www.sofos.nl                                              ISAGA - International Simulation and Gaming Association         ...
www.sofos.nlAGENDA                        2
www.sofos.nlINTRODUCTION                              3
www.sofos.nlINTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE AUTHOR                                    4
www.sofos.nlINTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE THEME                                    5
www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT                                   6
www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT   Causal model:       Access to education &        Quality schools         Skille...
www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT                    Drop-outs                      Rural exodus                   ...
www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT   Focus on external factors       Neighborhood, Parents,        Food, Transport  ...
www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT   Focus on learning    materials       Educational games       Issues          L...
www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMES                                       11
www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMES                                       12
www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESWHY LOCALIZATION?    Afrikaans - አአአአ -                        - Asturianu - Azərbaycanca...
www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLESource: Maas, 2008Game 0               Game 1                        ...
www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLE                    Background by A. Fienieg, 1992Game 1             ...
www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLEGame 2              Game 3                                        16
www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLEGame 3              Game 4                                           ...
www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLEGame 0              Game 4                                           ...
www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESLEVELS OF LOCALIZATION             Levels of localization                Learning goals  ...
www.sofos.nlINTERNATIONALIZATION                                      20
www.sofos.nlINTERNATIONALIZATION   Internationalization = Making a game    independent of a specific context and easy to ...
www.sofos.nlFURTHER R&D                             22
www.sofos.nlFURTHER R&D What are the costs and benefits of localization  at various levels? Which target groups need the...
www.sofos.nlCONCLUSION                            24
www.sofos.nlCONCLUSION Localization / internationalization increases the  impact of educational games Localization / int...
www.sofos.nlREFERENCES   Chandler et al. 2012 – The game localization handbook; 2nd edition; Heather    Maxwell Chandler ...
www.sofos.nlSOFOS CONSULTANCY   Thank you for your attention!   Pieter van der Hijden MSc   pvdh@sofos.nl    Pieter van de...
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Gaming for development: introduction to localization and internationalization of educational games; Pieter van der Hijden, Sofos Consultancy; ISAGA 2012, Romania

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Gaming for development: introduction to localization and internationalization of educational games; paper presentation at the 43rd Annual Conference of ISAGA, the International Simulation and Gaming Association (Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 2-6 July 2012); Pieter van der Hijden, Sofos Consultancy, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract


Gaming for education and training can have a great potential for developing countries. Games can partially replace old and unattractive textbooks; they may compensate the lack of qualified teachers; and, last but not least, they give the children (and adults as well) the feeling to be connected to the modern world. Nevertheless, applying these games in this context, may lead to disappointing learning outcomes, especially when the games have been developed abroad.

The main challenge for gaming in the context of developing countries is the lack of resources: gaming expertise, access to technology and funding. On the other hand, expertise on local conditions is high, crafting is widely spread and local labour is relatively cheap. The real challenge is finding the right balance in this mix of opportunities: developing games that can be applied in developing countries. One strategy is using games developed abroad, but adapting them for local use.

Adapting these games to the local context (language, visualization, etc.) may improve their effectiveness and efficiency for learning. Such adaptation of existing games is called localization. In fact, during the building of the game, future localization should already be taken into account. This is called internationalization.

Software firms paved the way in building applications to be used in different countries, languages and cultures. They in fact introduced the concepts of localization and internationalization in a rather straightforward way. In games, however, more attention has to be paid to the user experience and the use of multimedia. Localization and internationalization become more complex then.
In this presentation we will introduce both concepts. We illustrate with examples the changes that might happen during localization. We reflect on converting an international symbolic solution into a local and concrete one and present some new insights on frame games and content. We conclude with an agenda for further research and development.

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Gaming for development: introduction to localization and internationalization of educational games; Pieter van der Hijden, Sofos Consultancy; ISAGA 2012, Romania

  1. 1. www.sofos.nl ISAGA - International Simulation and Gaming Association 43rd International Conference – 2-6 July 2012 Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, Romania GAMING FOR DEVELOPMENT: INTRODUCTION TO LOCALIZATION AND INTERNATIONALIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL GAMESPieter van der Hijden MScSofos Consultancy, Amsterdam, The NetherlandsMember of the ISAGA Advisory CouncilEx-chairperson of the ISAGA Board Pieter van der Hijden (Sofos Consultancy) 2012 - Except where otherwise noted, content of this publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. 1
  2. 2. www.sofos.nlAGENDA 2
  3. 3. www.sofos.nlINTRODUCTION 3
  4. 4. www.sofos.nlINTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE AUTHOR 4
  5. 5. www.sofos.nlINTRODUCTION – ABOUT THE THEME 5
  6. 6. www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT 6
  7. 7. www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT Causal model:  Access to education & Quality schools  Skilled Citizens  Social end economic Development Current situation:  Imperfect system  Backlog 7
  8. 8. www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT  Drop-outs  Rural exodus  Urban problems 8
  9. 9. www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT Focus on external factors  Neighborhood, Parents, Food, Transport Focus on infrastructure  Building, Systems, Furniture Focus on teachers  Better teacher training  Issue: Not enough teachers  Issue: Migration after diploma Source: Mitra et al., 2008 Focus on learning materials 9
  10. 10. www.sofos.nlEDUCATION FOR DEVELOPMENT Focus on learning materials  Educational games  Issues  Localization  Internationalization 10
  11. 11. www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMES 11
  12. 12. www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMES 12
  13. 13. www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESWHY LOCALIZATION? Afrikaans - አአአአ - - Asturianu - Azərbaycanca - Беларуская - Български - - Bosanski - Català - Valencià (Català meridional) - - Čeština - More intense gaming Cymraeg - Dansk - Deutsch - Deutsch community - experience Deutsch - Du - Deutsch - Kids - - Ελληνικά - English - English - Pirate - en_kids - English - United States - Español - Internacional - Español - Argentina - Español -  Motivation España - Español - Mexico - Eesti - Euskara - - Authentic learning Suomi - Filipino - VakaViti - Faroese - Français - Français - Canada - Gaeilge - Gàidhlig - Galego - - - environment - Hrvatski - magyar - Հայերեն - Indonesian - Íslenska - Italiano - 日本語 - ქართული - Қазақша - Kalaallisut - - - 한국어 - Latin - Laotian - Lietuvių  Understanding - Lithuanian (university) - Latviešu - Māori - Tainui -  Transfer Māori - Waikato - Македонски - - Bahasa Melayu - - Монгол - - Nederlands - Norsk - Correctness nynorsk - Norsk - bokmål - Norsk - Aranés - Polski - Português - Portugal - Português - Brasil - Romansh  Cultural issues Sursilvan - Română - Русский - - Slovenčina - Slovenščina - Samoan - Soomaali - Shqip - Српски -  Historical issues Српски - Српски - Srpski - Svenska - Finlandssvenska - sw - Tamil - - - Thai - አአአአ - Tagalog - Create greater market Tongan - Türkçe - татар теле - Українська - Ozbekcha - Vietnamese - Wolof - 简体中文 - 正體中文 - - isiZulu 13
  14. 14. www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLESource: Maas, 2008Game 0 Game 1 14
  15. 15. www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLE Background by A. Fienieg, 1992Game 1 Game 2 15
  16. 16. www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLEGame 2 Game 3 16
  17. 17. www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLEGame 3 Game 4 17
  18. 18. www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESSTEP-BY-STEP EXAMPLEGame 0 Game 4 18
  19. 19. www.sofos.nlLOCALIZATION OF GAMESLEVELS OF LOCALIZATION Levels of localization Learning goals Learning styles Game patterns Actions Objects Visualisation and sound Language Box and docs No localization 19
  20. 20. www.sofos.nlINTERNATIONALIZATION 20
  21. 21. www.sofos.nlINTERNATIONALIZATION Internationalization = Making a game independent of a specific context and easy to localize  Language  Visual symbols  Sound (voice-over / sub-titles) 21
  22. 22. www.sofos.nlFURTHER R&D 22
  23. 23. www.sofos.nlFURTHER R&D What are the costs and benefits of localization at various levels? Which target groups need their own localization?  Nationallanguage, local languages, 2 languages?  Urban area, rural area, interior areas? How to broaden the target groups, i.e. How to learn to learn in a less localized context? 23
  24. 24. www.sofos.nlCONCLUSION 24
  25. 25. www.sofos.nlCONCLUSION Localization / internationalization increases the impact of educational games Localization / internationalization usually is limited to translation and multi-language logistics Side effect: localization mechanism also useful in enforcing learning elements in games Gaming for development requires more research 25
  26. 26. www.sofos.nlREFERENCES Chandler et al. 2012 – The game localization handbook; 2nd edition; Heather Maxwell Chandler and Stephanie O’Malley Deming; Jones and Bertlett Learning; Sudbury (MA), USA, 2012 Localization Summit; Game Developers Conference; San Francisco (CA), USA, 2012; see: http://www.gdconf.com/conference/gls.html. Maas, 2008 - GameMaker4You [NL]; Diepenmaat Uitgeverij & Ontwerpbureau; The Netherlands, 2008. Mitra et al., 2008 - Sugata Mitra (Newcastle University, UK), Ritu Dangwal and Leher Thadani (The NIIT Institute of Information Technology, India); Effects of remoteness on the quality of education: A case study from North Indian schools; Australasian Journal of Educational Technology 2008, 24(2), 168-180. Full text: http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet24/mitra.pdf. Schell, 2008; The art of game design, a book of lenses; Jesse Schell; Morgan Kaufman, 2008. Van der Hijden, 2011a - GS4D - Gaming/Simulation for Development; building and applying games for developing countries; Pieter van der Hijden; presentation at ISAGA 2011 annual conference, Jachranka, Poland, 2011 Van der Hijden, 2011b - Gaming for Development - building and applying gaming/simulation in the context of developing countries; Pieter van der Hijden; presentation at JASAG autumn conference, Sapporo, Japan, 2011 26
  27. 27. www.sofos.nlSOFOS CONSULTANCY Thank you for your attention! Pieter van der Hijden MSc pvdh@sofos.nl Pieter van der Hijden (Sofos Consultancy) 2012 - Except where otherwise noted, content of this publication is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. 27

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