Ohm2013 cloud security 101 slideshare


Published on

Cloud security 101 was presented at OHM 2013, the 4-yearly conference dedicated to technology and its (mis)use.

Published in: Technology, Business
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Next slides explain the characteristics.Motivation: not to win the debate on who is the most pure cloud providerTo explain why without these essential characteristics the model provides no – or only very limited business value, hence the case / ROI will fail.Push out to other NIST slides, if asked for (breakout deck)
  • Illustrate: process optimized, lower cost, time to market, but automation (cost) only possible by having sufficient scale Also: the trend to do with less and less personal interaction for lower valued products
  • The obvious, but add the Intel trends
  • Explain why ALL resources in cloud must be pooled.
  • Scale up but also: scale down.Explain (story) why providers with short term contracts are more successful.Explain why many private clouds (financed pool, just a few servers with Vmware, limited in upper size)are not clouds
  • Explain the pay per use model. Explain why this requires metering and rating . Compare to telco industryExplain why cloud with fixed price do not bring the business benefits to the user
  • Number of hosts accessed directly by the browser, per user transaction, averaged across 3,000 companies
  • Reiterate some other drivers
  • Explain why this is a disruptive innovation, mention driversMade possible by gartner curve starting in 2000, internetAdd virtualization and other technology pushAdd economy of scale, see Msoft doc “the economics of the cloud”Add Nicholas Carr, 2007Add Intel trends
  • Todo: move the cases to the breakout deck, select depending on type of participant and their markets
  • Explain why Private cloud is in fact a dedicated pool. All characteristics must applyExplain the risk of a fixed, dedicated pool.Expand on the perceived risks by customers (reason why they elect a private cloud) , true risks and the trade offs
  • Case: private cloud. Cloud computing
  • Case: PaaS cloud, private
  • Case: community SaaS cloud
  • Ohm2013 cloud security 101 slideshare

    1. 1. Cloud Security 101 presented at OHM2013 “what would General Eisenhower say about PRISM” Dr. Peter HJ van Eijk @petersgriddle
    2. 2. Cloud Security: an oxymoron? The knee-jerk reaction of a lot of people when they first hear about cloud is: – “The PATRIOT act/PRISM allows the US government/YFTLA * to see everything that (I do/everything my company does) on the internet” – “Therefore, the cloud is evil” – “Besides: cloud computing is marketing hype.” Is YFTLA ruining your internet? Whose internet is it anyway? *) Your favorite three letter agency
    3. 3. This talk’s roadmap • Who am I? Who are you? • Security and power in a historical context • The Cloud: hype or reality? • Basic cloud security concepts and methods • Wrap up
    4. 4. Who am I? • One of the world’s most experienced independent cloud trainers. • Developing and delivering cloud training such as CCSK, Cloud Essentials and Cloud Governance worldwide. • Work history: University of Twente, AT&T Bell Labs 07974, EDS, Eunet, Deloitte, independent • See www.clubcloudcomputing.com for more information and https://ohm2013.org/wiki/User:Petersgriddle
    5. 5. Who are you at OHM2013? • You are probably professionally involved in IT or IT security • You might work at or for corporate IT or with cloud providers • Or maybe for a three-letter agency • You might be a senior developer, sysadmin, risk manager, consultant or auditor
    7. 7. Dwight D. Eisenhower • 5-star general US army • Supreme commander of Allied Forces in Europe WW2. • Responsible for D-day ‘the longest day’ invasion of Normandy June 1944 • 1st Supreme Allied Commander Europe (NATO) • 34th president of the USA (1953-1961) • Instituted NASA and DARPA
    8. 8. Dwight D Eisenhower warns in 1961 • On January 17, 1961, Eisenhower gave his final televised Address to the Nation from the Oval Office.[204] In his farewell speech, Eisenhower raised the issue of the Cold War and role of the U.S. armed forces. He described the Cold War: "We face a hostile ideology global in scope, atheistic in character, ruthless in purpose and insidious in method ..." and warned about what he saw as unjustified government spending proposals and continued with a warning that "we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military–industrial complex." He said, "we recognize the imperative need for this development ... the potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist ... Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together." 2013 update: g/the Cold War/s//Terrorism/
    9. 9. “we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military–industrial complex”
    10. 10. DARPA: Defense Advanced Research Projects Agencies • Part of the military-industrial complex • Established 1958 under Eisenhower • Funds a significant part of all US Information Technology research. • Set up ARPAnet in 1969, which we now know as the Internet • Arguably the most important founding (grand)father of “the cloud”
    11. 11. Who is who? • The internet is a product of the military-industrial complex. • Who is part of this complex? – HP, Cisco, AT&T, IBM, Microsoft, most US universities and research agencies, etc. – Most of Silicon Valley – The security industry …. • That includes you, probably.
    12. 12. Whose side are you on? • Friend or Foe? • Black hat or white hat? • Cat or mouse? • Inventor or user? • You decide …
    13. 13. Personal opinion and story • I believe there is a role for regulation and governments in the way we collectively handle data. • I don’t believe that uncontrolled access to data is healthy, neither by governments or other organizations • “A car with your name on it is used for an armed robbery” <- this and similar things have happened to me.
    15. 15. Cloud computing is a type of IT outsourcing See NIST definitions on http://www.nist.gov/itl/cloud/ NIST: Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources *…+. This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics • On-demand self-service • Broad network access, • Resource pooling • Rapid elasticity • Measured Service (pay as you go) 15 Colloquial: Your data on somebody else’s hard disk.
    16. 16. On-demand self service Broad network access Resource pooling Rapid elasticity Measured service The consumer can unilaterally decide to change his resource consumption, i.e. through a website, potentially programmatically No human intervention at provider necessary 16
    17. 17. On-demand self service Broad network access Resource pooling Rapid elasticity Measured service The service is accessible •through a variety of networks •by a variety of devices: PC, server, mobile The network is a given 17
    18. 18. On-demand self service Broad network access Resource pooling Rapid elasticity Measured service The resources are pooled to serve a number of independent users. This is also called ‘multi-tenancy’. Resources will be allocated dynamically. Resources could be •Processor capacity •Storage •Memory •Bandwidth 18
    19. 19. On-demand self service Broad network access Resource pooling Rapid elasticity Measured service The resources can be scaled up and down quickly. This is done without provider intervention, through the on-demand self service. 19
    20. 20. On-demand self service Broad network access Resource pooling Rapid elasticity Measured service The consumption of the resource is measured in a meaningful way, e.g. memory, processor capacity, user counts. This usage can be the basis for the billing of the consumer. 20
    21. 21. http://infoonsoftwaretesting.blogspot.com/ Software as a Service Platform as a Service Infrastructure as a Service Not all clouds are created equal: three ‘service models’ 21
    22. 22. Platform as a Service: e.g. social media integration Web API / PaaS connection GET http://api.twitter.com/1/statuses/user_timeline.json?screen_name=petersgriddle22
    23. 23. Who is hosting my website, really? Integration happens client side * Source: Gomez 2010 In November 2010, 30% of web transactions used an Amazon EC2 object 23
    24. 24. Companies are flocking to the cloud because of the business benefits they experience or expect
    25. 25. Business benefit Generic IT outsourcing benefits + • Collaboration • Speed of deployment • Fast scale up and down • Low initial cost • Low capital cost • Easier integration • Wider user base • … 25 On-demand self service Broad network access Resource pooling Rapid elasticity Measured service
    26. 26. IT is outgrowing the capability of organizations to manage IT • IT is still one of the fastest growing and innovative technologies, 50 years and counting • From 1:20 to 1:1000 productivity. – i.e. servers, workplaces, network connections • Do you think that Joe R. SME can run secure IT in his closet? Really. What are you smoking?
    27. 27. It is ‘cloud’ when the consumer experiences it as ‘cloud’.
    28. 28. The cloud is *BIG*. Amazon, Google and Microsoft have 200K-2M+ servers, each. (conservatively) Akamai runs 10-20% of total Internet traffic.
    29. 29. Disruptive Innovations Characteristics • Much cheaper • Not as good (initially) • Rapidly improving • Eventually drives original out of the market • Addresses ‘over served’ clients Examples • Mass manufacturing • PC • Internet • Wikipedia • Cloud Computing 29 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disruptive_innovation
    30. 30. •Up to date content •Lower cost Editorial content ‘Social’ content Dutch Olympic committee Content hosted at Flickr, Twitter and Youtube 30
    31. 31. Dutch Olympic committee website • Challenge: The Dutch Olympic committee had a traditionally hosted website for the Beijing games in 2008, running up a bill of more than 150.000 euro. • Approach: For the Vancouver games they totally changed the concept. The website became a single page, hosted in the cloud. This page then pulls in social media content that is hashtagged #os2010. • It is displayed on two panes. The top one, whitelisted by author name, is the editorial content. The rest is social media content. Run cost for the new website: a few hundred euro per month.
    32. 32. Oxfam: flexible capacity • Type of organization: charity, relief aid • # IT staff: ~200 • Challenge: inconsistent infrastructure, no scalability for seasonal or exceptional (i.e. natural disasters) demand patterns • Approach: IBM private cloud (IaaS) • http://www.businesscloudnews.com/applications/789- oxfam-cio-cloud-is-a-philosophical-challenge.html
    33. 33. KLM: dispersed workforce • Type of organization: Airline • Challenge: dispersed workforce, multilingual, multiple devices to work on • Solution: SaaS. Google Apps Premier Edition for more than 10.000 crew members • http://googleenterprise.blogspot.nl/2010/02/f lying-into-cloud.html
    34. 34. Canadian Pacific: flexible deployment • Type of organization: Railroad • Challenge – “…lead times to get new infrastructure for development, for test, for experimentation purposes as well as production purposes,” said Stuart Charlton, executive IT advisor at CP. • Approach: IaaS private cloud plus Amazon; – IBM WebSphere eXtreme Scale for developing distributed software • http://www.itworldcanada.com/news/canadian-pacific-gets- agile-with-hybrid-cloud/145408
    35. 35. Commonwealth of Virginia: Community SaaS • Type of organization: Public Government • Challenge: procurement process spread over 171 agencies, most having their own IT systems, controlling $3B procurement • Approach: Community SaaS procurement system (Ariba) • http://cloud2slg.techamericafoundation.org/wp- content/uploads/group-documents/3/1328666319- Final2_Commonwealth_of_VA_ProcurementCaseStudy .pdf
    37. 37. Cloud is the same, but different • Like Websites/web technology – Technical risk • but different – Scalability and elasticity much higher • Like outsourcing – Third party risk • but different – Speed of control and failure is much higher – Chains of providers – More sharing • Virtualization – But taken to much higher levels of automation 38
    38. 38. Cloud computing implies massive sharing and scaling Consolidation risk – Performance – Capacity management – Multi-tenancy leakage – More ‘collateral damage’ of legal action – Bigger impact of failures – More interesting target for cybercrime You cannot manage this risk on a yearly or even monthly basis See Animoto autoscaling (next slide) 39
    39. 39. Animoto, EC2 and RightScaleNumberofservers Launch of Facebook modification Peak of 4700 instances 4/14/2008 4/15/2008 4/16/2008 4/18/2008 4/19/2008 4/20/20084/17/20084/13/2008 Using RightScale, Animoto automatically scaled to handle a dramatic load to their application Inside scoop at http://blog.rightscale.com/2008/04/23/animoto-facebook-scale-up/40
    40. 40. Cloud Computing differs from traditional outsourcing • Contracts much more flexible/volatile • More sharing of resources across customers • Little influence from customer • More players and layers involved • More legal implications 41
    41. 41. Cloud brings new technology • Multitenancy – VMs, storage, databases, application code • Federated Identity Management – OpenID, Oauth, SAML This tends to be a tough challenge for •Software publishers moving to a SaaS model and •Hosting companies moving to an IaaS model 42
    42. 42. Compliance is harder in the cloud • More moving parts • More regulation – E-DPD, PCI- DSS, HIPAA, Sox, Ediscovery, Netneutrality, privacy, etc, etc, etc • More risk exposure – The world is our playfield – Cybercrime – TLAs 43
    43. 43. Cloud Security Alliance The Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) is an industry consortium, volunteer based, open. • Sample products – CCSK (Certificate of Cloud Security Knowledge) • CSA guidance, ENISA study – Clouds Controls Matrix – STAR registry • Disclosure: I am a certified CCSK trainer, and Dutch chapter board member. Similar/complementary efforts underway at ISO, ISACA, etc.
    44. 44. CCSK Course Structure 1 Intro to Cloud Computing •NIST definitions: •Essential characteristics •Service models •Deployment models 2 Infrastructure Security for Cloud •Securing base infrastructure •Management plane security •Securing Virtual Hosts and Networks •IaaS, PaaS, SaaS security 3 Managing Cloud Security and Risk •Risk and Governance •Legal and Compliance •Audit •Portability and interoperability •Incident response and more 4 Data Security for Cloud •Cloud Data Architectures •Data Security Lifecycle •Information Governance •Data security and Encryption •Data Loss prevention 5 Securing Cloud Applications and Users •Application Security •Identity and Access management 6 Selecting Cloud Services •What to look for in a cloud provider •Security as a Service
    45. 45. Infrastructure security • No longer sufficient • Still required, with additional surface to protect (hypervisor, management plane) • More opportunity for fine grained and elastic controls, especially through automation
    46. 46. Data security • A blanket (perimeter) approach to data security fails • The data that matters to you might not be in your datacenter to begin with • Lifecycle model allows more precise controls to be applied • Encryption can be applied on multiple levels.
    47. 47. Application security • Web security++ (OWASP on steroids) • Application lifecycle model allows more fine- grained controls to be applied
    48. 48. User security • Federated ID-management allows decoupling of Identity Providers and Relying Parties • Can reduce the need for credential sprawl and leakage
    49. 49. Security as a Service • The cloud can be a source of security solutions • E.g. spam filtering, web filtering, management dashboards, DDOS protection.
    51. 51. How does professional security and risk management work? • Risk based: professional risk management prioritizes the most important risks – No superfluous or useless measures and controls • Professional risk management incorporates audit and compliance obligations – Anchor in operational process, instead of running a troublesome project for each audit • Professional risk management is repeatable and scalable – Champagne? Really? Did you expect the audit to be a one time effort? 52
    52. 52. Control frameworks • Cloud security alliance: Cloud Control Matrix • ISACA : Cobit, mostly cost/value based • ISO: ISO 27001 Information Security Management Systems • CloudControls.org: Dutch initiative (CloudVPS, KPMG) • ISO: ISO 20000 Not security but relevant as a service management and governance framework 53
    53. 53. Cloud Security Alliance Cloud Control Matrix • CSA: dominant industry coalition • Cloud Controls Matrix version 1.3 – soon to be v3.0 • CCM features: – 11 control areas, 98 controls – Selectable by S-P-I, Provider/Tenant – Cross referenced to COBIT, ISO, HIPPAA, PCI-DSS etc. 54
    54. 54. New controls • 3rd and 4th party management • Contracts • SLA • Identity and Access Management (IAM) • Escrow 55
    55. 55. The future of cloud GRC • Collaborative effort between provider and consumer • Continuous audit • As automated as possible • Integrated GRC: risk management in the widest sense of the word drives governance – Compliance is a collateral benefit – Maturity level of organization rises 56
    56. 56. CCM (Cloud Control Matrix), CAIQ (Consensus Assessments Initiative Questionnaire), Cloud Audit and CTP (Cloud Trust Protocol) are products maintained by CSA (Cloud Security Alliance). Cloud compliance in real-time GRC stack component Example element CCM CO-02: Independent reviews and assessments shall be performed at least annually *…+ CAIQ CO-02.3: Do you conduct regular application penetration tests of your cloud infrastructure as prescribed by industry best practices and guidance? Cloud Audit http://mycloudprovider.com /cloudaudit/org/cloudsecurityalliance/guidance/CO-02 CTP "It is 11 pm, do you know in which geography your virtual machines are running?" 57
    57. 57. The CAIQ Questionnaire 58
    58. 58. Sample Questions to Vendors Compliance - Independent Audits CO-02CO-02a - Do you allow tenants to view your SAS70 Type II/SSAE 16 SOC2/ISAE3402 or similar third party audit reports? CO-02b - Do you conduct network penetration tests of your cloud service infrastructure regularly as prescribed by industry best practices and guidance? CO-02c - Do you conduct application penetration tests of your cloud service infrastructure regularly as prescribed by industry best practices and guidance? CO-02d - Do you conduct internal audits regularly as prescribed by industry best practices and guidance? CO-02e - Do you conduct external audits regularly as prescribed by industry best practices and guidance? CO-02f - Are the results of the network penetration tests available to tenants at their request? CO-02g - Are the results of internal and external audits available to tenants at their request? Data Governance - Classification DG-02DG-02a - Do you provide a capability to identify virtual machines via policy tags/metadata (ex. Tags can be used to limit guest operating systems from booting/instantiating/transporting data in the wrong country, etc.?) DG-02b - Do you provide a capability to identify hardware via policy tags/metadata/hardware tags (ex. TXT/TPM, VN-Tag, etc.)? DG-02c - Do you have a capability to use system geographic location as an authentication factor? DG-02d - Can you provide the physical location/geography of storage of a tenant’s data upon request? DG-02e - Do you allow tenants to define acceptable geographical locations for data routing or resource instantiation? 59
    59. 59. CSA star Security, Trust and Assurance Registry (STAR) • Cloud Security Alliance initiative • An online clearinghouse where cloud providers can submit documentation detailing their security controls for review by potential customers, indexed by CAIQ reference • 22 participating providers, including Amazon Web services, Microsoft Azure. • www.cloudsecurityalliance/star 60
    60. 60. Patriot act !? • In the context of cloud computing, the Patriot act hardly adds anything to the power that the US federal government already has in accessing digital assets worldwide. • Other governments have similar, or even more extensive powers. • Competitive advantage based on not having infrastructure on US territory is speculative, at best.The Sting, Paul Newman to Robert Redford: “If this goes wrong, the Feds will be the least of our problems.” 61
    61. 61. WRAP UP
    62. 62. The big Cloud Firewall 63
    63. 63. • It is a new world out there, and it has only just begun • Cloud computing is inevitable • New security issues *and* controls exist • You can be an ‘alert and knowledgeable citizen’ and ‘security and liberty may prosper together.’ • If you apply your own moral compass
    64. 64. Thank you! More info? www.clubcloudcomputing.com and search for CCSK