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  • 1. Chemical Building Blocks of Life
  • 2. Biological Molecules
    • Consist primarily of Carbon bonded to Carbon or Carbon bonded to other molecules.
    • 3. Carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds.
    • 4. Usually large molecules constructed from smaller subunits.
    - Monomer = single subunit
    - Polymer = may units
  • 5. Dehydration Synthesis
    - The formation of large molecules by the removal of water
    • Monomers are joined together to form polymers.
    Hydrolysis
    • Breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water.
    • 6. Polymers are broken down to monomers.
  • 7. Carbohydrates
    • Molecules that have a 1:2:1 ratio of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
    • 8. Empirical formula (CH2O)n
    • 9. Examples = sugars, glucose, starch
    • 10. Good energy storage molecules
  • Monosaccharides
    • Single sugar that contains 6 carbons
    • 11. Very important in energy storage
    • 12. Example : Glucose
  • Disaccharides
    • Two monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis.
    • 13. Used for sugar transport or energy storage.
    • 14. Examples: Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose
  • Polysaccharides
    • Long chains of sugars.
    • 15. Used for energy storage
    • 16. Plants use starch. Animals use glycogen.
    • 17. Used for sturctural support.
    • 18. Plants use cellulose. Animals use chitin.
  • Nucleic Acids
    • Two Types
    - DNA : deoxyribonucleic acid
    - RNA : ribonucleic acid
    • Functions: Specialized for the storage, transmission, and use of genetic information.
    • 19. Polymers of nucleotides
  • Nucleotides
    Sugar + Phosphate + Nitrogenous Base
    Sugars:
    - deoxyribose in DNA
    - ribose in RNA
    Nitrogenous bases examples:
    - Purines: adenine and guanine
    - Pyrimidines: thymine, cytosine, uracil
  • 20. DNA
    • Nucleotides are connected by phosphodiester bonds.
    • 21. Double helix = 2 polynucleotide strands connected by hydrogen bonds.
    • 22. Polynucleotide strands are complementary.
    • 23. Genetic information is carried in the sequence of nucleotides.
  • RNA
    • Contains ribose instead of deoxyribose.
    • 24. Contains uracil instead of thymine.
    • 25. Single polynucleotide strand.
    • 26. Functions:
    - reads the genetic information in DNA
    - direct the synthesis of proteins
  • 27. Other Nucleic Acids
    • ATP
    • 28. adenosine triphosphate
    • 29. primary energy currency of the cell
    • 30. NAD+ and FAD
    • 31. nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
    • 32. flavid adenine dinucleotide
    • 33. Electron carriers for many cellular reactions.
  • Proteins
    - Polymers of amino acids
  • Amino Acids
    • 20 different amino acids
    • 41. Joined by dehydration synthesis
    • 42. Peptide bonds form between adjacent amino acids
  • Amino acid structure
    • Central carbon atom surrounded by
    • 43. Amino group
    • 44. Carboxyl group
    • 45. Single hydrogen
    • 46. Variable R group
    • 47. The structure of the R group dictates the chemical properties of the amino acid.
  • Protein shape
    • Determines the function of a protein
    • 48. Primary Structure – sequence of amino acids
    • 49. Secondary Structure – interaction of groups in the peptide backbone
    -ahelix -bsheet
    • Tertiary Structure – folded shape of the polypeptide chain
    • 50. Quaternary Structure – interactions between multiple polypeptide subunits
    • 51. Protein folding is aided by chaperone proteins.
  • Denaturation
    • A change in the shape of a protein, usually causing loss of function.
    • 52. May involve complete unfolding.
    • 53. Caused by changes in the protein’s environment
    pH - temperature - salt concentration
  • 54. Lipids
    • A group of molecules that are insoluble in water.
    • 55. A high proportion of nonpolar C-H bonds causes the molecule to be hydrophobic.
    • 56. Two main lipid categories:
    • 57. Fats ( triglycerides)
    • 58. Phospholipids
  • Triglycerides
    • Composed of 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids
    • 59. Fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chains that can be saturated, unsaturated, or polyunsaturated.
    • 60. An excellent molecule for energy storage
    • 61. Store twice as much energy as carbohydrates
    • 62. Animal fats are usually saturated fats and are solid at room temperature
    • 63. Plant fats (oils) are usually unsaturated and are liquid at room temperature
  • Phospholipids
    • Composed of:
    • 64. 1 glycerol - 2 fatty acids - A phosphate group
    • 65. Contain polar “heads” and nonpolar “tails.”
    • 66. Spontaneously form micelles or lipid bilayers.
    • 67. Lipid bilayers are the basis of biological membranes.