1. THE PREVALENCE OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WILD BIRDS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA BAMAIYI, P.H.1*, UMOH, J.U.2, ABDU, P.A.3, LAWAL, I.A.4 1Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria 2Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria 3Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria4Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria *Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
3. Introduction• Protozoan zoonosis gaining prominence• Infects over 170 hosts• Worldwide distribution• Wild birds• C. baileyi, C. meleagridis implicated in potential human infections (Plutzer & Tomor, 2009; Qi, et al., 2011)
5. Transmission• Feacal-oral route ( mainly food and water)
6. Objective Determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Zaria, Nigeria via coproculture
7. MATERIALS AND METHODS• Wild birds trapped into cages• 132 faecal samples were collected from wild birds in Zaria (11°40"N/7°420"E), Nigeria• 1gm of faecal sample processed according to the method of Baxby et al( 1984)
8. Safranin-methylene blue staining technique• The slide examined- X 40 objective and oil immersion objective• Oocysts of Cryptosporidium-spherical to round bright orange to reddish mass within a halo
9. Auramine phenol staining technique• Specimens -screened at X 50 magnification• Cryptosporidium oocysts -clearly visible as yellowish discs against a dark background (Casemore, et al., 1984).
10. Identifications• safranin-methylene blue staining technique +auramine phenol staining technique =+ve• Positive slides provided by Dr. Bruce Anderson of the University of Idaho U.S.A. and Dr. Liisa Jokipii of Institutum Serobacteriologicum Universitatis, Helsinki served as control throughout the study.
11. Statistical analysis• Data generated• “SIGMASTAT” and “EPI INFO”
12. Table 1:The prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts among the different species of wild birds sampledSpecies of birds Sample Number % size positive PositiveSpeckled pigeons (Columba guinea) 41 1 2.4Laughing doves (Streptopelia senegalensis) 37 2 5.4Mourning doves (Streptopelia decipiens) 15 0 0Village weavers (Ploceus cucullatus) 28 4 14.3Brown babblers (Turdoides plebejus) 2 0 0Black crakes (Limnocorax flavirostra) 3 0 0Red bishops (Euplectes orix) 4 0 0Bush fowls (Francolinus bicalcaratus) 2 0 0Total 132 7 5.3 P>0.05
13. Plate 1: Scanned photomicrograph of Cryptosporidium oocysts isolated froma wild bird using safranin-methylene blue staining technique (X 40)
14. Discussion• Wild birds aerial water pollution• Bird migrations• Birds no difference due to similarities• Low sample collection• Cryptosporidiosis vs HIV AIDS
15. Conclusion• Cryptosporidium infection in wild birds in Zaria, Nigeria• Zoonotic implications