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  1. 1. Chemical Building Blocks of Life<br />
  2. 2. Biological Molecules<br /><ul><li>Consist primarily of Carbon bonded to Carbon or Carbon bonded to other molecules.
  3. 3. Carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds.
  4. 4. Usually large molecules constructed from smaller subunits.</li></ul> - Monomer = single subunit <br />- Polymer = may units <br />
  5. 5. Dehydration Synthesis<br />- The formation of large molecules by the removal of water<br /><ul><li>Monomers are joined together to form polymers. </li></ul>Hydrolysis<br /><ul><li>Breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water.
  6. 6. Polymers are broken down to monomers. </li></li></ul><li>
  7. 7. Carbohydrates<br /><ul><li>Molecules that have a 1:2:1 ratio of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
  8. 8. Empirical formula (CH2O)n
  9. 9. Examples = sugars, glucose, starch
  10. 10. Good energy storage molecules</li></li></ul><li>Monosaccharides<br /><ul><li>Single sugar that contains 6 carbons
  11. 11. Very important in energy storage
  12. 12. Example : Glucose</li></li></ul><li>Disaccharides<br /><ul><li>Two monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis.
  13. 13. Used for sugar transport or energy storage.
  14. 14. Examples: Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose</li></li></ul><li>Polysaccharides<br /><ul><li>Long chains of sugars.
  15. 15. Used for energy storage
  16. 16. Plants use starch. Animals use glycogen.
  17. 17. Used for sturctural support.
  18. 18. Plants use cellulose. Animals use chitin.</li></li></ul><li>Nucleic Acids<br /><ul><li>Two Types </li></ul>- DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid<br />- RNA : ribonucleic acid<br /><ul><li>Functions: Specialized for the storage, transmission, and use of genetic information.
  19. 19. Polymers of nucleotides</li></li></ul><li>Nucleotides<br />Sugar + Phosphate + Nitrogenous Base<br />Sugars: <br />- deoxyribose in DNA<br />- ribose in RNA<br />Nitrogenous bases examples: <br />- Purines: adenine and guanine<br />- Pyrimidines: thymine, cytosine, uracil<br />
  20. 20. DNA<br /><ul><li>Nucleotides are connected by phosphodiester bonds.
  21. 21. Double helix = 2 polynucleotide strands connected by hydrogen bonds.
  22. 22. Polynucleotide strands are complementary.
  23. 23. Genetic information is carried in the sequence of nucleotides.</li></li></ul><li>RNA <br /><ul><li>Contains ribose instead of deoxyribose.
  24. 24. Contains uracil instead of thymine.
  25. 25. Single polynucleotide strand.
  26. 26. Functions: </li></ul>- reads the genetic information in DNA<br />- direct the synthesis of proteins<br />
  27. 27. Other Nucleic Acids<br /><ul><li>ATP
  28. 28. adenosine triphosphate
  29. 29. primary energy currency of the cell
  30. 30. NAD+ and FAD
  31. 31. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  32. 32. flavid adenine dinucleotide
  33. 33. Electron carriers for many cellular reactions. </li></li></ul><li>Proteins <br />- Polymers of amino acids<br /><ul><li>Protein functions include:
  34. 34. Defense
  35. 35. Enzyme catalysts
  36. 36. Motion
  37. 37. Regulation
  38. 38. Storage
  39. 39. Support
  40. 40. Transport</li></li></ul><li>Amino Acids<br /><ul><li>20 different amino acids
  41. 41. Joined by dehydration synthesis
  42. 42. Peptide bonds form between adjacent amino acids</li></li></ul><li>Amino acid structure<br /><ul><li>Central carbon atom surrounded by
  43. 43. Amino group
  44. 44. Carboxyl group
  45. 45. Single hydrogen
  46. 46. Variable R group
  47. 47. The structure of the R group dictates the chemical properties of the amino acid. </li></li></ul><li>Protein shape<br /><ul><li>Determines the function of a protein
  48. 48. Primary Structure – sequence of amino acids
  49. 49. Secondary Structure – interaction of groups in the peptide backbone</li></ul>-ahelix -bsheet<br /><ul><li>Tertiary Structure – folded shape of the polypeptide chain
  50. 50. Quaternary Structure – interactions between multiple polypeptide subunits
  51. 51. Protein folding is aided by chaperone proteins. </li></li></ul><li>Denaturation<br /><ul><li>A change in the shape of a protein, usually causing loss of function.
  52. 52. May involve complete unfolding.
  53. 53. Caused by changes in the protein’s environment</li></ul>pH - temperature - salt concentration<br />
  54. 54. Lipids<br /><ul><li>A group of molecules that are insoluble in water.
  55. 55. A high proportion of nonpolar C-H bonds causes the molecule to be hydrophobic.
  56. 56. Two main lipid categories:
  57. 57. Fats ( triglycerides)
  58. 58. Phospholipids</li></li></ul><li>Triglycerides<br /><ul><li>Composed of 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids
  59. 59. Fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chains that can be saturated, unsaturated, or polyunsaturated.
  60. 60. An excellent molecule for energy storage
  61. 61. Store twice as much energy as carbohydrates
  62. 62. Animal fats are usually saturated fats and are solid at room temperature
  63. 63. Plant fats (oils) are usually unsaturated and are liquid at room temperature</li></li></ul><li>Phospholipids<br /><ul><li>Composed of:
  64. 64. 1 glycerol - 2 fatty acids - A phosphate group
  65. 65. Contain polar “heads” and nonpolar “tails.”
  66. 66. Spontaneously form micelles or lipid bilayers.
  67. 67. Lipid bilayers are the basis of biological membranes. </li>

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