ul><ul><li>How does your passion affect and reflect who you are as a person and learner? </li></ul>
    15. 17. Digital Literacy: Enduring Understandings <ul><li>To answer these important questions, you must come to understand that: </li></ul><ul><li>learning can be informal, social, and networked. </li></ul><ul><li>information serves as the basis for understanding our world. </li></ul><ul><li>content creators have rights; content consumers have responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>learning and expression styles affect how we acquire/process knowledge and demonstrate understanding. </li></ul>
    16. 18. Digital Literacy: Evidence/Outcomes <ul><li>By the end of the course, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>identify your personal interests/passion(s). </li></ul><ul><li>communicate and collaborate in an online environment. </li></ul><ul><li>locate, evaluate, utilize, and cite information. </li></ul><ul><li>identify your personal learning and expression styles. </li></ul><ul><li>create and share a product that answers the essential questions. </li></ul>
    17. 19. Digital Literacy: Course Outline <ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Passion-Based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Social Bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Search Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Website Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright, Fair Use, and Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Expression Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Final Product Presentation </li></ul>
    18. 20. Digital Literacy: Course Outline <ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Passion-Based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Social Bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Search Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Website Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright, Fair Use, and Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Expression Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Final Product Presentation </li></ul>
    19. 21. Digital Literacy: Student Workflow <ul><li>Course Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Schoology (Learning Network) </li></ul><ul><li>Student Work </li></ul><ul><li>Wikispaces (Research Project Pages) </li></ul>Private to Course Public to School
    20. 22. Lesson: Learning Styles <ul><li>Learning styles address how students acquire understanding and are frequently divided into three main types: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic.  The  C.I.T.E Instrument 9 organizes and refines these styles into nine major categories as they relate to information gathering, work conditions, and expressiveness. </li></ul>
    21. 23. Learning Styles
    22. 24. Student Learning Styles: Class of 2017
    23. 25. Lesson: Passion-Based Learning <ul><li>Passion-Based Learning is an experience that empowers students to Discover and Consume, Communicate and Connect, and Create and Produce based on their deep-seated interests. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary purpose of the Interest-A-Lyzer 10 is to identify students’ interest areas is to stimulate thought and discussion. Students not only come to know themselves better, but also get a chance to share their discoveries with both teachers and peers. </li></ul>
    24. 26. Interest-A-Lyzer Sample Questions <ul><li>You are a photographer and you have one picture left to take on your roll of film. What will it be of? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Teenagers in your community have been asked to prepare individual time capsules for future generations. You are allowed to include 10 personal possessions that are representative of you. What would you include in your capsule? </li></ul><ul><li>You have written your first book which you are ready to submit for publication. What is the title? What is the book about? </li></ul>
    25. 27. Lesson: Networking <ul><li>Information sharing (networking ) will prove to be more than a passing fad for Generation Y as the habit has grown to become an integral part of how burgeoning and young adults find information, seek help, sustain and nurture friendships and remain engaged with their communities. 11 </li></ul>
    26. 28. Digital Literacy Learning Network Profile <ul><li>The first step in learning to network is to create a profile. </li></ul><ul><li>Schoology provides a safe, “walled garden” approach to networking. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can view their classmates’ profiles and begin making social connections based on mutual interests </li></ul>school ogy
    27. 29. Why Build a Network?
    28. 30. Digital Literacy: Topic Outline <ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Passion-Based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Social Bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Search Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Website Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright, Fair Use, and Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Expression Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Final Product Presentation </li></ul>
    29. 31. Digital Literacy: Research Project <ul><li>Learning Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Passion-Based Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Social Bookmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Search Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Website Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright, Fair Use, and Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Expression Styles </li></ul><ul><li>Final Product Presentation </li></ul>
    30. 32. Digital Literacy: Research Project
    31. 33. Managing the Research Process <ul><li>Wiki permissions can/should be managed to afford students privacy </li></ul><ul><li>The History, Discussion, and Notify Me tabs make it easy to monitor and comment on student work </li></ul>
    32. 34. Supporting the Research Process <ul><li>Each student completed a Google Form on which she identified her passion. </li></ul><ul><li>Affinity groups were created for each topic within Schoology. </li></ul><ul><li>Students joined the affinity group relevant to them. This space became a source of student-led support and inspiration. </li></ul>
    33. 35. Lesson: Expression Styles <ul><li>Unlike learning styles, which focus on how students acquire and process information, Expression Styles reflect the types of products students prefer to create to demonstrate their understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>The My Way…An Expression Style Instrument , developed by Karen Kettle, Joseph Renzulli, and Mary Rizza, identifies 10 broad categories of products/forms of expression. 13 </li></ul>
    34. 36. Expression Styles
    35. 37. Student Expression Styles: Class of 2016
    36. 38. Technology to Support Expression Styles Shared Document for Technology That Supports Expression Styles
    37. 39. Final Project Requirements <ul><li>Your research project will culminate in a final product that will be shared with your advisory. Although you have a great deal of flexibility, your final project must: </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect your preferred expression style (e.g. if Written Expression is your preference, your final product should take a written form) and have been created (at least in part) by technology (e.g. no dioramas). </li></ul><ul><li>Address/answer (directly or indirectly) all six driving questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. What is your passion and why is it more than a mere interest for you? 2. Who or what got you interested/involved in your passion? 3. What aspect(s) of your passion would you like to learn more about? 4. What would other people need to know about your passion in order to understand it? 5. How has your passion influenced/affected the St. Louis area? 6. How does your passion affect and reflect you as a person and as a learner? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be uploaded/embedded/linked/displayed on your personal Digital Literacy wiki page and include a description of the project (i.e. what the project is all about). </li></ul>
    38. 40. Final Project Assessment <ul><li>All final projects, regardless of topic or form, were presented in advisory and graded using a common rubric . </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a rubric helps ensure that (1) students clearly understand the requirements/expectations and (2) all topics/products are valued equally. </li></ul>Assessment Categories
    39. 41. Final Project Assessment
    40. 42. Final Project Examples <ul><li>Expression Style: Artistic Passion: Animation Technology Tool: Pencil </li></ul>
    41. 43. Final Project Examples <ul><li>Expression Style: Audio/Visual Passion: Dance Technology Tool: Prezi </li></ul>
    42. 44. Final Project Examples <ul><li>Expression Style: Written Passion: Creative Writing Technology Tool: Myebook </li></ul>
    43. 45. What Did the Students REALLY Think? <ul><li>Several months after the course ended last year, a brief, anonymous survey was sent to all students: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How important was the role of passion in your learning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did you notice a different level of commitment or engagement during this passion-based project compared to past project work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many other times in your schooling have you had a chance to formally explore and share your passion with others? </li></ul></ul>
    44. 46. Student Survey Results: How important was the role of passion in your learning? <ul><li>My passion moves me along and keeps me happy and helps me to learn. I can think in terms of my passion to understand something better and that helps me learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Very important. Passion is everything. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning my passion was important to me because I got to learn how I learn and more about my self that I didn't realize before. </li></ul><ul><li>It was very helpful for extending my learning in other subjects </li></ul><ul><li>It was very important because the fact that it was about me made me more motivated to research and participate. </li></ul>
    45. 47. Student Survey Results: Did you notice a different level of commitment or engagement? <ul><li>Yes, because your passion is something that interests you and sometimes school projects do not. </li></ul><ul><li>It encouraged me to make it good since it was about something I loved. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, because it was on a more personal level, instead of &quot;homework&quot;. Also, it was fun to do because it was about things we like to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, I learned more because I actually cared about the topic I was researching and making a final project for. </li></ul><ul><li>No. I say this because I give a full amount of effort and commitment to ALL of my work. </li></ul>
    46. 48. Student Survey Results: How many other times in school have you explored/shared your passion? <ul><li>None. I haven’t had any chances to do that at all so far in my learning life. </li></ul><ul><li>Not any other ones, it was only this project. </li></ul><ul><li>None other times besides people asking &quot;oh what do you like to do?&quot; or &quot;what are some of your favorite things?&quot; and stuff like that. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a lot, if at all. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the first time, and I really enjoyed it! </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely ever. The only times 'passions' come up are with conversations with friends, and they are usually labeled as fun activities </li></ul>
    47. 49. Lessons Learned <ul><li>Students come to us with incredible knowledge and skills that we may never see because we never ask. </li></ul><ul><li>If we expect students to explore and understand our passions they must first come to explore and understand theirs . </li></ul><ul><li>The content/skills acquired in a passion-based learning experience are mastered more deeply and thus can be more easily applied/transferred. </li></ul><ul><li>Students understand that learning is social; they don’t understand how it translates to school. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilizing different learning styles can help students learn but they do not help them demonstrate what they know. </li></ul>
    48. 50. Making it Work for You <ul><li>Focus on student passion </li></ul><ul><li>Connect like-minded learners </li></ul><ul><li>Share their passions with others </li></ul>
    49. 51. Questions and Contact Info <ul><li>Presentation Resources: http://bitly.com/isacs2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Blog: http://pwoessner.com / </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Twitter: http:// twitter.com/pcwoessner </li></ul><ul><li>Skype: pwoessner </li></ul><ul><li>Office: 314-995-7375 </li></ul>
    50. 52. Works Cited <ul><li>Barbara R. Jones-Kavalier and Suzanne L. Flannigan: Connecting the Digital Dots: Literacy of the 21st Century ; http:// connect.educause.edu/Library/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/ConnectingtheDigitalDotsL/39969 </li></ul><ul><li>Jenkins, Henry, Puroshotma, Ravi, Clinton, Katherine, Weigel, Margaret, & Robison, Alice J. (2005). Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century, available at http://www.newmedialiteracies.org/files/working/NMLWhitePaper.pdf . </li></ul><ul><li>Jenkins, Henry. “The New Media Literacies.” Video. 11 Nov. 2008. YouTube. 14 Oct. 2011. http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=pEHcGAsnBZ </li></ul><ul><li>Vallerand, R. et al (2003). Les passions de l’aˆ me: on obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 85 (56), 756-767. Retrieved from http:// www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT/documents/2003_VallerandBlanchardMageauKoesterRatelleLeonardGagne_JPSP.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation Problems Scene from Office Space Movie (1999) | MOVIECLIPS . Dir. Mike Judge. Perf. Ron Livingston. MOVIECLIPS: Movie Trailers, Previews, Clips of Old, New & Upcoming Films . MovieClips.com. Web. 14 Oct. 2011. http :// movieclips.com/2pyJo-office-space-movie-motivation-problems </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Motivation Demotivator® - The Original Demotivational Posters.&quot; Despair, Inc. - Creators of Demotivators® Posters, Calendar, Coffee Mugs, Apparel and More . Web. 17 Oct. 2011. http:// www.despair.com/motivation.html </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Kellaghan, Thomas, and George F. Madaus. The Use of External Examinations to Improve Student Motivation. Washington: American Educational Research Association, 1997. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiggins, Grant P., and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2006. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Babich, Burdine, Albright, & Randol (1976). C.I.T.E. Learning Styles Instrument. WVABE Instructor Handbook, Section 3, 2003-04. Retrieved October 17, 2011 from http:// wvabe.org/CITE/cite.pdf </li></ul>
    51. 53. Works Cited <ul><li>Source: Renzulli, Joseph S., Mary Rizza, Thomas P. Hébert, Michelle F. Sorenson, Vidabeth Bensen, and Ann McGreevy. Interest-a-lyzer Family of Instruments . Mansfield Center, CT: Creative Learning, 1997. Print. Available online from: http:// www.gifted.uconn.edu/siegle/CurriculumCompacting/SEC-IMAG/ialsecon.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;'Millennials' Leading the Way on Social Media | Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project.&quot; Pew Research Center's Internet & American Life Project . Web. 18 Oct. 2011. http :// www.pewinternet.org/Media-Mentions/2010/Millennials-leading-the-way-on-social-media.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>Hill, Karhmir. &quot;How To Teach Kids 'Digital Literacy'? Build A Private Social Network Playground For Them. - Forbes.&quot; Information for the World's Business Leaders - Forbes.com . Forbes, 13 Oct. 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2011. <http://www.forbes.com/sites/kashmirhill/2011/10/13/how-to-teach-kids-digital-literacy-build-a-private-social-network-playground-for-them/> </li></ul><ul><li>Kettle, Karen E., Joseph S. Renzulli, and Mary G. Rizza. &quot;Exploring Student Preferences For Product Development.&quot; Neag Center for Gifted Education and Talent Development . University of Connecticut. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. http :// www.gifted.uconn.edu/sem/exprstyl.html </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Motivation Demotivator® - The Original Demotivational Posters.&quot; Despair, Inc. - Creators of Demotivators® Posters, Calendar, Coffee Mugs, Apparel and More . Web. 17 Oct. 2011. http://www.despair.com/recognition.html </li></ul>

    ×