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Modal verbs
 

Modal verbs

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    Modal verbs Modal verbs Presentation Transcript

    • Modal Verbs Obligation, necessity, prohibition, certainty, possibility, advice, permission, ability.
    • Certainty: MUST Affirmative in the present: “John has lived in England all his life, He MUST speak English really well” Affirmative in the past: He MUST HAVE gone. (estoy seguro de que él se ha marchado)
    • Certainty: CAN´T “You CAN’T be tired you’ve been sleeping for 12 hours” “You CAN’T HAVE seen my sister she lives in Madrid” (es imposible que…)
    • Possiblity: may,might,could. I’m not sure….. “This summer I may (might/could) (not) go to England” “It´s 2 o’clock he may (might/could) (not) have arrived home. Let’s phone him”
    • Possibility in the past May, might, could+HAVE+ PARTICIPLE “ He may have gone out somewhere”
    • Obligation: MUST vs HAVE TO in the present Must: Personal Obligation/Obligation that comes from the speaker. “I must go to the dentist” “You must do your homework for every monday”
    • Must ≠Mustn’t Mustn’t= Prohibition Danger “You mustn’t touch electrical appliances with wet hands”
    • To negate sth personal:Needn’t “You needn’t wash the dishes I’ll do it later” ( no es necesario) “ You needn’t ask me if you want to use the phone”
    • HAVE TO Have to: Legal Obligation /Obligation that to comes from a 3rd person. “Every citizen has to pay taxes” (es obligatorio)
    • Don’t have to (lack of legal Obligation) No es obligatorio. “In Spain you don’t have to have a licence to own a cat”
    • Obligation in the future & past Future: “I’ll have to go to the dentist” Past: “I had to go to the dentist”
    • Advice • Should • Ought to • ‘d better “You should / ought to / ‘d better visit your grandparents more often”
    • Ability: Could vs Was/were able to In the past: “When he was five he could speak 3 languages” (General Ability) “I didn’t have the keys but I was able to enter the house” (Particular ability= manage to)
    • Present, future & perfect tenses. Puedo: I can = I am able to Podré: I will be able to He podido: I have been able to
    • Permission Informal Can I …….. ? ⇓ May I …….? Formal Could I…….? I wonder if I could….? ….leave early today
    • Be supposed to/Had better • Be supposed to: – rule – or expected. “Come on, it's 10 O’clock. You're supposed to be in bed!” • Had better + infinitive without to: – you should do because you think it's a good idea. “You'd better ask your dad before you borrow the car.”
    • Permission: be allowed to • To express permission it is possible to use can, may (more formal) or be allowed to. • In the negative these express lack of permission, or prohibition. “You can order another drink but you can't have any more chips. “We aren't allowed to wear trainers to school.
    • To express permission • May is not possible in the past. • Could and be allowed to are possible for general permission. “In my last job we had flexitime so we could arrive more or less when we wanted to.
    • • Could is not used when referring to a particular situation in the past. • Only be allowed to is possible. “I was allowed to stay up late last night.”
    • Let and make + Inf sin to To be allowed to • Let is used to express permission and is not normally used in the passive. “My dad never lets me watch that programme.” • Be allowed to is used instead. “I wasn't allowed to go to the party alone.”
    • Make is used to express obligation. “The teacher made her do some extra homework.” • In the passive, make is followed by the infinitive with to. “He was made to pay for the window he had broken.”