Efficient Recruitment of People with Disabilities
Module 5 Recruitment process of People with Disabilities
<ul><ul><li>1. Job analysis and job description. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Job analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Job description. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Job interview structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Interview different stages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Different types of interview. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Interviewing courtesies for effective communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. General tips for effective communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Conducting a job interview. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c. Positive behavior – Negative behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Evaluation of applicant. </li></ul></ul>Module Contents
<ul><ul><li>5. Assistive technologies available for People with Disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Job offer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Communication of job offer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Accommodation of the applicant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Job denial. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Self assessment questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9. Bibliography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annex 1: How to conduct a job analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annex 2: Job description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annex 3: Semi-structured interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annex 4: Tips for communicating with people with disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Annex 5: Assistive technologies </li></ul></ul>Module Contents
Objectives At the end of the module, trainees shall be able to: :: Objective 1 Identify the different components of recruitment process. :: Objective 2 Define the job. :: Objective 3 Define the key topics of a job interview. :: Objective 4 Design and carry out a job interview adapted to the people with disability. :: Objective 5 Consider the disability in the evaluation process. :: Objective 6 Develop an effective communication during and after the recruitment process.
The recruitment process involves all activities intended to find the most suitable candidate for a job. We will analyse the following topics of the recruitment process regarding to the people with disabilities, as follows. Module Introduction
Chapter 1 Job analysis and Job description Key words: Job functions, duties and tasks, job environment, qualifications.
Some time the different concepts of Job Analysis and Job description are missed. But we have to understand that the Job description is an outcome of the Job analysis that is the main step in the human resources management in an organisation.
Job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. Job analysis can provide an objective basis for recruitment, evaluating, training and accommodating persons with disabilities, as well as improving the efficiency of your organization. A job analysis describes the job, not the person who fills it. So, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person. (See Annex 1) a. Job analysis
The main objective of the process is to define (and analyse) the following topics: (1) Purpose – the reason of the work: The main task in the job analysis is to define the objective of the job. 2) Essential functions – Duties and task: The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc. Some times the performance of some duties includes the use of specific equipment and tools. In these case is also needed to include the examination of these topics during the job analysis. a. Job analysis
The main objective of the process is to define (and analyse) the following topics: (3) Environment – job setting-the work station: The conditions of environment where the essential task will be performed. This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job, and it is a relevant question in the case of people with disabilities. (4) Job qualification: The minimal skills that an individual have to possess to perform the essential functions. The knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform the job (typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job). a. Job analysis
In the recruitment procedures, the Job Analysis can be used to identify or develop: :: job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions; :: appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate; :: minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants; :: interview questions; :: selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations); :: applicant appraisal/evaluation forms; :: orientation materials for applicants/new hires. a. Job analysis
Job descriptions, as a management tool, can greatly simplify an organization's human resource management. (See Annex 2) A job description clarifies work functions and reporting relationships, helping employees understand their jobs. Duty statements should focus on primary, current, normal, daily duties and responsibilities of the position (not incidental duties, an employee’s qualifications or performance, or temporary assignments). Related or similar duties should be combined and written as one statement. b. Job description
Each duty statement should be a discreet, identifiable aspect of the work assignment, described in one to three sentences, and should be outcome-based, allowing for alternate means of performing the duty, changes in technology, preferences of employees and supervisors, and accommodations of workers with disabilities, without altering the nature of, and/or the duty itself. b. Job description
In the case of the recruitment of people with disabilities, the job description should include of seven major components: 1. Mental Functions 2. Relations with Others 3. Physical Demands 4. Environmental Conditions and Physical Surroundings 5. Equipment 6. Hazards. 7. Legislation b. Job description
The main objective of the interview is to evaluate the personal and labour characteristics if the people in order to ensure that this person is the right person for the job. So, all activities developed during the interview must be intended to detect the skills and competences of the candidate. We also have to take into account the future relation with the colleagues and the future accommodation of the applicant. The interviewer has to nurture the applicant´s interest, introducing his/her organisation and detailing the duties and task of the job
Each questionnaire has to be designed according to the job requirements (defined during the job analysis and job description). So, the interviewer should analyse all duties and performance indicators, as: :: versatility; :: leadership; :: organizational skills; :: availability; :: experience; :: and the ability of the disability; :: etc.
When carrying out an interview you should have a structure in mind. This should comprise an introduction, development and closing, and you need to take specific actions at each stage. 1. Introduction – Opening the interview The opening will be intended to introduce to the candidate the organization (name, main activities, etc .), the objectives of the interview and how it is to be conducted. a. Interview different stages
2. Development The interview will focus on the applicant and her/his experience and skills. For that we: :: try to ask questions that are open-ended and encourage discussion: basically questions that begin with ‘who?’ ‘what?’ ‘where?’ ‘when?’ ‘why?’ and ‘how?’ or phrases such as ‘tell us what you think about …’ :: ensure that you avoid questions that could be construed as discriminatory; :: avoid just going back over the application form or CV, repeating the information that is already there, but do clarify anything that is not clear; a. Interview different stages
2. Development (cont.) :: do not hesitate to probe if the need arises; it is better to get any doubts out into the open than to wonder about them afterwards; :: listen carefully to the replies, remembering that the candidate should do most of the talking, and try to read between the lines; :: ask the interviewee to supply examples of the kinds of things he has done to get a clear idea of current and past experience; :: keep notes of what is said, and if a number of candidates are being interviewed it is a good idea, in the absence of a photograph, to write a short pen-portrait of each of them; it is surprisingly easy to become confused after interviewing, say, six people in one day. a. Interview different stages
2. Development (cont.) It is very important that the interviewer can elaborate clear responses to answer to the possible doubts that the interviewee could introduce: a. Interview different stages :: Why does the organisation need to cover this job? :: What are the duties and tasks of the job? :: How many employers are in the organisation and the relations between the different staff members? :: Is it the working environment adapted to the needs of the disability? :: What is the company policy about the disability management?
3. Closing To finishing, the interviewer can: :: Invite the candidate to ask any other questions about the job or the company; :: tell the candidate what will happen next and when he can expect to hear the outcome. a. Interview different stages
We have different types of interviews depending on job offered, and the resources, time and staff availability. We can do a first classification according to the participant numbers : :: Individual interview One interviewer, one interviewee. This is the most used method. b. Different types of interview
:: Group interview Based on a group dynamic, the interviewer raises a general topic for the debate. During the dynamic (and without her/his intervention), the interviewer will take some notes about the skills and abilities of the different applicants (leadership, aggressiveness, tolerance, initiative, authority, organisational skills, etc.). This type of interview is the most suitable method for jobs that need a high social skills level. b. Different types of interview
:: Panel The applicant faces some interviewers. The method consists on a series of personal interviews developed by different members of the human resources department staff (head of human resources management, a psychologist, a technician, the head of the department of the job offered, etc.). This method is used for the recruitment of intermediate and directive staff. b. Different types of interview
And according to the interview structure, the interview can be: :: Structured interview It is a closed questionnaire, with a set of direct questions. :: Open interview It is an open interview that allows the improvisation and evaluating the applicant personal skills. :: Semi-structured interview It is an intermediate type of interview, and consists on a scheme that is opened to the needs of the interview and to the applicant’s background and contributions. This type is the most used interview structure. (See Annex 3) b. Different types of interview
Chapter 3 Interviewing courtesies for effective communication Key words: Communication, interview, interview development, interviewer behaviours.
Some practical recommendations for developing a job interview addressed to a people with disabilities: a. General tips for an effective communication a. General tips for an effective communication :: When introduced to a person with a disability, it is appropriate to offer to shake hands. People with limited hand use or who wear an artificial limb can usually shake hands. (Shaking hands with the left hand is an acceptable greeting.) :: If you offer assistance, wait until the offer is accepted. Then listen to or ask for instructions.
a. General tips for an effective communication (cont) :: Treat adults as adults. Address people who have disabilities by their first names only when extending the same familiarity to all others. :: Relax. Don't be embarrassed if you happen to use common expressions such as "See you later," or "Did you hear about that?" that seem to relate to a person's disability. :: Don't be afraid to ask questions when you're unsure of what to do. (See Annex 4) a. General tips for an effective communication
Make sure your company’s employment offices and your interviewing locations are accessible to applicants with mobility impairments, visual, hearing or cognitive disabilities. :: Be willing to make appropriate and reasonable accommodations to enable a job applicant with a disability to present himself/herself in the best possible light. For example, offer assistance to applicants who are blind or have limited use of their hands in completing their job application forms; provide an interpreter for an applicant who is deaf; offer detailed or specific instructions to persons with cognitive disabilities. b. Conducting a job interview
:: Don’t ask a rehabilitation counselor, social worker or other third party to take an active part in, or sit in, an interview unless the applicant requests it. :: Make sure you have in-depth knowledge of the essential job functions regarding the position for which the applicant is applying, as well as the details of why, how, where, when and by whom each task or operation is performed. This will enable you to structure the interview better and ensure that all questions are job related. b. Conducting a job interview
:: Relax and make the applicant feel relaxed. Don’t be afraid of making mistakes. At the same time, remember that candidates (particularly those applying for professional positions) must be expected to assume an equal share of the responsibility for making your interaction with them comfortable. :: Don’t try to imagine how you would perform a specific job if you had the applicant’s disability. The person with a disability has mastered alternate techniques, skills of living and working with his or her particular disability. Ask an applicant to describe how he or she would perform a certain job function if it is an essential part of the position. b. Conducting a job interview
:: Concentrate on the applicant’s technical and professional knowledge, skills, abilities, experiences, and interests, not on the disability. You interview a person, hire a person, supervise a person — not a disability. :: If the applicant is not technically or professionally qualified for the position in question, end the interview. If the applicant is technically or professionally qualified, feel free to discuss, in an open, honest and straightforward manner, how he or she plans to perform specific job duties and what he or she will need to get the job done. Remember all questions should be job-related and asked in an open ended format. b. Conducting a job interview
Positive During the interview you… c. Positive behaviours - Negative behaviours :: Treat the candidate like any other person. :: Avoid being condescending. :: Hold out your hand to him/her. :: Look him/her in the eye. :: Feel free to ask to the applicant about his/her professional experience and the duties and tasks developed in previous jobs. :: Be patient and repeat the questions when you find it convenient. :: Can ask the applicant with a specific disability (i.e. with a visual or a hearing impairment) about how he/she will develop a specific task/duty. :: Feel free to explain the company policy about the working times, permissions and similar.
Negative During the interview you DON’T… c. Positive behaviours - Negative behaviours :: Ask questions about physical or health conditions. :: Ask about the disability (what happened? How do you get to work every day? etc …). :: Ask about continuous sick leave for going to rehabilitation activities. :: Offer help or other type of assistance without the previous requirement of the applicant. :: Recommend medical treatment, medical specialists or cures to treat the disability. :: Use (for breaking the ice) expressions such as “I have a friend who suffers a disability” or “My cousin is blind” etc.
After the interview, it is the responsibility of the recruiter to evaluate the different applicants who have participated in the recruitment process. The evaluation of a job applicant is an overall procedure that assesses the following items: a) Curriculum vitae of the applicant b) Interview results c) Job duties and tasks.
The objective of the CV analysis is to know the extent of the applicant’s experience, education and training (in addition to that which is required to minimally qualify for this position) related to this position. a) Curriculum vitae of the applicant
The interview will evaluate (specifically) the following topics: :: Reception of basic instructions. :: Ability for performing a specific task during a time period. :: Type and quality of human relations. :: Language. :: Spoken comprehension. :: Mobility. :: Job motivation. b) Interview results
The interview will evaluate (specifically) the following topics (cont.): :: Compromise and identification with the organisation. :: Energy level. :: Level of autonomy for moving and distance between her/his home to the workplace (recommended). :: Cognitive and psychomotor skills of the candidates for planning their empowerment, working hours and tasks. b) Interview results
Does the candidate possess the ability and knowledge necessary to perform the duties of the position? Example: Management skills, leadership, independence, technical knowledge. After having reviewed the job responsibilities with the applicant, how well does the applicant understand what the job will entail and its responsibilities? c) Job duties and tasks
Chapter 5 Assistive technologies available for PwD Key words: Assistive technologies, adaptable software, adaptable hardware, communication.
Assistive technology (AT) is a generic term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities and includes the process used in selecting, locating, and using them. (See Annex 5) Assistive technology
Assistive technologies ensure that people with disabilities have equal access to information/electronic and telecommunication work environments. The main objective of this section is to provide information about assistive technology products and rehabilitation equipment for people with all types of disabilities, including both apparent physical disabilities as well as hidden cognitive disabilities: blindness/low vision; cognitive; communication; deafness/hard of hearing; and dexterity. Considering the type of injury suffered by the applicant, during the recruitment process he/she could require different types of Assistive technology. Assistive technology
After the evaluation of the candidates, the employer will communicate the job offer to the most suitable applicant for the job. In this question, we will consider two principal questions: 1. Communication of the offer. 2. Accommodation of the candidate.
After the evaluation of the applicants, you have to communicate the final decision to the chosen applicant. There are different ways for communicate the job offer: 1. Official letter. 2. Phone call. 3. E-mail. a. Communication of the offer
If you use any one of these ways, there is some relevant information that you should provide: :: Salary. :: Working time. :: Performance Bonuses. :: Social and other benefits for staff company. :: Day for starting job. a. Communication of the offer
In addition, you should provide a way for accepting the offer: :: How to communicate the acceptance of job offer. :: Deadline for communicating the acceptance. a. Communication of the offer
The first days of the new employment should be intended to accommodate the employer in the new job. In the case of people with disabilities, this topic (Accommodation) involves not only the general rules applied to all new employers, but specific measures directly addressed to disabled people. b. Accommodation of the applicant
:: Definition of job duties and task. :: Description of the main rules of the company: :: Introduction of communication plan of the institution. :: Training policy of the company. :: An explanation about the company premises where the new employee will develop his/her job. :: The need for equipment to enable an employee to carry out tasks; :: Adaptations to the physical environment and existing equipment; :: A support worker in the workplace. b. Accommodation of the applicant
These special arrangements will be addressed to: :: reduce or eliminate the effects of a person's disability; :: enable people with a disability to compete on their merits for recruitment and career development opportunities; and :: enable people with a disability to perform efficiently and effectively in the workplace. b. Accommodation of the applicant
After the evaluation of the candidates, the employer will communicate the job denial to the applicants who have not been selected in the process. The job denial will be communicated by an official letter of the company, which will contain the following information: :: Objective of the letter, job denial. :: Thank you for participating in the selection procedure. :: Reason for the job denial. :: Final invitation for participating in other recruitment processes promoted by the institution. In any case the disability of the applicant must not be a reason for the job denial.
:: Employer's Forum on Disability (2004): Barrier-free E-recruitment: Recruiting Disabled People Online. http://www.barrierfree-recruitment.com/ :: BARCELONA ACTIVA (2005): Guía para la contratación de personas con discapacidad. Ayuntamiento de Barcelona http://www.fundacionuniversia.net/fichero?id=794 :: IMEPE (2008) Directrices para la contratación de personas con discapacidad. Ayuntamiento de Alarcón. http://www.imepe-alcorcon.com/pdf/libro_contrat_discasF.pdf Module Bibliography
:: National Disability Authority (2009): Effective Leadership and Organisational Culture for the Recruitment and Retention of People with Disabilities in the Irish Public Sector. http://www.nda.ie/cntmgmtnew.nsf/0/BB5340F21CFAD85980257425003E0F3F/$File/Effective_Leadership.pdf :: FUNDOSA (2009): Guía para la contratación de personas con discapacidad. FUNDOSA y OBRA SOCIAL DE L´CAIXA http://www.fundesa.org/images/documentos/Gu%C3%ADa%20de%20contrataci%C3%B3n%20de%20personas%20con%20discapacidad.pdf Module Bibliography
:: FUNDACIÓN ONCE (2009): GUIA DE RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL EMPRESARIAL Y DISCAPACIDAD DE LA FUNDACIÓN ONCE http://rsed.fundaciononce.es/en/index.html :: Irish Business and Employers Confederation and Irish Congress of Trade Unions (2010): Workway Disability and Employment Guidelines. http://www.workway.ie/employment_guidelines/employment_guidelines.198.introduction.html :: AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT (2010): Assisting employers. http://jobaccess.gov.au/ServiceProviders/Assisting_employers/Pages/home.aspx Module Bibliography