Kegley chapter 14

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  • Are terrorist groups now a category of nonstate actors on the global stage? Postmodern terrorism’s active and global nature has changed the ways that governments must confront it. The rapid spread of technology and weapons across borders has made battling terrorism all the more difficult.Terrorist NGOs: Al Qaeda, Revolutionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC), Hezbollah, Hamas, Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR)
  • Interpol (the International Criminal Police Organization) is an international law enforcement agency based in Lyon, France. It facilitates information exchange from 188 member countries, provides criminal databases and supports police operations. Interpol’s constitution prevents intervention or activities of a political, military, religious or racial character.
  • The global flu pandemic of 1918 (also known as the Spanish flu) was responsible for 600,000 deaths in the United States alone, and up to 40 million worldwide. Most of its victims were healthy young adults.
  • Red Crescent organizations are the Muslim country equivalents of Red Cross organizations. About 80% of the ICRC’s budget comes from governments, particularly wealthy nations. It has the advantage of being able to operate in areas where governments are not always welcome.
  • The WHO Global Influenza Surveillance Network Collaborating Centres (provided at no cost by Australia, Japan, the United States and Great Britain) provide analysis of current virus strains in order to make recommendations to the World Health Network, an agency of the United Nations.
  • Other examples of the tragedy of the commons are related to energy resources, forest, animals and overpopulation.
  • The United States is a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol, but has not yet ratified it. The Obama administration has signaled interest in international climate efforts, but not through this agreement.
  • Montreal Protocol (1987)Mediterranean Action Plan (1976, 1995)Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)
  • The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) monitors average global surface temperatures at thousands of sites, and shows a defined upward trend.
  • The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists 3,246 species as critically endangered.
  • The 2009 Global 100 listing of the world’s most sustainable corporations identifies twenty U.S. companies, including Alcoa, Amazon.com Inc., Baxter International, Coca Cola Company, Dell Inc. Eastman Kodak, Nike Inc. and The Walt Disney Company.
  • The global economy’s need for energy continues to rise, requiring more energy than is available from nonrenewable resources.

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 14: Population, Resources, and Global Environmental Politics
  • 2. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Transnational Crime
    Global Drug Trade ($300 billion per year)
    Money Laundering
    “Conflict Diamonds”
    Endangered species
    Stolen Automobiles
    Piracy of Copyrighted Materials
    The Arms Trade
    Terrorism
    2
  • 3. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    International Enforcement
    Interpol
    Combating Drug Smuggling
    U.S. Plan Columbia
    Combating Money Laundering
    Financial Action Task Force
    3
  • 4. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    The Spread of Disease
    Long history
    Bubonic plague
    1918 flu
    Polio
    SARS: 2003
    H1N1 (swine flu)
    4
  • 5. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Efforts to Fight Disease
    World Health Organization (WHO)
    USAID
    HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment
    Fighting infectious diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and polio
    Maternal and children’s healthcare
    Family planning
    Strengthening health systems
    5
  • 6. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    6
    NGOs in International Health
    The International Red Cross and Crescent
    Medecins sans Frontiers (MSF)
    The Gates Foundation
  • 7. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    The Agenda
    HIV/AIDS
    Malaria
    Tuberculosis (TB)
    Treating a new flu pandemic
    7
  • 8. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Ecopolitics
    The global commons: The physical and organic characteristics and resources of the entire planet—the air in the atmosphere and conditions on land and sea—on which human life depends and which is the common heritage of all humanity.
    Carrying capacity: The maximum number of humans and living species that can be supported by a given territory.
    Politics of scarcity: Scarce resources can undermine security and lead to military conflict.
    8
  • 9. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Global Environmental Problems
    Depletion of the ozone layer
    Global warming
    Biodiversity loss
    Overpopulation
    Oil shortages
    9
  • 10. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    The Tragedy of the Commons
    An example of what can happen with shared resources: land, fish, air.
    10
  • 11. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    International Environmental Collaboration Is Difficult
    Conflict with existing agreements
    Competing priorities
    Equity
    Scientific uncertainty
    11
  • 12. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    The Kyoto Protocol
    Limits greenhouse gases
    Includes provisions for emissions trading
    Problems:
    Some feel it is too restrictive
    Others feel it is too weak
    12
  • 13. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Other International Agreements
    The Montreal Protocol
    Reduce the production and use of gases that deplete the ozone layer
    The Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP)
    Limit the dumping of land-based pollution into the Mediterranean Sea
    The Convention on Biological Diversity
    The conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources.
    13
  • 14. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Ecopolitics
    Environmental security: Environmental threats can be as important as military threats
    Sustainable development: Economic growth that does not deplete the resources needed to maintain growth
    14
  • 15. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Climate Change
    Greenhouse effect
    CO2, methane
    World temperature to rise 2–12ºF by 2100 unless action is taken
    Possible effects of global warming
    Rising sea levels
    Warmer winters and more severe hot spells
    Increased rainfall in areas prone to flooding; dryer drought-prone regions
    The disappearance of entire ecosystems
    Increases in tropical disease
    Increased hunger and water shortages
    15
  • 16. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Rising Average Global Temperatures at the Earth’s Surface Since 1867
    16
  • 17. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Global Warming, Climatic Catastrophes, and Mass Suffering
    17
  • 18. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Ozone Depletion and Protections
    Emergence of an international regime
    Montreal Protocol 1987
    Strong scientific evidence and
    Active NGO epistemic community
    Can this translate to other issues?
    Mountains
    18
  • 19. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    The Ecopolitics of Forests and Biodiversity
    Biodiversity: The variety of plant and animal species living in the earth’s diverse ecosystems
    Deforestation
    1992 Earth Summit
    Desertification
    19
  • 20. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Loss of Forest and Ground to Deserts
    20
  • 21. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Biodiversity
    Genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity
    14 percent of the world’s species are threatened with extinction
    Most likely to affect the Global South
    Role of MNCs
    Enclosure movement
    21
  • 22. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Locating Biodiversity Bastions and Endangered Biodiversity Hot Spots
    22
  • 23. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Sources of the Ecological Threats to the Global Commons
    Tragedy of the commons
    Rationally self-interested behavior may have a destructive collective impact
    Overgrazing of animals on the village green
    Applies to human behavior and ecological systems
    23
  • 24. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    The Globalization of Planetary Dangers
    IPCC Report 2007
    Human activity is the main cause of global warming
    Climate Change
    U.S. and China major sources of CO2
    Burning coal also causes acid rain
    24
  • 25. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Touring Trends of the Greenhouse
    25
  • 26. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    The Global Politics of Energy Supplies and Consumption
    Oil is being used faster than it’s being discovered
    OPEC countries control oil supply
    Cartel
    Oil and natural gas located in politically unstable regions
    26
  • 27. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Toward Sustainability?
    Global solutions
    Converting to renewable sources for energy
    International treaties for environmental protection
    Free trade?
    “Green” corporations
    27
  • 28. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Phasing Out Fossil Fuels? The Potential for Renewable Energy to Supply to World’s Energy Needs by the Year 2100
    28
  • 29. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    The Number of International Environmental Treaties Since 1921: Protecting the Global Commons?
    29
  • 30. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Toward Sustainability?
    Local solutions
    California state laws
    EPA
    An Inconvenient Truth
    Change a light bulb.
    Recycle more.
    Use less hot water.
    Drive less.
    Conserve electricity.
    30
  • 31. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning
    Measuring National Commitments to Environmental Sustainability
    31