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Verbos modales
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  • 1. Modal Verbs
  • 2. Certainty: MUST
    • Affirmative in the present:
    • “ John has lived in England all his life,
    • He MUST speak english really well”
    • Affirmative in the past:
    • He MUST HAVE gone. (estoy seguro de que él se ha marchado)
  • 3. Certainty: CAN´T
    • “ You CAN’T be tired you’ve been sleeping for 12 hours”
    • “ You CAN’T HAVE seen my sister she lives in Madrid”
    • (es imposible que…)
  • 4. Possiblity: may,might,could.
    • I’m not sure…..
    • “ This summer I may (might/could) (not) go to England”
    • “ It´s 2 o’clock he may (might/could) (not) have arriv ed home. Let’s phone him”
  • 5. Possibility in the past
    • May, might, could+HAVE+ PARTICIPLE
    • “ He may have gone out somewhere”
  • 6. Obligation: MUST vs HAVE TO in the present
    • Must: Personal Obligation/Obligation that comes from the speaker.
    • “ I must go to the dentist”
    • “ You must do your homework for every monday”
  • 7. Must ≠Mustn’t
    • Mustn’t= Prohibition
    • Danger
    • “ You mustn’t touch electrical appliances with wet hands”
  • 8. To negate sth personal:Needn’t
    • “ You needn’t wash the dishes I’ll do it later”
    • ( no es necesario)
    • “ You needn’t ask me if you want to use the phone”
  • 9. HAVE TO
    • Have to : Legal Obligation /Obligation that comes from a 3rd person.
    • “ Every citizen has to pay taxes”
    • (es obligatorio)
  • 10. Don’t have to (lack of legal Obligation)
    • No es obligatorio.
    • “ In Spain you don’t have to have a licence to own a cat”
  • 11. Obligation in the future & past
    • Future:
    • “ I’ll have to go to the dentist”
    • Past:
    • “ I had to go to the dentist”
  • 12. Advice
    • Should
    • Ought to
    • ‘ d better
    • “ You should / ought to / ‘d better visit your grandparents more often”
  • 13. Ability: Could vs Was/were able to
    • In the past:
    • “ When he was five he could speak 3 languages”
    • (General Ability)
    • “ I didn’t have the keys but I was able to enter the house”
    • (Particular ability= manage to)
  • 14. Present, future & perfect tenses.
    • Puedo: I can = I am able to
    • Podré: I will be able to
    • He podido: I have been able to
  • 15. Permission
    • Informal Can I …….. ?
    •  May I …….?
    • Formal Could I…….?
    • I wonder if I could….?
    • … .leave early today
  • 16. Be supposed to/Had better
    • Be supposed to is used to talk about what you should do because of a rule or because it is expected.
    • “ Come on, it's 10 O’clock. You're supposed to be in bed!”
    • Had better + infinitive without to is used to talk about what you should do because you think it's a good idea.
    • “ You'd better ask your dad before you borrow the car.”
  • 17. Permission: be allowed to
    • To express permission it is possible to use can, may (more formal) or be allowed to. In the negative these express lack of permission, or prohibition.
    • “ You can order another drink but you can't have any more chips.
    • “ We aren't allowed to wear trainers to school.
  • 18.
    • May is not possible in the past. Could and be allowed to are possible for general permission.
    • “ In my last job we had flexitime so we could arrive more or less when we wanted to.
  • 19.
    • Could is not used when referring to a particular situation in the past. Only be allowed to is possible.
    • “ I was allowed to stay up late last night.”
  • 20. Let and make + Inf sin to To be allowed to
    • Let is used to express permission and is not normally used in the passive.
    • “ My dad never lets me watch that programme.”
    • Be allowed to is used instead.
    • “ I wasn't allowed to go to the party alone.”
  • 21. Make is used to express obligation.
    • “ The teacher made her do some extra homework.”
    • In the passive, make is followed by the infinitive with to.
    • “ He was made to pay for the window he had broken.”