Chapter 8: Military Power and the Use of Force<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Elements of Power (1 of 3)<br />Power: the factors that enable one state to coerce an...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />How U.S. Military Spending Stacks Up Against Its Primary Competitors<br />3<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Two Measures of Military Power Potential: State Wealth and Size of National Armies<br...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Elements of Power (2 of 3)<br />Population size<br />Territorial size<br />Geographic...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Elements of Power (3 of 3)<br />Ideology<br />Efficiency of government decision makin...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Changing Character of World Power<br />Decreased utility of military power<br />I...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Military Spending as a Percentage of GDP<br />8<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Defense versus Deterrence<br />9<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Security Dilemma <br />Prisoner’s Dilemma<br />10<br />cooperate 	defect	<br />co...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Weapons Trade<br />Spurred by Cold War<br />Peaked in 1987 at $82 billion<br />Middle...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Arms Deliveries to the Global North and the Global South, 1997–2004<br />12<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Weapons of Mass Destruction <br />Shifts emphasis from defense to deterrence <br />Be...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Chemical and Biological Weapons <br />Growing threat<br />Use by terrorists<br />Proh...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />WMD and Crisis Stability<br />Kenneth Waltz argues that the proliferation of nuclear ...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />High- and Low-Tech Weapons<br />Precision guided munitions <br />Improvised explosive...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Arms Transfer Agreements Worldwide<br />17<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Nuclear Weapons in 2008<br />18<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Nuclear Weapons<br />Nuclear proliferation is likely because the expertise is widespr...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Nuclear-Weapon Armed Countries, Today and Tomorrow<br />20<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Technology and Weapons<br />MIRVs: Multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles<b...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Compellence 1945–1962  <br />Compellence: When U.S. was dominant nuclear power<br />B...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Nuclear Weapons and the Cold War <br />Crisis Stability<br />“The threat that leaves ...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Deterrence 1962–1991 <br />Cuban Missile Crisis<br />Requires second-strike capabilit...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Preemption 1991–Present <br />Did nuclear weapons foster peace?<br />The Bush Doctrin...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Coercive Diplomacy<br />“An approach to bargaining between states engaged in a crisis...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Military Intervention<br />Overt or covert use of force by one or more states inside ...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Changing Incidents Through Unilateral Military Intervention for Coercive Diplomat...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Conditions that Favor the Effective Use of Coercive Diplomacy <br />Clarity of user o...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Web Links (1 of 2)<br />Incore<br />Institute for War and Peace Reporting <br />Inter...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Web Links (2 of 2)<br />Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists<br />The Henry L. Stimson C...
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Kegley chapter 8

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  • According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, global military spending was about 1.46 trillion in 2008, and the entire UN budgets about 1.8% of this.
  • Weaker states often win conflicts because they inherently have a greater interest in surviving.
  • The Prisoner’s Dilemma has an optimum strategy for both parties of cooperation. The number “1” represents the most preferred outcome, the number “4” the least preferred outcome. Many theorists liken arms races to the Prisoner’s Dilemma logic game.
  • The 1925 Geneva Protocol banned the use of biological and chemical weapons in warfare. The French and Germans both used chemical weapons during World War I.
  • Likely “Nth” nuclear countries are Iran and Syria, as well as Argentina, Brazil, Libya and Taiwan.
  • Countries with nuclear weapons include the United States, Russia, China, France, Great Britain, Israel, Pakistan ,India and North Korea.
  • Dulles was Secretary of State under President Eisenhower from 1953 to 1959, aggressively advocating against communism. He used the threat of nuclear war to hold Soviet expansion in check.
  • Kegley chapter 8

    1. 1. Chapter 8: Military Power and the Use of Force<br />
    2. 2. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Elements of Power (1 of 3)<br />Power: the factors that enable one state to coerce another<br />Power potential: the relative capabilities of a state considered essential to asserting influence over others<br />Military capability<br />Military expenditures<br />Relative size of economy<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />How U.S. Military Spending Stacks Up Against Its Primary Competitors<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Two Measures of Military Power Potential: State Wealth and Size of National Armies<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Elements of Power (2 of 3)<br />Population size<br />Territorial size<br />Geographic position<br />Raw materials<br />Dependence on foreign raw materials<br />Technological level and capacity<br />National character<br />5<br />
    6. 6. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Elements of Power (3 of 3)<br />Ideology<br />Efficiency of government decision making<br />Industrial productivity<br />Trade volume<br />Savings and investment<br />Education level<br />National morals<br />Internal solidarity<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Changing Character of World Power<br />Decreased utility of military power<br />Increased importance of technology, education, and economic growth<br />Military spending:<br />Opportunity costs<br />Peace dividend<br />Relative burden of military spending<br />“Guns versus butter”<br />7<br />
    8. 8. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Military Spending as a Percentage of GDP<br />8<br />
    9. 9. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Defense versus Deterrence<br />9<br />
    10. 10. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Security Dilemma <br />Prisoner’s Dilemma<br />10<br />cooperate defect <br />cooperate<br />defect<br />
    11. 11. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Weapons Trade<br />Spurred by Cold War<br />Peaked in 1987 at $82 billion<br />Middle East and Asia are major recipients<br />Middle East arms race: regional rivalries<br />United States is leading supplier<br />Balance-of-trade deficits <br />Military-industrial complex<br />Blowback<br />11<br />
    12. 12. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Arms Deliveries to the Global North and the Global South, 1997–2004<br />12<br />
    13. 13. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Weapons of Mass Destruction <br />Shifts emphasis from defense to deterrence <br />Began with the annihilation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki <br />13<br />
    14. 14. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Chemical and Biological Weapons <br />Growing threat<br />Use by terrorists<br />Prohibited by international law<br />14<br />
    15. 15. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />WMD and Crisis Stability<br />Kenneth Waltz argues that the proliferation of nuclear weapons will likely make the world more safe, not less. <br />Assumes: <br />Leaders are rational <br />Civilian leaders have effective control over their militaries<br />15<br />
    16. 16. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />High- and Low-Tech Weapons<br />Precision guided munitions <br />Improvised explosive device (IED)<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Arms Transfer Agreements Worldwide<br />17<br />
    18. 18. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Nuclear Weapons in 2008<br />18<br />
    19. 19. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Nuclear Weapons<br />Nuclear proliferation is likely because the expertise is widespread, export controls are ineffective, and the materials needed are widely available<br />Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty<br />Nth country problem <br />Horizontal nuclear proliferation<br />Vertical nuclear proliferation<br />Nuclear winter<br />19<br />
    20. 20. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Nuclear-Weapon Armed Countries, Today and Tomorrow<br />20<br />
    21. 21. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Technology and Weapons<br />MIRVs: Multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles<br />Firebreak<br />Strategic weapons: Weapons of mass destruction on ICBMs, SLBMs, long-range bombers<br />Nonlethal weapons: Incapacitate people, vehicles, communications systems<br />Smart bombs<br />Biological and chemical weapons<br />21<br />
    22. 22. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Compellence 1945–1962 <br />Compellence: When U.S. was dominant nuclear power<br />Brinksmanship: John Foster Dulles threatened adversaries with nuclear war<br />Massive retaliation<br />Countervalue targeting: Soviet industry and population (as opposed to counterforce targeting of weapons)<br />Arms race<br />22<br />
    23. 23. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Nuclear Weapons and the Cold War <br />Crisis Stability<br />“The threat that leaves something to chance.” <br />23<br />
    24. 24. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Deterrence 1962–1991 <br />Cuban Missile Crisis<br />Requires second-strike capability<br />Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)<br />Nuclear Utilization Theory (NUTs): advocated by some Americans; nuclear weapons could be used in a war<br />Strategic Defense Initiative: President Reagan’s “Star Wars”<br />24<br />
    25. 25. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Preemption 1991–Present <br />Did nuclear weapons foster peace?<br />The Bush Doctrine and preemptive strikes<br />Preemptive war vs. Preventive war<br />Preemptive war and just war theory<br />Asymmetrical warfare<br />25<br />
    26. 26. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Coercive Diplomacy<br />“An approach to bargaining between states engaged in a crisis in which threats or the use of limited force are made to force an adversary to reach a compromise”<br />Ultimatums<br />Gunboat diplomacy<br />Military intervention<br />26<br />
    27. 27. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Military Intervention<br />Overt or covert use of force by one or more states inside another state<br />Covert operations: secret activities<br />Can heighten tensions and lead to war<br />Nonintervention norm<br />Intervention can be for moral for humanitarian reasons<br />Failed states<br />27<br />
    28. 28. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Changing Incidents Through Unilateral Military Intervention for Coercive Diplomatic Purposes Since 1945<br />28<br />
    29. 29. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Conditions that Favor the Effective Use of Coercive Diplomacy <br />Clarity of user objectives.<br />Asymmetry of motivation favoring the user.<br />Opponent’s fear of escalation and belief in the urgency for compliance.<br />Adequate domestic and international support for the user.<br />Clarity on the precise terms of settlement.<br />29<br />
    30. 30. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Web Links (1 of 2)<br />Incore<br />Institute for War and Peace Reporting <br />International Crisis Group<br />War, Peace, Security Guide<br />Arms Sales Monitoring Project<br />30<br />
    31. 31. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Web Links (2 of 2)<br />Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists<br />The Henry L. Stimson Center<br />SIPRI Military Expenditure Country Graphs<br />31<br />
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