- Affirmative in the present:
- “ John has lived in England all his life,
- He MUST speak english really well”
- He MUST HAVE gone. (estoy seguro de que él se ha marchado)
- “ You CAN’T be tired you’ve been sleeping for 12 hours”
- “ You CAN’T HAVE seen my sister she lives in Madrid”
- “ This summer I may (might/could) (not) go to England”
- “ It´s 2 o’clock he may (might/could) (not) have arriv ed home. Let’s phone him”
Possibility in the past
- May, might, could+HAVE+ PARTICIPLE
- “ He may have gone out somewhere”
Obligation: MUST vs HAVE TO in the present
- Must: Personal Obligation/Obligation that comes from the speaker.
- “ I must go to the dentist”
- “ You must do your homework for every monday”
- “ You mustn’t touch electrical appliances with wet hands”
To negate sth personal:Needn’t
- “ You needn’t wash the dishes I’ll do it later”
- “ You needn’t ask me if you want to use the phone”
- Have to : Legal Obligation /Obligation that comes from a 3rd person.
- “ Every citizen has to pay taxes”
Don’t have to (lack of legal Obligation)
- “ In Spain you don’t have to have a licence to own a cat”
Obligation in the future & past
- “ I’ll have to go to the dentist”
- “ I had to go to the dentist”
- “ You should / ought to / ‘d better visit your grandparents more often”
Ability: Could vs Was/were able to
- “ When he was five he could speak 3 languages”
- “ I didn’t have the keys but I was able to enter the house”
- (Particular ability= manage to)
Present, future & perfect tenses.
- Puedo: I can = I am able to
- He podido: I have been able to
Be supposed to/Had better
- Be supposed to is used to talk about what you should do because of a rule or because it is expected.
- “ Come on, it's 10 O’clock. You're supposed to be in bed!”
- Had better + infinitive without to is used to talk about what you should do because you think it's a good idea.
- “ You'd better ask your dad before you borrow the car.”
Permission: be allowed to
- To express permission it is possible to use can, may (more formal) or be allowed to. In the negative these express lack of permission, or prohibition.
- “ You can order another drink but you can't have any more chips.
- “ We aren't allowed to wear trainers to school.
- May is not possible in the past. Could and be allowed to are possible for general permission.
- “ In my last job we had flexitime so we could arrive more or less when we wanted to.
- Could is not used when referring to a particular situation in the past. Only be allowed to is possible.
- “ I was allowed to stay up late last night.”
Let and make + Inf sin to To be allowed to
- Let is used to express permission and is not normally used in the passive.
- “ My dad never lets me watch that programme.”
- Be allowed to is used instead.
- “ I wasn't allowed to go to the party alone.”
Make is used to express obligation.
- “ The teacher made her do some extra homework.”
- In the passive, make is followed by the infinitive with to.
- “ He was made to pay for the window he had broken.”