Kegley Chapter 6


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  • IGOs are established by treaties requiring member ratification, and which act as the charter for the group. They are distinct from task groups or simple coalitions such as the G8. Well-known IGOs include the United Nations, Interpol, the European Union and the African Union.
  • The seeming decline in the number of IGOs in the late 1980s is the result of the merger of several previously independent IGOs.
  • The official languages of the United Nations are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.
  • There are currently 16 official UN peacekeeping missions throughout the world.
  • The International Court of Justice is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. It is located in the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands). The court is composed of fifteen judges elected for nine year terms by the UN General Assembly and the Security Council.
  • The WTO is headquartered in Geneva, and has 153 members. It functions primarily as a negotiating forum on trade for member nations.
  • The World Bank functions as a cooperative, with 186 member countries. Shareholders are represented by a board of governors who meet annually. The five largest shareholders are France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
  • The European Union is both an economic and a political partnership. Its goal is increased peace, prosperity and freedom for its citizens.
  • From few, to many. Expansion of the European Union has allowed it to emerge as a superpower.
  • Members of the European Parliament do not sit in national blocks, but in Europe-wide political groups.
  • Three candidate countries are Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey.
  • There are an estimated 650 million indigenous people worldwide, scattered in more than seventy countries.
  • Kegley Chapter 6

    1. 1. Chapter 6: Nonstate Actors and the Challenge of Global Governance<br />
    2. 2. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />IGOs and NGOs<br />IGOs: Intergovernmental organizations; members are states; have authority from state governments to make decisions regarding particular problems<br />246 in 2007<br />34 universal membership<br />NGOs: Nongovernmental organizations; members are private individuals or groups who focus on specific aspects of the global agenda<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Trends in the Number of IGOs and States Since 1900<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The United Nations<br />Founded in 1945; successor to League of Nations<br />192 members<br />Maintain international peace and security<br />Promote peaceful relations between states<br />Promote cooperation for solving international problems<br />Encourage human rights and freedoms<br />Collective security—paralyzed during the Cold War<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The Changing Membership of the United Nations<br />5<br />
    6. 6. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />UN’s Agenda<br />Six fundamental values <br />Freedom<br />Equality<br />Solidarity<br />Tolerance<br />Respect for nature<br />Sense of shared responsibility <br />Expansive issues, from security to desertification<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Organization of the UN<br />The General Assembly (GA)<br />192 members, all with an equal vote<br />Resolutions not considered law <br />Power over the small UN budget <br />The Secretariat <br />8,900 employees <br />Secretary General <br />The UN Security Council <br />15 members, “permanent five” have veto powers<br />7<br />
    8. 8. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The UN’s Headquarters and Global Network<br />8<br />
    9. 9. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Aspects of the United Nations<br />General Assembly dominated by the Global South<br />Controversy over size and nature of UN budget<br />Dominance of U.S.<br />Collaborate with NGOs<br />Budget problems<br />North–South differences over perceived priorities <br />Controversy over dues amounts<br />Controversy over inefficiency of UN bureaucracies<br />9<br />
    10. 10. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The United Nations <br />Great Powers <br />Great Britain, China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States<br />One State/One Vote scheme in the General Assembly<br />10<br />
    11. 11. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Important Functions of the UN <br />Deterring and Countering Aggression <br />Peacekeeping<br />11<br />
    12. 12. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The Specialized Agencies <br />Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)<br />The International Court of Justice (ICJ)<br />12<br />
    13. 13. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Four Views of the UN <br />UN as world government <br />The UN as irrelevant<br />The UN as a tool for states<br />The UN as a source of norms <br />13<br />
    14. 14. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />World Trade Organization<br />Successor to GATT (1947)<br />Promotes stable international economic order and smooth international trade<br />Formal decision-making powers over trade disputes<br />Decreases state sovereignty <br />Dominated by major powers<br />14<br />
    15. 15. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />World Bank<br />Created at 1944 Bretton Woods conference<br />International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)<br />Private and governmental loans to developing countries<br />Upholds international economic system<br />Promotes economic/political development and environmental sustainability<br />15<br />
    16. 16. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />International Monetary Fund<br />1944 Bretton Woods; now a UN agency<br />Stabilizes international monetary exchange rates<br />Lender of last resort; balance of payments problems<br />Dominated by wealthier states: weighted voting<br />Conditionality<br />Tension with Global South<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />European Union<br />27 members<br />Neoliberal theory: promote peace and prosperity through IGOs<br />1951 European Coal and Steel Community <br />Single economy with a common currency<br />Most western European states; most east European states also<br />Third Way<br />17<br />
    18. 18. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The Expansion of the European Union, 1951–2009<br />18<br />
    19. 19. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Functionalism<br />Remove the rationale for war through political integration <br />Peace by pieces<br />Use IGOs, shared sovereignty<br />Collaborate to solve technical transnational problems <br />Cooperation in one area would spill over into other areas<br />Cooperation based on self-interest<br />19<br />
    20. 20. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Neofunctionalism<br />IGOs created to manage common problems provide benefits that exert pressures for further political integration, creation of new IGOs, and increased interdependence<br />Leads to regional integration<br />Spillover—momentum builds<br />European Union<br />20<br />
    21. 21. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />European Union Components<br />Council of Ministers<br />Final authority over decisions<br />European Commission <br />Propose laws, execute Council decisions<br />European Parliament<br />Elected in member states, increasing power<br />Court of Justice <br />Interprets EU law<br />21<br />
    22. 22. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The European Union’s Governmental Structure<br />22<br />
    23. 23. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Accomplishments of the EU <br />Common foreign and security policy<br />The single currency <br />The European Constitution <br />23<br />
    24. 24. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />EU Decision-Making Challenges <br />Two decision-making procedures: consultation and cooperation <br />How far and how fast should a process of pooled sovereignty proceed?<br />How much should the EU’s membership expand?<br />24<br />
    25. 25. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Other Regional IGOs<br />NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization<br />APEC: Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation<br />ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations<br />CARICOM: Caribbean Community and Common Market<br />CAEU: Council of Arab Economic Unity<br />OIC: Organization of the Islamic Conference<br />25<br />
    26. 26. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Nongovernmental Organizations<br />Private interest groups<br />Allow individuals to participate in global affairs<br />About 30,000 total<br />Often work with IGOs such as the UN<br />Challenge state sovereignty<br />26<br />
    27. 27. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Trends in the Number of NGOs Since 1956<br />27<br />
    28. 28. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Indigenous Ethnic Groups<br />Nonstate nations in the Fourth World<br />Ethnopolitical groups: Common nationality, language, cultural tradition, kinship ties<br />Form cultural domains that can cross national borders<br />Kurds in Turkey, Iraq, Syria<br />Clash of civilizations?<br />28<br />
    29. 29. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The Indigenous Cultures of the World<br />29<br />
    30. 30. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The World’s Major Civilizations: Will Their Clash Create Global Disorder?<br />30<br />
    31. 31. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Religious Movements (1 of 2)<br />Politically active organization based on strong religious convictions <br />Theocracy <br />Extreme militant religious movements <br />They view existing government authority as corrupt and illegitimate because it is secular<br />They attack the inability of government to address the domestic ills of the society<br />They believe that government and all its domestic and foreign activities must be in the hands of believers<br />They are universalists<br />They are exclusionists<br />They are militant <br />31<br />
    32. 32. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Major Religions of the World<br />32<br />
    33. 33. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Religious Movements (2 of 2)<br />Militant religious movements tend to stimulate five specific types of international activities: <br />Irredentism<br />Secession or separative revolts<br />Migration<br />Diasporas<br />International terrorism<br />33<br />
    34. 34. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Transnational Terrorist Groups <br />Terrorism today very different from the past<br />More lethal<br />Waged by civilians <br />Technology<br />Postmodern terrorism<br />War in Lebanon and Hezbollah<br />Difficulty in defining terrorism<br />34<br />
    35. 35. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Multinational Corporations<br />Primary agents of globalization of production<br />Foreign direct investment<br />Transnational banks<br />Reduce political borders<br />Distributed wealth unevenly<br />Impact domestic politics<br />Globally integrated enterprise<br />Strategic corporate alliances<br />35<br />
    36. 36. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Transnational Advocacy Networks (TANs)<br />Lobbying governments<br />Setting agendas<br />Providing services<br />36<br />
    37. 37. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Issue-Advocacy and Global Civil Society: Can NGOs Transform World Politics?<br />NGOs as a democratic force <br />Networks of NGOs have contributed to the emergence of global civil society <br />Low politics<br />Single issue NGOs more influential<br />NGOs compete with one another to influence decision makers <br />37<br />