BUSINESS CASES

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BUSINESS CASES

  1. 1. Th i t d ti f h t lt i l t i thThe introduction of photovoltaic power plants in the  conditions of Slovak Republic Project management for renewable energy projects group SUNENERGY Slovakia, s.r.o. On the planet Earth, which was, is and forever will remain our home falls huge  flow of solar energy, 30 000krát greater than at present the whole of humanity gy g p y consumes. "It is paradox that in this excess energy is called the energetic crisis? "
  2. 2. Content of presentationp 1. Why photovoltaics 2. The intensity of solar radiation in conditions of Slovak Republic 3. 4. The estimated quantity of produced energy q y p gy 5. Requirements for the localization of photovoltaic power 6. Legislative conditions in the Slovak Republic 7 Proposal the system for the potential investor7. Proposal the system for the potential investor  ‐ Processing of the project plan ‐ Selecting and securing suitable land  P i f j d i‐ Procesing of project documentation ‐ Engineering of project ‐ Plan for funding assurance the project  ‐ Realization of project
  3. 3. Energy ResourcesEnergy Resources Nuclear Power Plant Bohunice Installed capacity:Installed capacity: 2×440 MW The first block of 120 MW power plant was built 14 years, a new 2 x 440MW units were under construction eight years, costs was 1miliard . Such power in PVP was b ilt i C h R bli f 1 5built in Czech Republic for 1.5 years
  4. 4. Why photovoltaicsWhy photovoltaics  • In Slovakia represents the electrical energy produced in nuclear power 66 4% share of total• In Slovakia represents the electrical energy produced in nuclear power 66.4% share of total  electricity produced.  • One gram of uranium is able, during his fission in nuclear reactors release energy, from which  33% of efficiency can be obtained 3,800 kWh of electricity ‐ ie about as much electricity, how it  uses a household per year.  How can silica FV Article compete in this technology?  • The answer is simple: the nucleus of uranium can be fissured only once while the FP article can• The answer is simple: the nucleus of uranium can be fissured only once, while the FP article can  absorb photons and convert them to electricity to 30 years. 15% of the conversion efficiency  means that one gram of silicon can produce during its lifetime produce of about 3300 kWh,  which is about as much as it produces one gram of uranium. Global assumption PV installation pessimistic scenarios optimistic scenarios completed installation
  5. 5. The intensity of solar radiation in conditions of  Slovak RepublicSlovak Republic  • In our geographical terms, this means that the energy incident on the horizontal surface of 1 m2 of at  from 1000 to 1250 kWh / year (approximately 5 GJ). It's the same amount of energy, which contains  approximately 150 m3 of natural gas. From the intensity of radiation results that at 100% efficiency of pp y g y y this energy we would area from 3 x 3.3 meter could get enough energy to cover the annual  consumption of heat and hot water for an average household in the Slovak Republic. • From the perspective of the use of solar energy through solar collectors there is not much difference• From the perspective of the use of solar energy through solar collectors there is not much difference  between the regions of Slovakia. Most solar radiation recorded during the entire year is in the south of  Slovakia,least in the Orava region and Kysuciach, the difference between the coldest and najteplejšími  regions  is only about 15%.
  6. 6. The estimated quantity of produced energy q y p gy The intensity of direct Estimated energy production of photovoltaic panel in climatic conditions in Slovakia solar radiation at the boundary of the earth's atmosphere is about 1 360 W/m2. From the h h Estimated energy production of photovoltaic panel in climatic conditions in Slovakia fixed location (south, slope: 45 ˚) automatic shooting for the sun atmosphere to the surface to pierce the most favorable conditions for approximately 1 000 / d f p ) W/m2. dispersion of direct radiation on the clouds and the impurities in the atmosphere and fl i i h Representation of different types of radiation during the year in Slovakia reflection arises the diffuse radiation. Total direct and diffuse radiation are referred to l b l di i direct radiation diffuse radiation as global radiation. Diffuse radiation in central Europe is in the annual average of 50‐70% f l b l di i ifrom global radiation in winter, the proportion reaches 90%.˚
  7. 7. Requirements for the localization of photovoltaic power Summary of requirements for the installation of FVESummary of requirements for the installation of FVE ‐ Location in the zone of the solar map with annual solar radiation 1250kW/m2  ‐ Location with low price of land, maximum 50 Sk/m2  Location with low rain activity and low presence of fog‐ Location with low rain activity and low presence of fog ‐ Location with a low presence of dust and smog  ‐ Nominal power system FV: 1000 kW (crystalline silicon) ‐ Slope of modules: 35 ° ‐ Orientation (azimuth) modules: 1 ° SW  ‐ Estimated losses caused by heat: 7%  ‐ Estimated losses due to rebound effect: 2.8%  Loss of cables and converters: 10 14 0%‐ Loss of cables and converters: 10‐14,0%  ‐A total loss: 22.3% ‐‐Requirements for the technical infrastructure of landRequirements for the technical infrastructure of land ‐FP systems and FVE are not demanding on the technical infrastructure, but still must meet the y g following requirements: ‐locality with a simple connection to the energy network nn / vn ‐ max 100 m from the connecting point  Location close amenities of community because of the protection and maintenance system‐ Location close amenities of community because of the protection and maintenance system.
  8. 8. Legislative conditions in the Slovak Republicg p L 283/2008 Z f 2 7 2008 hi h d A t 656/2004 Z b t E d th d t f lLaw. 283/2008 Z.z. from 2.7.2008, which amends Act no. 656/2004 Z.z. about Energy and the amendment of some laws as amended and on amendments to certain laws? Effective from 1.8.2008 Law. 112/2008 Z.z. from 14.2.2008, which amends Act no. 656/2004 Z.z. about Energy and the amendment of some laws as amended? Effective from 1.4.2008 Law 99/2007 Z z from 7 2 2007 which amends the law number657/2004 Z z about thermal power and the amending Act NoLaw. 99/2007 Z.z. from 7.2.2007, which amends the law number657/2004 Z.z. about thermal power and the amending Act No.  455/1991 Coll. on trade (Trade Licensing Act), as amended? Effective from 1.4.2007 Law. 107/2007 Z.z. from 7.2.2007, which amends the law č.276/2001 Coll on regulation in network industries and amending some laws as amended and on amendments to certain laws? Effective from 15.3.2007 Law. 658/2004 Z.z. from 11.12.2004 which amends the Law. 276/2001 Z. z. on regulation in network industries and amending some laws as amended? Effective from 1.1.2005 Law. 656/2004 Z.z. from 26.10.2004 on energy and the amendment of some laws? Effective from 1.1.2005 PROCEEDS URSO No. 7 / 2008 of 1.10.2008 amending the Decree of 18 RONI June 2008 No. 1 / 2008 on the extent of price regulation in network industries and how its implementation and wich amending certain income PROCEEDS URSO No. 2 / 2008 of 28.7.2008 establishing the price regulation of electricity Law. 50/1976 Zb. (Building Act) Support mechanisms FP Technology Slovakia (update for 2009)  redemption prices ‐ 44.8 ct / kW / h ‐ valid for 15 years, in addition EUpodpora 95% for self‐administrations ,for firms till 50% from the investment costs of the project
  9. 9. B. Direct determination of the fixed prices for electricity produced from renewable energy sources and electricity from combiB. Direct determination of the fixed prices for electricity produced from renewable energy sources and electricity from combinedned heat and powerheat and powerB. Direct determination of the fixed prices for electricity produced from renewable energy sources and electricity from combiB. Direct determination of the fixed prices for electricity produced from renewable energy sources and electricity from combinedned heat and powerheat and power EfficacyEfficacy This Decree shall enter into force on 10th August 2008 with the exception of Section 6, which shall enter into forceThis Decree shall enter into force on 10th August 2008 with the exception of Section 6, which shall enter into force 1. January 2009.1. January 2009. The price of electricity produced from renewable energy sources is determined as a fixed price in U.S. dollars toThe price of electricity produced from renewable energy sources is determined as a fixed price in U.S. dollars to megawatthodinumegawatthodinu for 12 yearsfor 12 years since introduction facility into operation as followssince introduction facility into operation as followsy py p
  10. 10. Legislative conditions in Slovak republicLegislative conditions in Slovak republic RevenueRevenue Regulatory Office for Network Industries of 28 c July 2008 2 / 2008Regulatory Office for Network Industries of 28 c July 2008 2 / 2008Revenue Revenue ‐‐ Regulatory Office for Network Industries of 28 c. July 2008 2 / 2008, Regulatory Office for Network Industries of 28 c. July 2008 2 / 2008,  establishing the price regulation of electricity establishing the price regulation of electricity  B. Direct determination of the fixed prices for electricity produced from renewable energy sources and electricity from B. Direct determination of the fixed prices for electricity produced from renewable energy sources and electricity from  combined heat and power Efficacy combined heat and power Efficacy  This Decree shall enter into force on 10th August 2008 with the exception of Section 6, which shall enter into force This Decree shall enter into force on 10th August 2008 with the exception of Section 6, which shall enter into force  1. January 2009. 1. January 2009.  The price of electricity produced from renewable energy sources is determined as a fixed price in U.S. dollars to The price of electricity produced from renewable energy sources is determined as a fixed price in U.S. dollars to  megawatthodinumegawatthodinu for 12 years since introduction facility into operation as follows for 12 years since introduction facility into operation as follows  C) from solar energy C) from solar energy  for equipment put into service until 31 December 2004 for equipment put into service until 31 December 2004  398,3270398,3270 €€ / / MWhMWh for equipment put into service from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008 for equipment put into service from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2008  424,8822 424,8822 €€ / / MWhMWh for equipment put into service from 1 January 2009 for equipment put into service from 1 January 2009  448,1179 448,1179 €€ / / MWhMWh
  11. 11. Projects developed and implemented FVE with  holding SUNENERGYholding SUNENERGY Realisation  Realisation   DSP   Lands in process ll l bl1‐100   Installing avaliable    (choose objects from the table)
  12. 12. Proposal the system for the potential investor p y p ‐ Processing of the project plan ‐ Selecting and securing suitable land  ‐ Procesing of project documentation ‐ Engineering of project ‐ Plan for funding assurance the project  ‐ Realization of project
  13. 13. Complex view of development and pricing of PVComplex view of development and pricing of PV  installations  Installation costs: • It is clear that the total price of installing photovoltaic systems are different in each installation In many offerings we find that individualdifferent in each installation. In many offerings, we find that individual offers vary dramatically, why is this so and what elements have an impact on pricing? • Total PV system prices vary not only globally. • If we want to get an accurate overall picture should be processed further analysis and to know the detail of individual projects and supply systems.
  14. 14. The average price of PV systems installations, worldwide: 
  15. 15. The basic factor acting on the level of prices is the price of PV panels ‐ which represent 50 to 60 percent of the price system. So at first glance appears to be an easy task to analyze the cost of the panels and installed i f i ' i i k d f h hi h i isystem price. In fact, it's intricate network composed of such things as the permit, price components, incentives, state of development of PV systems in the region and, of course, the amount of sunshine compared to the cost of producing electricity.
  16. 16. • When you look the large ground‐mounted systems, the typically you have a developer who has a land, or has acces l d d h ill h i d idto land and they will get the necessary permits and grid connection authorities and licenses to build a PV system. • Across Europe, the cost of buying that project, which is undeveloped or let`s just say has outlined planning permission or has some approvals, varies very dramatically. Oft f d ith li ti j t ith th l l f• Often faced with replication projects with the level of use for the building permit that are designed without detailed cost / exploration earth tensile test the type of panelcost / exploration, earth tensile test, the type of panel construction, the cost of connection ......../
  17. 17. Impact FITS •Support programs for individual states for investors are very similar and motivating butSupport programs for individual states for investors are very similar and motivating but time limited. This means that after utilization the possibilities of using FITS in one country, investors moved into neighboring countries where these tariffs are not utilized yet and try to use them. However, this is extremely dynamic., y y • The total cost of installed photovoltaic systems are declining at a rapid pace, purchase prices of electricity are often reducing and regulated by the State to absurdly speculative. However, it is necessary for the PV industry to the changing prices remain attractive and affordable for residential customers and implementers. Motivation must play a central role in the development of PV systems to the time when the panels fell to $ 0.5 / W, what is the point where the PV systems will be equal to the cost of producing electricity and prices with other commercial energy systems. h f k d b ll b h•Therefore, market attractiveness, and subsequent pricing PV systems will be in the states, provided for production of solar radiation in the region, the price of energy, security legislation, and FIT tariffs that determine the return on the market.
  18. 18. AttractivenessAttractiveness Which markets are the most attractive, in terms of prices, to install a PV system? • Germany will remain one of the most attractive regions until 2012, despite its FIT cust. Th f i i d h d i h i f h k d i d iThereafter it is expected that reducing the size of the market, and increased attention on Japan, France, Great Britain then to the U.S. and China. • Under the the analytical assumptions the costs for PV systems will continue to decline• Under the the analytical assumptions, the costs for PV systems will continue to decline. Prices in U.S. ground installations were about eight to nine U.S. dollars per watt in 2008, this year has dropped to about four U.S. dollars per watt, and expects it to fall to the end of three U S dollarsof three U.S. dollars. •Compared to the EU, average installed prices in Germany fell from five euros from the prior two years to around 2 3 euros today The assumption is that will reduce to aroundprior two years to around 2.3 euros today. The assumption is that will reduce to around two euros in the first half of next year. This is an incredible price reductions create and creates a lot of demand.
  19. 19. FIT friend or foe?FIT friend or foe?  What will be cuts in the FIT schemes, particularly in European regions, be a threat to the attractiveness of PV system installation price? • One of the factors affecting them is that members of the European Union (EU) are mandated to meet the 20 percent of their energy from renewable sources by 2020 and there is much discussion about that beying 30 percent by 2020.y •Along with innovation, performance optimization and product differentiation PV installations can still achieve a reliable rate of return ondifferentiation, PV installations can still achieve a reliable rate of return on investment, and thereby help maintain the attractiveness of the market.
  20. 20. Decreasing costsDecreasing costs • In addition to incentives, cost reduction plays an important role in the overall system price. • Indeed, for larger, ground‐mounted photovoltaic installation, the margins decreased significantly, so the market has become very competitive, it is quite a lot of projects available, whether in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Greece, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Benelux or the United Britain. • With changes in rates FIT course, the value of projects for planning permission to go down as the FIT rates are falling. D l k i th h t t ibl ti t ll th i j t i t t•Developers seek in the shortest possible time to sell their projects, integrators as soon as possible to implement .. It is tempting to connect the reduce prices of system by reducing the prices of FIT in the shortest possible time.
  21. 21. And what cost panels?And what cost panels? If we look at the time the last four years, the cost of panel prices declined steadily from /3.7 EU / W up to the level of prices in 2010 where price stopped at : • 1,2 € mono/polycrystalline China 1 5 € / l t lli EU USA• 1,5 € mono/polycrystalline EU, USA Od tejto chvíle zvýšený dopyt po paneloch zvýšil ich cenu na úroveň: • 1,58 ‐ 1,65 € mono/polycrystalline China • 1,76 – 1,85 € mono/polycrystalline EU, USA However, the most price at which to watch is silicon. As you can see in 2008, "price per kilogram of silicon has reached nearly $ 400 in 2009, silicon prices have gone below $kilogram of silicon has reached nearly $ 400 in 2009, silicon prices have gone below $ 50 per kilogram. The price is now around 70‐80 U.S. dollars per kilogram. After the decline of the price increase due to shortage of panels can expect their prices in the range of 1 to 1.4 EU / W .g /
  22. 22. The cost of innovationThe cost of innovation Focus on the rooftop photovoltaics market however means that it is necessaryFocus on the rooftop photovoltaics market, however, means that it is necessary to look at further price system. • When comparing two rooftop installation of the same size, whetherWhen comparing two rooftop installation of the same size, whether commercial or residential, the cost will vary widely for such things as structural profiles, cables, mounting structure and the time required for installation, connection method. • The difference then lies in factors such as panel performance / price. • What does this mean? "Is that on the roof, you can get more energy when using a high-performance panels and installation cost per watt-peak will decrease as your balance is of a lower system cost per watt-peak. There are three areas of innovation:  components  lpanels financial.
  23. 23. • All come together to increase the value system that has to do with the  electricity they generate. • Within each of the three areas are then :   Direct influencing factors Direct influencing factors  Indirect influencing factors • In the indirect components of innovation, you have to focus on the range and  reduce costs for components, which are "due to the competitive nature of the  supply or availability of materials such as support structures junction boxessupply or availability of materials, such as support structures, junction boxes,  cables, labour, etc. • Direct innovation on the other hand include a view of research and trying to• Direct innovation, on the other hand, include a view of research and trying to  improve the efficiency of electricity generation. 
  24. 24. Overview of areas of innovationOverview of areas of innovation
  25. 25. Innovation PanelsInnovation Panels • Innovation panel includes the type of used technology. • Are irretrievably gone times when integrator market will offer one type of panel from one manufacturer for roofoffer one type of panel from one manufacturer for roof installation. • Diversity and functionality of individual installations will require new innovative technologies such as / asi, double asi, micromorph, CIS, CIGS, flexible panels
  26. 26. System innovation • System innovation incorporates the people who are putting together the solutions like System innovation System innovation incorporates the people who are putting together the solutions, like the system integrators, engineering procurement construction companies and value‐added resellers. • Indirect innovation system, we are looking to reduce costs of components such as cables or mounting structure or work, for example. • But direct innovation system is the optimization of the basic components, which together have to be able to deliver more kilowatt hours to system. So, by other words if you have a very good direct innovations , you will have an installed capacity in theory the same as another project, which is being developed, but you have optimized the design to get more kilowatt‐hours of the system. If you take the normal production limousine, all components are built to certain specifications and have a good performance. However, you can also buy factory‐tuned i f th hi h ill i b tt l ti b tt b ki b tt llversion of the same car, which will give better acceleration, better braking, better overall performance and that's really all just about optimizing all of these standard components to give you better performance.
  27. 27. Financial innovationFinancial innovation •The market is moving away from cost per watt‐peak of system, toward payment of the cost of electricity produced in the system.p y y p y • Through the innovation of components, system innovation and financial innovation proposing solutions projects that offer the lowest cost to produceinnovation, proposing solutions, projects that offer the lowest cost to produce electricity, and therefore gives the best return for investors. • To look at how and why to change the total price of photovoltaic installations• To look at how and why to change the total price of photovoltaic installations, it is clear that there is a huge variety of cost factors that affect prices. l h h k i l d i i l h•It seems clear that the key aspects include: motivational schemes, development costs, panel prices, the cost of innovation.
  28. 28. • Due to the momentary volume production PV panels, it is clear that the cost of solar installations will continue to decline and will decrease the faster will be maintained as long as the continual motivational FITfaster will be maintained as long as the continual motivational FIT reducing tariffs. • The longer the country of the world support the development of PV technologies, the faster you set in motion a huge production volume of PV technologies, which are produced in the short term over‐production of electricity suitable for the storage process. • Cheap energy will create conditions for the production of cheaper products as well as replacement of expensive fossil fuels as a priority theproducts as well as replacement of expensive fossil fuels as a priority the implementation of renewable energy sources.
  29. 29. Structure of bussiness caseStructure of bussiness case ‐ Offer ‐ Economic evaluation of the project ‐ Design and engineering ‐ Realization ‐ Construction inspection ‐ Service and maintenance
  30. 30. The construction of ground-mountedg photovoltaic system in the area of Trpin General Contractor: Sunenergy Slovakia, s.r.o. Location : Trpin Total installed power : 1 MWp D t f ti 1 10 2010Date of execution: 1.10.2010
  31. 31. 1. FENCING
  32. 32. 2. REFORM OF ACESS ROUTE
  33. 33. 3. PRODUCTION OF STRUCTURES
  34. 34. 4. OFF-SET KIOSK TRAFOSTATIONS
  35. 35. 6. COMPLETING TRAFOSTATIONS
  36. 36. 7. MOUNTING STRUCTURES
  37. 37. 8. EXPEDITION PANELS NINGBO
  38. 38. 11. SUPPLY OF INVERTERS Fronius (September 2010)
  39. 39. 9. DELIVERY OF PANELS HELIOSPHERE (June 2010)2010)
  40. 40. 10. CONSTRUCTION LINES VN (July 2010)
  41. 41. INVERTERS AND DISTRIBUTORS
  42. 42. LIGHTING
  43. 43. SECURITY
  44. 44. 12. COMPLETING FVE PANELSPANELS
  45. 45. The construction of roof-mounted photovoltaic system in the area of Dolnep y Srnie General Contractor: ENERGOCOM, s.r.o. Location : Dolne Srnie Total installed power : 58 kWp I t ll d th f 47 kW (448 k K k h b id)Installed power on the roof : 47 kWp (448 ks Kaneka hybrid) Installed power trackers : 11 kWp (48 ks AIDE mono)

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