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  • IGOs are established by treaties requiring member ratification, and which act as the charter for the group. They are distinct from task groups or simple coalitions such as the G8. Well-known IGOs include the United Nations, Interpol, the European Union and the African Union.
  • The seeming decline in the number of IGOs in the late 1980s is the result of the merger of several previously independent IGOs.
  • The official languages of the United Nations are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.
  • There are currently 16 official UN peacekeeping missions throughout the world.
  • The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. It is located in the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). The court is composed of fifteen judges elected for nine year terms by the UN General Assembly and the Security Council.
  • The WTO is headquartered in Geneva, and has 153 members. It functions primarily as a negotiating forum on trade for member nations.
  • The World Bank functions as a cooperative, with 186 member countries. Shareholders are represented by a board of governors who meet annually. The five largest shareholders are France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • The European Union is both an economic and a political partnership. Its goal is increased peace, prosperity and freedom for its citizens.
  • From few, to many. Expansion of the European Union has allowed it to emerge as a superpower.
  • Members of the European Parliament do not sit in national blocks, but in Europe-wide political groups.
  • Three candidate countries are Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey.
  • There are an estimated 650 million indigenous people worldwide, scattered in more than seventy countries.

Kegley Chapter 6 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 6: Nonstate Actors and the Challenge of Global Governance
  • 2. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    IGOs and NGOs
    IGOs: Intergovernmental organizations; members are states; have authority from state governments to make decisions regarding particular problems
    246 in 2007
    34 universal membership
    NGOs: Nongovernmental organizations; members are private individuals or groups who focus on specific aspects of the global agenda
    2
  • 3. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Trends in the Number of IGOs and States Since 1900
    3
  • 4. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    The United Nations
    Founded in 1945; successor to League of Nations
    192 members
    Maintain international peace and security
    Promote peaceful relations between states
    Promote cooperation for solving international problems
    Encourage human rights and freedoms
    Collective security—paralyzed during the Cold War
    4
  • 5. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    The Changing Membership of the United Nations
    5
  • 6. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    UN’s Agenda
    Six fundamental values
    Freedom
    Equality
    Solidarity
    Tolerance
    Respect for nature
    Sense of shared responsibility
    Expansive issues, from security to desertification
    6
  • 7. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Organization of the UN
    The General Assembly (GA)
    192 members, all with an equal vote
    Resolutions not considered law
    Power over the small UN budget
    The Secretariat
    8,900 employees
    Secretary General
    The UN Security Council
    15 members, “permanent five” have veto powers
    7
  • 8. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    The UN’s Headquarters and Global Network
    8
  • 9. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Aspects of the United Nations
    General Assembly dominated by the Global South
    Controversy over size and nature of UN budget
    Dominance of U.S.
    Collaborate with NGOs
    Budget problems
    North–South differences over perceived priorities
    Controversy over dues amounts
    Controversy over inefficiency of UN bureaucracies
    9
  • 10. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    The United Nations
    Great Powers
    Great Britain, China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States
    One State/One Vote scheme in the General Assembly
    10
  • 11. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Important Functions of the UN
    Deterring and Countering Aggression
    Peacekeeping
    11
  • 12. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    The Specialized Agencies
    Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
    The International Court of Justice (ICJ)
    12
  • 13. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Four Views of the UN
    UN as world government
    The UN as irrelevant
    The UN as a tool for states
    The UN as a source of norms
    13
  • 14. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    World Trade Organization
    Successor to GATT (1947)
    Promotes stable international economic order and smooth international trade
    Formal decision-making powers over trade disputes
    Decreases state sovereignty
    Dominated by major powers
    14
  • 15. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    World Bank
    Created at 1944 Bretton Woods conference
    International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
    Private and governmental loans to developing countries
    Upholds international economic system
    Promotes economic/political development and environmental sustainability
    15
  • 16. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    International Monetary Fund
    1944 Bretton Woods; now a UN agency
    Stabilizes international monetary exchange rates
    Lender of last resort; balance of payments problems
    Dominated by wealthier states: weighted voting
    Conditionality
    Tension with Global South
    16
  • 17. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    European Union
    27 members
    Neoliberal theory: promote peace and prosperity through IGOs
    1951 European Coal and Steel Community
    Single economy with a common currency
    Most western European states; most east European states also
    Third Way
    17
  • 18. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    The Expansion of the European Union, 1951–2009
    18
  • 19. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Functionalism
    Remove the rationale for war through political integration
    Peace by pieces
    Use IGOs, shared sovereignty
    Collaborate to solve technical transnational problems
    Cooperation in one area would spill over into other areas
    Cooperation based on self-interest
    19
  • 20. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Neofunctionalism
    IGOs created to manage common problems provide benefits that exert pressures for further political integration, creation of new IGOs, and increased interdependence
    Leads to regional integration
    Spillover—momentum builds
    European Union
    20
  • 21. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    European Union Components
    Council of Ministers
    Final authority over decisions
    European Commission
    Propose laws, execute Council decisions
    European Parliament
    Elected in member states, increasing power
    Court of Justice
    Interprets EU law
    21
  • 22. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    The European Union’s Governmental Structure
    22
  • 23. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Accomplishments of the EU
    Common foreign and security policy
    The single currency
    The European Constitution
    23
  • 24. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    EU Decision-Making Challenges
    Two decision-making procedures: consultation and cooperation
    How far and how fast should a process of pooled sovereignty proceed?
    How much should the EU’s membership expand?
    24
  • 25. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Other Regional IGOs
    NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    APEC: Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
    ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations
    CARICOM: Caribbean Community and Common Market
    CAEU: Council of Arab Economic Unity
    OIC: Organization of the Islamic Conference
    25
  • 26. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Nongovernmental Organizations
    Private interest groups
    Allow individuals to participate in global affairs
    About 30,000 total
    Often work with IGOs such as the UN
    Challenge state sovereignty
    26
  • 27. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Trends in the Number of NGOs Since 1956
    27
  • 28. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Indigenous Ethnic Groups
    Nonstate nations in the Fourth World
    Ethnopolitical groups: Common nationality, language, cultural tradition, kinship ties
    Form cultural domains that can cross national borders
    Kurds in Turkey, Iraq, Syria
    Clash of civilizations?
    28
  • 29. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    The Indigenous Cultures of the World
    29
  • 30. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    The World’s Major Civilizations: Will Their Clash Create Global Disorder?
    30
  • 31. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Religious Movements (1 of 2)
    Politically active organization based on strong religious convictions
    Theocracy
    Extreme militant religious movements
    They view existing government authority as corrupt and illegitimate because it is secular
    They attack the inability of government to address the domestic ills of the society
    They believe that government and all its domestic and foreign activities must be in the hands of believers
    They are universalists
    They are exclusionists
    They are militant
    31
  • 32. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Major Religions of the World
    32
  • 33. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Religious Movements (2 of 2)
    Militant religious movements tend to stimulate five specific types of international activities:
    Irredentism
    Secession or separative revolts
    Migration
    Diasporas
    International terrorism
    33
  • 34. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Transnational Terrorist Groups
    Terrorism today very different from the past
    More lethal
    Waged by civilians
    Technology
    Postmodern terrorism
    War in Lebanon and Hezbollah
    Difficulty in defining terrorism
    34
  • 35. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Multinational Corporations
    Primary agents of globalization of production
    Foreign direct investment
    Transnational banks
    Reduce political borders
    Distributed wealth unevenly
    Impact domestic politics
    Globally integrated enterprise
    Strategic corporate alliances
    35
  • 36. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Transnational Advocacy Networks (TANs)
    Lobbying governments
    Setting agendas
    Providing services
    36
  • 37. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.
    Issue-Advocacy and Global Civil Society: Can NGOs Transform World Politics?
    NGOs as a democratic force
    Networks of NGOs have contributed to the emergence of global civil society
    Low politics
    Single issue NGOs more influential
    NGOs compete with one another to influence decision makers
    37