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Verbos modales

Verbos modales






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    Verbos modales Verbos modales Presentation Transcript

    • Modal Verbs
    • Certainty: MUST
      • Affirmative in the present:
      • “ John has lived in England all his life,
      • He MUST speak english really well”
      • Affirmative in the past:
      • He MUST HAVE gone. (estoy seguro de que él se ha marchado)
    • Certainty: CAN´T
      • “ You CAN’T be tired you’ve been sleeping for 12 hours”
      • “ You CAN’T HAVE seen my sister she lives in Madrid”
      • (es imposible que…)
    • Possiblity: may,might,could.
      • I’m not sure…..
      • “ This summer I may (might/could) (not) go to England”
      • “ It´s 2 o’clock he may (might/could) (not) have arriv ed home. Let’s phone him”
    • Possibility in the past
      • May, might, could+HAVE+ PARTICIPLE
      • “ He may have gone out somewhere”
    • Obligation: MUST vs HAVE TO in the present
      • Must: Personal Obligation/Obligation that comes from the speaker.
      • “ I must go to the dentist”
      • “ You must do your homework for every monday”
    • Must ≠Mustn’t
      • Mustn’t= Prohibition
      • Danger
      • “ You mustn’t touch electrical appliances with wet hands”
    • To negate sth personal:Needn’t
      • “ You needn’t wash the dishes I’ll do it later”
      • ( no es necesario)
      • “ You needn’t ask me if you want to use the phone”
    • HAVE TO
      • Have to : Legal Obligation /Obligation that comes from a 3rd person.
      • “ Every citizen has to pay taxes”
      • (es obligatorio)
    • Don’t have to (lack of legal Obligation)
      • No es obligatorio.
      • “ In Spain you don’t have to have a licence to own a cat”
    • Obligation in the future & past
      • Future:
      • “ I’ll have to go to the dentist”
      • Past:
      • “ I had to go to the dentist”
    • Advice
      • Should
      • Ought to
      • ‘ d better
      • “ You should / ought to / ‘d better visit your grandparents more often”
    • Ability: Could vs Was/were able to
      • In the past:
      • “ When he was five he could speak 3 languages”
      • (General Ability)
      • “ I didn’t have the keys but I was able to enter the house”
      • (Particular ability= manage to)
    • Present, future & perfect tenses.
      • Puedo: I can = I am able to
      • Podré: I will be able to
      • He podido: I have been able to
    • Permission
      • Informal Can I …….. ?
      •  May I …….?
      • Formal Could I…….?
      • I wonder if I could….?
      • … .leave early today
    • Be supposed to/Had better
      • Be supposed to is used to talk about what you should do because of a rule or because it is expected.
      • “ Come on, it's 10 O’clock. You're supposed to be in bed!”
      • Had better + infinitive without to is used to talk about what you should do because you think it's a good idea.
      • “ You'd better ask your dad before you borrow the car.”
    • Permission: be allowed to
      • To express permission it is possible to use can, may (more formal) or be allowed to. In the negative these express lack of permission, or prohibition.
      • “ You can order another drink but you can't have any more chips.
      • “ We aren't allowed to wear trainers to school.
      • May is not possible in the past. Could and be allowed to are possible for general permission.
      • “ In my last job we had flexitime so we could arrive more or less when we wanted to.
      • Could is not used when referring to a particular situation in the past. Only be allowed to is possible.
      • “ I was allowed to stay up late last night.”
    • Let and make + Inf sin to To be allowed to
      • Let is used to express permission and is not normally used in the passive.
      • “ My dad never lets me watch that programme.”
      • Be allowed to is used instead.
      • “ I wasn't allowed to go to the party alone.”
    • Make is used to express obligation.
      • “ The teacher made her do some extra homework.”
      • In the passive, make is followed by the infinitive with to.
      • “ He was made to pay for the window he had broken.”