Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya
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Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya

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Digital technology in the developing world. An in depth look at at how three organizations in the KIbera Slum outside Nairobi, Kenya are using information and communications technology, and in ...

Digital technology in the developing world. An in depth look at at how three organizations in the KIbera Slum outside Nairobi, Kenya are using information and communications technology, and in particular, mobile and digital technologies to empower slum residents through:
Urban mapping
Web & digital design skills
Digital and social media platforms

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  • For the first time in history, more people live in cities than in the countryside.http://www.unhabitat.org/content.asp?cid=2467&catid=1&typeid=24&subMenuId=0
  • According to UN Habitat a slum is defined as follows: (2) Access to safe water - Proportion of the population with sustainable access to an improved water source is the percentage of the urban population who use any of the following types of water supply for drinking: piped water, public tap, borehole or pump, protected well, protected spring or rainwater. Access to improved sanitation - Proportion of the population with access to improved sanitation or percentage of the population with access to facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human, animal and insect contact. Durable structures - Proportion of households living in a housing unit considered as ‘durable’, i.e. built on a non-hazardous location and has a structure permanent and adequate enough to protect its inhabitants from the extremes of climatic conditions such as rain, heat, cold, humidity. Sufficient living area (overcrowding) - Proportion of households with more than three persons per room. Access to secure tenure - This indicator is not in use as there is no suitable source providing a uniform data set for international comparison purposes.  (2) UN Habitat Slum Indicators (p. 9) - United Nations 2010/11 State of the World’s Cities Report “Bridging the Urban Divide
  • Over 1 billion (3) people now live in an urban slum  Or 1 in every 3 urban residents in the world live in a slum (4)That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2030 (4)By 2050 95% of the growth of the human population will occur in the urban areas of developing countries (5)Whose population is expected to double to nearly 4 billion (5) (3) Urban Population Living In Slums, 1990-2010 TableUnited Nations (2010). 2010/11 State of the World’s Cities Report “Bridging the Urban Divide; United Nations Human Settlements Programme (4) UN-HABITAT estimates based on United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision).  (5) Wesolowski, A.P., (2009) Inferring Human Dynamics in Slums Using Mobile Phone Data : Santa Fe Institute
  • Created for the Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Design with the Other 90%: CITIES Exhibition at United Nations, 2011/12Current slum populations are represented as orange squares distributed in a checkerboard pattern over black squares, which show overall population. Future population projections are depicted in shaded tones—light orange for slum growth, gray for overall population growth.The shadows of future growth immediately illustrate the explosion in Africa and Asia. The resulting image shows what many viewers have likened to a “firebrand raging across the southern hemisphere.” The design team used quantitative data from various sources, including UN-Habitat, which counts informal settlements, or “slum households,” as any that fulfill at least one of five criteria: inadequate housing, insufficient living space, insecure land tenure, and lack of access to improved water and improved sanitation.Created by Designers: Christian Werthmann, with Elizabeth Randall and Fiona Luhrmann, Harvard Graduate School of Design. United States, 2011 for the Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Design with the Other 90%: CITIES - will be on view at the United Nations in New York City from October 17,2011 through January 9, 2012, 
  • With growth in Urban Slums comes (7) Increasing overcrowding, Unregulated and unsafe housing, Growing risks associated with solid and liquid waste, High levels of informality and lack of access to stable income sources, Social pressures due to limited access to services and deficient infrastructure, among others  (7) Ospina A.V. (2011) The Urban Face of Climate Change Resilience: ICT Perspectives http://niccd.wordpress.com/2011/07/30/the-urban-face-of-climate-change-resilience-ict-perspectives/
  • Slide 8 61.7% of people living in towns and cities in sub-Saharan Africa today live in slums. (8)  The picture shows Slum Proportions Of Selected Countries In Africa (2005) – the red countries indicate more than 70%. (8)  (8) United Nations (2010) UN-HABITAT For A Better Urban Future Report (9) United Nations (2010). 2010/11 State of the World’s Cities Report “Bridging the Urban Divide; United Nations Human Settlements Programme
  • Africa is home to the largest proportion of young people in the world today (1o) Young people aged 15-24 years represent 18% of the world's populationIn most African countries, including Tanzania, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Zambia those under 25 constitute about or over 70% of the population.In many African cities more than 50% of inhabitants are under the age of 19.(10) UN Habitat Website(2011) – Youth http://www.unhabitat.org/content.asp?cid=4419&catid=531&typeid=24&subMenuId=0
  • Youth are particularly affected by growing urban poverty(11)  High unemploymentChild trafficking and sexual exploitationThe growing phenomenon of street childrenVictims of crime and violence The breakdown of family lifeEnvironmental degradation Worsening health conditionsThe transmission of infectious diseases, and the worsening HIV/AIDS pandemic (11) UN Habitat Website – Youth http://www.unhabitat.org/content.asp?cid=4419&catid=531&typeid=24&subMenuId=0
  • ICT’s have been diffusing rapidly among the urban poor, providing new livelihood opportunities and fostering entrepreneurship (UNCTAD, 2010).(12)  UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT 2010  (12) Ospina A.V. (2011) The Urban Face of Climate Change Resilience: ICT Perspectives http://niccd.wordpress.com/2011/07/30/the-urban-face-of-climate-change-resilience-ict-perspectives/
  • Specific ways ICT is building and empowering slum communities (13) Urban Mapping & Community Involvement Urban Health, Risk and Hazard Management Urban Capacity-Building & Networking Training and education, and employment Micro-enterprises  Some examples of where ICT tools help to enable urban empowerment and resilience: Urban Mapping & Community Involvement - Relevant local data is collected, mapped and accessed with the support of ICT tools can inform decision-making processes and strengthen local governance as well as local input into finding solutions to their own problems and motivate community members and local governments to engage in joint change. ICT's can also be used to enable communication and exchange between local governments, communities, grass-roots organisations and researchers working in urban development programmes, strengthening transparency, accountability and public support. Urban Health, Risk and Hazard Management The use of ICT's such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in local hazard mapping and analysis can help to identify and illustrate evacuation routes as well as to locate housing, business and structures that are at risk of threats such as rises in water levels.  New and traditional ICT's (e.g. mobile phones, community radios) can also be used as effective information and early-warning channels among populations settled in dangerous terrains ICT tools can also support public awareness and education campaigns on safe-housing construction, water storage and robust drainage systems, etc Urban Capacity-Building & Networking - ICT applications such as participatory videos, photo-diaries or the use of mobile phones for collective mapping/monitoring exercises, could be used to foster greater involvement of low-income urban dwellers involving them in decisions such as the best location for drinking water supplies, electricity and other infrastructure needs. ICT's can be used to foster participative processes and multi-stakeholder discussions about issues that affect urban populations such as transportation and land use, as well as in the participative planning of climate-change initiatives that seek to reduce adaptive deficits. Training and education, and employment -ICT's used in support of social networking can also improve the capacity of low-income urban communities to access information about training, education, employment opportunities and livelihood alternatives. Micro-enterprises - the sale of mobile phones and digital tools are driving growth for at the individual entrepreneur level and creating opportunities for income growth(13) Ospina A.V. (2011) The Urban Face of Climate Change Resilience: ICT Perspectives http://niccd.wordpress.com/2011/07/30/the-urban-face-of-climate-change-resilience-ict-perspectives/
  • ICT, and in particular, mobile and digital technologies are helping to empower slum residents and their youth to have a greater control over their lives, communities and prosperity Access to information & knowledge
  • Today we are looking at three organizations that are using information and communications technology, and in particular, mobile and digital technologies to empower slum residents in three waysUrban mappingWeb & digital design skillsDigital and social media platformsThese organizations are changing the lives of people – particularly young people – through providing ground level, every-day applications and information that are helping people be involved in improving their own communities and their future as well proving education jobs and opportunities for grass roots entrepreneurship.
  • One of the largest slums in Africa, are narrowly winding pathways strewn with garbage, divided down the middle by streams of sewage and waste that make walking treacherous. Corrugated iron and mud shanties are packed together on every possible inch of space. The railroad track provides the only boulevard; its dismantling from time to time serves to vent local frustrations otherwise disregarded by politicians. Electricity is stolen from main power lines or absent entirely. Chickens cluck down the paths, and dogs and goats pick through enormous garbage piles alongside young children.Hagen, E Development Outreach Article: Putting Nairobi’s Slums on the Map: World Bank Institute http://wbi.worldbank.org/wbi/devoutreach/article/370/putting-nairobi%E2%80%99s-slums-map
  • Satellite images show a dense, vibrant settlement with many small, informal businesses,
  • But it appears as a blank spot on official maps - In official registers it is designated a forestMaps that have been made are not widely available, and are often outdated; new structures are erected quickly as old ones are taken down, and what was yesterday a bakery might today be an electronics shop and tomorrow a hair salon. Kibera isn’t actually unmapped—it was in many ways the most visible slum on earth. Kibera is saturated with international NGOs, community-based organizations, and faith-based groups. UN-HABITAT, the United Nations agency for human settlements, is headquartered minutes away, and academic and non-governmental organizations frequently survey residents. It is common to see foreigners conducting surveys or academic research, and many of these researchers have also mapped parts of Kibera.But the information rarely comes back to the community and existing maps are not shared with the public or used by Kibera’s residents. Even though this information about them influences the policies that most impact their lives, the residents do not have access to it. The studies repeatedly ask the same questions but do not share their results or have any visible impact on the community.
  • Further residents also complain that mainstream news sources in Kenya present only a negative picture—or no picture at all—of the place they call home. Nairobi journalists venture into Kibera only when police use tear gas or the railroads are disrupted.The nightly news that most Kenyans watch ignores the positive efforts of slum residents and news that is relevant to their lives, even though a large proportion of Nairobi’s population resides in these informal settlements. ‘Major media outlets do not report on the informal area unless serious violence or turmoil erupts, when they often serve to inflame tensions. Despite Kibera’s “fame” on the international stage—including countless documentaries and NGO-funded media—these reports rarely reach a Kenyan audience. They also tend to focus on the shock value of open sewers and garbage pits or present a glowing account of a given NGO’s contribution to Kibera.International audiences are led to believe that Kibera is a kind of hell on earth and are moved to send cash, while Nairobi’s middle and upper classes tend to avoid it altogether, out of fear or disdain.
  • This leaves the population disempowered with no access to the information and knowledge about their own communities they need to help solve the problems that are endemic to Kibera, including unemployment, violence, poverty, poor health, and the lack of public facilities for water, electricity, and sewage. If they are not seen, \\they cannot meaningfully join the debate about on how to improve their own community (15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kibera http://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera
  • This is what Map Kibera seeks to address: the glaring omission of roughly a quarter million1 of Nairobi’s inhabitants from mass communications and from city representation and policy decisions. Map Kibera was founded on the premise that the digital age makes it possible to bypass traditional gatekeepers to information and data—or to ignore them completely, thereby allowing citizens to create and use new information systems. Because the information they possess is in fact a more accurate and relevant version of the truth than that held by outsiders,. This intelligent “crowd“ may even help free up resources spent on expensive proprietary data collection and project evaluation for initiatives that Kiberans design and execute for their greatest benefit.They did this in two phases (15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kibera http://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera
  • With initial funding from Jumpstart International, an American organization, and assistance from Kenyan partners, a European couple Erica Hagen and Mikel Maron began to train a group of thirteen young people between the ages of 19 and 34—one hailing from each village of Kibera, with a mix of young men and women and a variety of tribal affiliations. After two days of training in using the GPS devices (GarmineTrex Legend HCx, consumer grade) and the editing software in the computer lab, the group spent three full weeks mapping their home villages. They went to the field to collect data, and then traveled to, where computer lab space was donated, in order to upload. They asked the team to mark any “points of interest” with the GPS and write down the name of each feature, but they didn’t specify what points were “of interest”—they left that to the mappers discretion. The points of interest they chose to collect included clinics, toilets, water points, NGO offices, electric lights, and some businesses. After one week, the team made a list of the types of features each person had collected that day, and decided together which were the most important to include on the map.Rather than create a standalone map, the project contributed data to OpenStreetMap, the ongoing open-source crowd-sourced mapping tool used around the world: The mappers uploaded their own GPS data, trace satellite photos, and scanned in information written on paper maps, which are bar-coded to correspond to their coordinates. To edit it, they used JOSM, the Java OpenStreetMap editor, which can be downloaded for free and is fairly simple to use.Three youths based trained to use Flip camcorders also went to the field with the mappers where they filmed the mapped locations and interviewed business owners, clinic workers, and others to gather local stories which could be associated later with points on the map.They wanted the project to have multimedia components so the map could eventually be brought to life with videos made about the points of interest on it. (15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kibera http://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera
  • Within three weeks, the mapping team had produced one of the densest maps ever made, labeling "points of interest" throughout Kibera. The mappers were allowed to choose what features were most important to collect, and agreed to try for every single water point, toilet, clinic, pharmacy, school, church, mosque, and NGO office, plus anything else at theirdiscretion. (15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kibera http://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera
  • The participants learned new computer and technology skills as well as new social skills and more comfort in public speaking and encountering strangers. Some also reported gaining new knowledge about the impact technology can have on a community.The mapping experience validated their knowledge that participants already held: their intimate knowledge of the paths, businesses, and social relations of their own neighborhood. Now they were regarded as holders of important information rather than poorly educated slum dwellers. (15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kiberahttp://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera
  • The concept of community-owned information was abstract, and the very idea of self-representation raised the question, representative of whom and for what purpose?Even if the primary users would end up being local groups working on advocacy directed at government ministries or others who could access the web, the average citizen needed to see the results as well. (15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kiberahttp://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera (17) Hagen E, (2010) Map Kibera 2010 Year in Review
  • It was important to find a way to allow Kibera residents to speak for themselves on current events and issues, and to create a digital community around local information
  • The two main ways they asked helped Kibera residents speak for themselves through: Extending the mapping work to gather more in-depth, issue-based information and to providing paper based maps for residents.Engaging people in the community through citizen journalism, or reporting by non-professionals on important local issues and news. They wanted the entire community to have a resource that would harness their collective wisdom and intimate knowledge of Kibera, so they could become the drivers of development. (15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kiberahttp://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera (17) Hagen E, (2010) Map Kibera 2010 Year in Review
  •  To increase the potential impact of the map data, they began mapping in more detail in four areas: health, security, education, and water/sanitation. For each issue, the mappers carried paper forms, writing new information based on a short survey developed in conjunction with stakeholders and community members.  For example, in the area of health they gathered information on each clinic or chemist in Kibera, and services provided and the number of trained nurses on staff.  Some of the mappers also carried digital or Flip cameras to take photos of clinics or short videos of toilets. They specifically asked the mappers to use the Flip cameras to visually document the places they were mapping. They posted the images to Flickr, which allowed them to be added directly to the map of Kibera from OpenStreetMap. To help them get feedback on the maps and share them with the community, they printed paper versions of the map for each issue area and presented them at small community meetings.  They taped transparent paper on top of the printouts so the attendees could make corrections and add their opinions and other details about each sector. These were then scanned and uploaded onto an image of the map online. They also began to develop separate web pages for each issue.(15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kiberahttp://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera (17) Hagen E, (2010) Map Kibera 2010 Year in Review
  • Stories emerged that they believe revealed the real picture of health, education, security, water, and sanitation in Kibera as the residents experience it.  On healthcare they learned:What various clinics charged for what servicesThere is a shortage of affordable maternal health care but they got the address of the best midwife in townKibera has no mental health services, dentists, or opticiansIdentified low-quality chemists prescribing inappropriate remedies but also these chemists with unlicensed examination rooms play critical roles in healthcareEspecially when people with acute emergencies have to be carried several kilometers along mud paths to the government hospital It was quite easy to show the value of citizen-generated information to larger organizations like UNICEF, since it is so hard to collect this kind of data. But to translate this into a community resource and tool was more difficult. So they developed a printed atlas to hand out with specific information on each issue. (15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kiberahttp://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera (17) Hagen E, (2010) Map Kibera 2010 Year in Review
  • Engaging people in the community through citizen journalism, or reporting by non-professionals on important local issues and news. They wanted the entire community to have a resource that would harness their collective wisdom and intimate knowledge of Kibera, so they could become the drivers of development.(15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kiberahttp://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera (17) Hagen E, (2010) Map Kibera 2010 Year in Review
  • The citizen journalism effort included was built around two online media properties. The first being: The Voice of Kibera , an online community information and news platform. It aims to give a voice to Kibera residents by aggregating local citizen reports, existing Kibera community media and other relevant news and information.  They used the Ushahidi software to build the website . .SMS, is used for citizen reporting. MapKibera estimates that most of Kibera’s approximately 250,000 residents either own or have access to mobile phones through friends and family, which made almost every Kiberan a potential reporter. Residents also submit and view reports by web enabled phones – they estimated that about a quarter of young people in Kibera had this type of phone.  They have also begun developing an SMS alert system for residents. The group then began a broader outreach campaign and a media launch plan that used traditional media channels (local radio, print, banners, and posters) to advertise that Voice of Kibera was available as a platform for sharing community information. Hard data was not available but the healthy stream of stories on the site suggest healthy usage(15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kiberahttp://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera (17) Hagen E, (2010) Map Kibera 2010 Year in Review
  • Slide 34The second citizen journalism effort is the Kibera News Network, a collaborative community video news channel – started in April 2010. KNN reporters cover news and stories happening in Kibera, from their perspective, using small handheld video cameras – showing the real Kibera – not what you see on the mainstream news channels! The videos can be found on Youtube. There 14 youths who shoot, edit, and upload in the stories to the KNN youtube channel and also to Voice of Kibera. The community at large is resistant to being on camera, having been filmed and photographed repeatedly over the years by visiting foreigners. They have seen no benefit in having their image taken and often believe (sometimes rightly) that the videographer is selling their likeness for profit. The KNN team has managed to overcome most of this resistance, largely because they are students and volunteers from Kibera. This seems to be a little slower with only one or two videos a week being posted to youtube. Perhaps it will be amalgamated into Voice of Kibera(15) (2009) Digital Mapping to put Slums on the Map, NowPublic News Coverage http://www.nowpublic.com/tech-biz/digital-mapping-put-slums-map (16) Hagen E (2010) Workspaces: The Changing Environment Of Infomediaries - Map Kiberahttp://wiki.ikmemergent.net/index.php/Workspaces:The_changing_environment_of_infomediaries/Map_Kibera (17) Hagen E, (2010) Map Kibera 2010 Year in Review
  • Slide 37Nairobits is a web-design school in Nairobi, founded in 2000 by the Dutch foundation Butterfly Works. Each year, sixty students are admitted to the course. All NairoBits students come from one of Nairobi’s informal settlements or slums.  NairoBits is absolutely free of charge for its students, and selection is based on merit – not so much academic merit, but level of need, commitment and enthusiasm as well as the applicants’ level of social engagement, their involvement in community activities and their background as volunteer workers.  Programs ICT Multimedia Program which starts with introduction to computers through to specializations in ICT Web design and development. The Media lab is the highest and the final level of training after which the graduates are linked to internship an employment opportunities in ICT related companies. NairoBits has partnered with 28 ICT companies in Kenya which offer internship placement to our graduates. Out of these internships, 99% of them turn to employment opportunities for the youths in the same companies. Reproductive health and HIV/AIDS program: In Partnership with World Population Foundation (WPF), Nairobits trains youths in an interactive youth friendly digital reproductive program dabbed the World starts with me. It focuses on Basic ICT, youth reproductive health and rights, HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation among other skills that are critical to the youth. 3. Micro-Entrepreneurship program: This program enlightens the youths on business skills required to identify opportunities, start, run and grow businesses. NairoBits implements this program in partnership with Digital Opportunities Trust (DOT-Kenya) 4. Information for poverty alleviation: Nairobits has set up information resource centers to help youth deal with challenges that affect their lives. Information is packaged online at computer resource centers. Information on available job opportunities is also updated in the information portal. In addition to this, Nairobits train youths on ICT multimedia skills in the information centers. The youths also hold open forums discussions on issues affecting their lives such as HIV/AIDS, abortion, drugs, peer pressure, unemployment and job opportunities.  So far NairoBits has opened three information centers in Kariobangi North, Eastleigh and Marurui. Each center has seven computers available to the youths. 5. Life skills and employability: Nairobits prepares the youths for formal and informal employment by empowering them with life and employability skills. This program follows a curriculum implemented in partnership with the International Youth Foundation (IFY).(18) Nairobits Website 2010 http://www.nairobits.com/
  • Programs ICT Multimedia Program which starts with introduction to computers through to specializations in ICT Web design and development. The Media lab is the highest and the final level of training after which the graduates are linked to internship an employment opportunities in ICT related companies. NairoBits has partnered with 28 ICT companies in Kenya which offer internship placement to our graduates. Out of these internships, 99% of them turn to employment opportunities for the youths in the same companies. Reproductive health and HIV/AIDS program: In Partnership with World Population Foundation (WPF), Nairobits trains youths in an interactive youth friendly digital reproductive program dabbed the World starts with me. It focuses on Basic ICT, youth reproductive health and rights, HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation among other skills that are critical to the youth. 3. Micro-Entrepreneurship program: This program enlightens the youths on business skills required to identify opportunities, start, run and grow businesses. NairoBits implements this program in partnership with Digital Opportunities Trust (DOT-Kenya) 4. Information for poverty alleviation: Nairobits has set up information resource centers to help youth deal with challenges that affect their lives. Information is packaged online at computer resource centers. Information on available job opportunities is also updated in the information portal. In addition to this, Nairobits train youths on ICT multimedia skills in the information centers. The youths also hold open forums discussions on issues affecting their lives such as HIV/AIDS, abortion, drugs, peer pressure, unemployment and job opportunities.  So far NairoBits has opened three information centers in Kariobangi North, Eastleigh and Marurui. Each center has seven computers available to the youths. 5. Life skills and employability: Nairobits prepares the youths for formal and informal employment by empowering them with life and employability skills. This program follows a curriculum implemented in partnership with the International Youth Foundation (IFY).(18) Nairobits Website 2010 http://www.nairobits.com/
  • Mark Kamau was born against a backdrop of crime and hardship in Kibera in 1980. Mark’s dream of a better future finally became reality in 2000 when he registered at web design school NairoBits  Although he had never touched a keyboard before, Mark began as one of the first web design students in East Africa studying design, technique and African culture.  Following graduation he moved from creating his first website for an international client, to becoming a trainer at NairoBits, he set up his own web company, then became manager of Kilimanjaro Film Institute in neighboring Tanzania. Soon Mark will become manager of Nairobits(19) TedX Amsterdam
  • From 2007 to 2010, Microsoft’s Community Affairs program in Africa (Microsoft) and the International Youth Foundation (IYF) worked in partnership improve the employability and civic engagement of disadvantaged African youth, ages 16 to 35, through the provision of demand-driven training in information and communications technology (ICT), life skills, entrepreneurship, and employment services.  Nairobits was one of their funded programs.  An external evaluation of the program was conducted between November 2009 and June 2010 as the program neared completion to determine the effectiveness of the program in achieving expected outcomes. FocusAfrica, a management consulting and research firm based in Dakar, Senegal, was contracted to perform this evaluation across the four target countries. FocusAfrica surveyed a sample of 380 youth beneficiaries from the six YEP projects approximately six months after youth exited the projects through one-on-one interviews conducted using standardized questionnaires. These are the responses 50 Nairobits graduates (1,224 total) from two cohorts (out of 48).64% - unemployed before program commencement74%- engaged in employment, self-employment, internship and/community service and/or continued education sinceprogram completion74% of participants rated themselves good or higher in 10 out of 13 life skill attributes79% - engaged in employment, self-employment, internship and/or community service since program completion98% perceive the future will be better for themselves and their families after the program(20) (2010) Youth Empowerment Program Evaluation Executive Version. Microsoft
  • Anne Ikiara - CEO of NairoBits Winner of the 2011 Anita Borg Social Impact Award – Sponsored By Microsoft The Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology (ABI) seeks to increase the impact of women on all aspects of technology, and increase the positive impact of technology on the world’s women. “Working as CEO of NairoBits, an organization dealing with youth and women empowerment through ICT, Anne has enabled more than 6,000 women and girls from urban poor settlements across the African region to gain ICT skills that have improved their lives economically, socially-culturally and politically. Most notable is the entry of women and girls from disadvantaged communities to the formal ICT economy. “ Anne also won the 2009 Anita Borg Change Agent Award.(21)Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology http://anitaborg.org/about/who-we-are/anne-ikiara-2011/
  • These newly empowered youths are now using their new skills to spread the empowerment across the continent GetH2O Game for International Peace Day A game which simulates the complexity of life in the slums, the scarcity of resources, how to deal with them and prevent escalation of conflict. Co-created with designers in Kenya and the Netherlands On International Peace Day -21 of September 2011 - gamers in Nairobi, Kampala, Johannesburg and Amsterdam played the GetH2O game and exchanged ideas with each other via the GetH2O facebook group. Ugandans downloading the game on their phones could also call a local radio station which was broadcasting discussions about the game.  Building BridgesBuilding Bridges is a campaign to encourage, map and connect peace initiatives in Kenya. The 2010 Peace award has finished successfully with 600+ initiatives registered  This platform will continue with all the projects connecting and encouraging more peace initiatives in Kenya.  They are currently developing a Toolkit so that other people can run their own campaigns for peace or social change anywhere around the world. Learning About LivingFor the Federation of Muslim Women of Nigeria - Learning about Living, is based on the Nigerian Family Life and HIV/AIDS Education (FLHE) curriculum. This product is used in schools across Nigeria. It is specifically designed to work on any regular computer plus the One Laptop per Child, Classmate PCs and Government computer programs(22) Mamabits Website 2011 http://www.mamabits.com/
  • As part of its Real Dreams Programme - Samsung is working with NairoBits to offer unemployed youth advanced web design skills, enabling some to find jobs in the country's top design agencies and government departments.  Wook Ko, marketing manager for the Middle East and Africa, says the programme has complemented the company's expansion on the continent. "Our resources are not enough in Africa - we need more local people to help us," he says. "In developed countries we can easily find talented people, but in developing countries it's more difficult to find good candidates.  If we can tell our retailers and distributors and technicians that they can hire more from our youth programme, it's a win-win situation.”(18) Nairobits Website 2010 http://www.nairobits.com/ (23) Davis, R. Financial Times Training helps develop key skills for work[London (UK)] 29 Jan 2010: 3.
  • Outdare – Dutch CRM company that outsources web design clients to NairoBits MediaLab(18) Nairobits Website 2010 http://www.nairobits.com/ 
  • Not only sustainable but growing across Africa Under the umbrella organization Mamabits the following organizations offering similar services to the urban youth areZanzibits in ZanzibarAddisbits in Addis AbibaKampabits in KampalaKilimanjaro Film Institute, a similar organization has been started in Musoma in Tanzania with positive results.
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ap7b3DTehfg&feature=youtu.be(24) Whive website (2011) whive.org 
  • Started in 2010Whive.com is a Social Media Tools Aggregator that offers a platform for SMS, Facebook, Twitter and Mobile Applications that are built for local use in Kenyan and African settings.  Whive differs from other platforms because they are localizing mobile applications and making the available in local languages.(25)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ap7b3DTehfg&feature=youtu.be(24) Whive website (2011) whive.org
  • Slide 49Starting with Swahili, Sheng and English Whive is seeking to initially target the Kenyan youth with a classifieds application. The classifieds currently offers jobs and other essential information to young people  These applications will also form a basis of lingual translation services of key Kenyan languages for up to 10,000 Words.  They hope to roll out this application to most of Kenya’s 42 identified cultures throughout 2011- 2012.  They expect to achieve this through crowd-sourcing the language translations. We have identified this mobile space as a crucial one for Africa and we already have support from Nokia who have provided their Ovi store as a distribution platform for our work. Through our classifieds applications we have provided 2,000 plus job listings and generated 60,000 views through using our social media services such as SMS, Twitter and Facebook.(24) Whive website (2011) whive.org
  • Social Advertising: SMS, Text and Banner based social advertising products for subscribers on Web, Mobile and Native applications. Sponsors advertise their products on each SMS sent on our network and our users send this SMS for free. Bulk SMS services: prepaid Credit purchases for Bulk SMS Services for SMS Termination and Origination.(24) Whive website (2011) whive.org
  • The first year of business as a company has been an exciting one for Whive.com. We recently hit the 100,000 mark in user subscriptions and we continue to experience modest growth. We have also grown our contact base to around 500,000 contacts all whom will be the beneficiaries of our exciting offers in the year 2012. Our Facebook application is still number 1 in Kenya and we will continue to ensure we offer robust social media services.We have grown our Small Medium Enterprise base to over 600 customers who use our services to send bulk messages as well as receive 2 way sms communications(24) Whive website (2011) whive.org
  • Developing a mobile operators payment API’s to develop mobile payment solutions on our platform. We have incubated two upcoming startups that will leverage Whive SMS API namely: CrowdPesa.com: A mobile money mappings solution built on the Ushahidi platform that is being used to map the 25,000 Mpesa Agents in Kenya. This application will be used by Kenyans to locate mobile money services using their phones. PesaPay.com: A mobile payments solutions that will allow for IN-APP purchases locally in Kenya.Have built an SMS API Platform for developers to build and test their applications. This will enhance future growth for many startups that leverage on SMS in Kenya.They have also opened a hi-tech Support Centre in January which has been housing all of the above efforts. Plans are underway to triple our capacity in 2012.(24) Whive website (2011) whive.org.
  • Wonthe Vision 2030 ICT award for innovation in the Youth and Gender sector in Kenya and we are very proud to be serving our community. Earlier this year we launched our Whive SMS and Whive Classifieds Nokia applications at Pivot25 the mobile competition for East Africa. We were also winners at the same competition in the Utilities, Entertainment and Gaming category.(24) Whive website (2011) whive.org
  • Thank you, goodnight

Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya Digital Technology - Informal Settlements and Community Empowerment in the Kibera Slum, Kenya Presentation Transcript

  • “Cities are now home to half of humankind.” UN Habitat Website 2010
  • Our world is no longer simply going through the experience of urbanization.Our world has become urbanized.
  • What defines an urban slum? Access to safe water Access to improved sanitationDurability of structures Sufficient living area (overcrowding) UN Habitat Slum Indicators - UnitedAccess to secure tenure Nations2010/11 State of the World’s Cities Report “Bridging the Urban Divide”
  • Over 1 billion people now live in an urban slum Or 1 in every 3 urban residents in the world live in a slum. That number is expected to rise to 2 billion by 2030. By 2050 95% of the growth of the human population will occur in the urban areas of developing countries. whose population is expected to double to Sources: UN-HABITAT, United Nations &Inferring Human Dynamics in Slums nearly 4 billion. Using Mobile Phone
  • “A firebrand raging across the southern hemisphere.” Smithsonian’s Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum, Design with the Other 90%: CITIES
  • With growth comes Overcrowding Unregulated and unsafe housing Growing risks associated with solid and liquid waste High levels of informality and lack of access to stable income sources Social pressures due to limited access to services and deficient infrastructure
  • The raging firebrand in Africa 61.7% of people living in towns and cities in sub-Saharan Africa today live in slumsUnited Nations (2010) UN-HABITAT For ABetter Urban Future Report &UN 2010/11 State of the World’s CitiesReport “Bridging the Urban Divide;
  • Africa is home to the largest proportion of young people in the world today Young people aged 15-24 years represent 18% of the worlds population In most African countries, including Tanzania, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Zambia those under 25 constitute about or over 70% of the population. In many African cities more than 50% of inhabitants are under the age of 19.2. UN Habitat Website
  • Youth are particularly affected by growing urban poverty High unemployment  The breakdown of family life Child trafficking and sexual exploitation  Environmental degradation The growing phenomenon of street  Worsening health children conditions Victims of crime and  The transmission of violence infectious diseases, and the worsening HIV/AIDS pandemic
  • ICT’s have been diffusing rapidlyamong the urban poor, providingnew livelihood opportunities and fostering entrepreneurship (UNCTAD, 2010).
  • Specific ways ICT is building and empowering slum communities Urban Mapping & Community Involvement Urban Health, Risk and Hazard Management Urban Capacity-Building & Networking Training and education, and employment Micro-enterprises
  • ICT, and in particular, mobile and digital technologies are helping to empower slum residents and theiryouth to have a greater control over their lives, communities and prosperity through Access to information & knowledge
  • 3 Organizations providing access to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping Community involvementWeb and digital Self determinationdesign skills Training& employmentDigital and socialmedia platforms Entrepreneurship
  • In one urban slum community Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya
  • Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya…… Spread across 550 acres of government-owned land, 5 kilometers southwest of the city center. Its population is estimated at anywhere from 200,000 to more than one million, and varies seasonally World Bank Institute Website
  • Satellite images show a dense, vibrant settlement
  • But Google maps shows a quiet farming villageIn official registers it is designated a forest
  • Outsiders are led to believe that Kibera isa kind of hell on earth and are moved to send cash, while Nairobi’s middle andupper classes tend to avoid it altogether, out of fear or disdain.
  • “Without basic knowledge of thegeography of Kibera it is impossible to have an informed discussion onhow to improve the lives of residents of Kibera.” Map Kibera’s Mikel Maron
  • “We aimed to alter the existing power dynamic by shifting the information dynamic so that the residents could use localizedinformation to influence policy and development.” Map Kibera’s Erika Hagen
  • Mapping Kibera Phase One
  • In 2009 a small group decided to Map Kibera Openstreetmap
  • Within three weeks, the mapping team hadproduced one of the densest maps ever made,labeling "points of interest" throughout Kibera
  • Some initial early pay-offs The participants learned new computer and technology skills. The mapping experience validated their own community knowledge. Now they were regarded as holders of important information rather than poorly educated slum dwellers. NGO’s and local groups were keen to make use of the information
  • But for whom and what purpose?Many Kiberans did not see how a map available only online could benefit them or their community—besides which, they already knew how to get around.
  • Empowering through information Phase Two
  • Allow Kibera residents to speak for themselves through Extending the mapping work to gather more in-depth, issue-based information and to providing paper based maps for residents. Engaging people in the community through citizen journalism, or reporting by non- professionals on important local issues and news.
  • Issues based mapping Health Security Water/SanitEducation ation
  • The pay-offs – for example, on healthcare they learned What various clinics charged for what services There is a shortage of affordable maternal health care but they got the address of the best midwife in town Kibera has no mental health services, dentists, or opticians Identified low-quality chemists prescribing inappropriate remedies but also these chemists with unlicensed examination rooms play critical roles in healthcare Especially when people with acute emergencies have to be carried several kilometers along mud paths to the government hospital
  • Allow Kibera residents to speak for themselves through Extending the mapping work to gather more in-depth, issue-based information and to providing paper based maps for residents. Engaging people in the community through citizen journalism, or reporting by non- professionals on important local issues and news.
  • A sustainable future? The initiatives are governed by Map Kibera Trust and they are charity dependent for funding. But the costs are small using inexpensive mobile technologies and open source platforms The initiatives are now in the hands of the youth of Kibera with the founders seeking to spread the word globally via the Ground Truth Initiative A repeatable model – started in the other large Nairobi slum - Map Mathare & Voice of Mathare
  • 3 Organizations providing access to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping Community involvementWeb and digital Self determinationdesign skills Training& employmentDigital and socialmedia platforms Entrepreneurship
  • Nairobits ProgramsReproductive Micro-health & HIV- EntrepreneurshipAIDS program program ICT Multimedia Program InformationLife skills and for povertyemployability alleviation
  • The Slum Dog Manager
  • 2010 Youth Empowerment Program Evaluation Impact64% - 74% - engaged in employment, self-employment, unemployed before internship and/community service program commencement and/or continued education since 74% of participants rated program completion79% - engaged themselves good or higher in 10 out of 13 life skill attributes 98% perceive the future will be better forin employment, self- themselves and their familiesemployment, internship after the programand/or community servicesince program completion
  • OutcomesAnne Ikiara - CEO of NairoBitsWinner of the 2011 Anita BorgSocial Impact Award – SponsoredBy Microsoft“Anne has enabled more than 6,000women and girls from urban poorsettlements across the African region togain ICT skills that have improved theirlives economically, socially-culturallyand politically”. Anita Borg Institute 2011
  • Creating more empowerment through knowledge Train teachers in North Nigeria in the use of an interactive SRH program (learning about living).A (serious) gamewhich simulates the Building Bridges is acomplexity of life in campaign tothe slums, the encourage, map andscarcity of resources, connect peacehow to deal with initiatives in Kenya.them and preventescalation of conflict.
  • Sustainability - funders & partners"Our resources are not enough in Africa - we need more local people to help us," Wook Ko, Samsung Marketing Manager for the Middle East and Africa 2010 Youth Empowerment Program Evaluation
  • Sustainability - clientsPartners byoutsourcing webdesign clients toNairoBits MediaLab.
  • 3 Organizations providing access to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping Community involvementWeb and digital Self determinationdesign skills Training& employmentDigital and socialmedia platforms Entrepreneurship
  • “My ultimate goal is to get everyone talking to one another” John Karanja Founder,Whive
  • Classifieds
  • SMS
  • A bright future? 100,000 user subscriptions and modest growth. A contacts database of 500,000 to market offers to Number 1 Facebook application in Kenya Growing Small Medium Enterprise base of over 600 customers who use Whive services to send bulk messages
  • A bright future? In partnership with Nokia East Africa will providing a Free SMS service that will reach millions in East Africa. CrowdPesa.com: A mobile money mappings solution built on the Ushahidi platform that is being used to map the 25,000 Mpesa Agents in Kenya. This application will be used by Kenyans to locate mobile money services using their phones. PesaPay.com: A mobile payments solutions that will allow for IN-APP purchases locally in Kenya.
  • Others think so too 1st Open Screen Fund winner 2010. Best Software Maker Faire Africa 2011. Vision2030 ICT Award for innovation in Youth, Gender & Vulnerable groups. Winner Gaming, Entertainment, Utilities at Pivot25 Mobile Apps Competition.
  • 3 Organizations providing access to information & knowledgeUrban Mapping Community involvementWeb and digital Self determinationdesign skills Training& employmentDigital and socialmedia platforms Entrepreneurship
  • Lessons for the developed world Slum communities must become visible – even in developed countries – for the problems to be recognized and understood. Digital technology means information that was once difficult to find is now easy to collect, collate and share. Digital technology tools not only educate and inform they empower people to manage their own communities.
  • Information &knowledge Empowerment Self determination Prosperity
  • Asante,Usiku Mwema