=Info Wait Time And Questioning

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Analysis of wait time in educational settings.

Analysis of wait time in educational settings.

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  • 1. LEARNING ABOUT QUESTIONING Materials from the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory School Improvement Research Series http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/3/cu5.html Modified by Phil Venditti
  • 2. Importance of Questioning
    • More than 40% of instructional time is devoted to answering and responding to questions.
    • Good questions, well-delivered, facilitate student learning and measure how well students are mastering content.
  • 3. Levels of Questioning
    • 70 to 80% of the questions posed in both elementary and secondary schools are at the knowledge or recall level--the lowest intellectual level.
    • When given the opportunity to answer higher level questions, students demonstrate the ability to analyze, summarize and evaluate.
  • 4. Findings from the NW Regional Educational Laboratory
    • The average wait-time teachers allow after posing a question is one second or less.
    • Students whom teachers perceive as slow or poor learners are given less wait-time than those teachers view as more capable.
    • For lower cognitive questions, a wait-time of three seconds is most positively related to achievement, with less success resulting from shorter or longer wait-times.
    • There seems to be no wait-time threshold for higher cognitive questions; students seem to become more and more engaged and perform better and better the longer the teacher is willing to wait.
  • 5. Wait Time Beyond 3 Seconds
    • Increasing wait-time beyond three seconds is positively related to the following student outcomes:
    • (1) Improvements in student achievement
    • (2) Improvements in student retention
    • (3) Increases in the # of higher cognitive responses generated by students
    • (4) Increases in the length of student responses
    • (5) Increases in the number of unsolicited responses
    • (6) Decreases in students' failure to respond
    • (7) Increases in the amount and quality of evidence students offer
    • (8) Expansion of the variety of responses offered by students
    • (9) Increases in student-student interactions
    • (10) Increases in the # of questions posed by students
  • 6. Extra-Long Wait Time
    • Increasing wait-time beyond three seconds is positively related to the following outcomes:
    • (1) Increases in flexibility of teacher responses, with teachers listening more and engaging students in more discussions
    • (2) Increases in teacher expectations regarding students usually thought of as slow
    • (3) Expansion of the variety of questions asked by teachers
    • (4) Increases in the number of higher cognitive questions asked by teachers.
  • 7. Recall Bloom’s Taxonomy
    • Knowledge (recall)
    • Comprehension
    • Application
    • Analysis
    • Synthesis
    • Evaluation
  • 8. Varieties of Wait Time
    • Wait Time I (immediately following a teacher’s question)
    • Wait Time II (following a student’s answer)
  • 9. Further Research on Questioning
    • Asking questions at all intellectual levels  promotes higher-level thinking)
    • Redirecting questions  promotes interaction among students)
    • When to call on a student  try posing questions before calling on an individual
    • Avoid repeating students’ answers; it can cause them not to pay close attention