Chapter 12: The Political Economy of Trade and Monetary Relations<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Globalization of Trade<br />GATT-based on non-discrimination, rather than recipro...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />From GATT to WTO<br />Problems with GATT<br />Left agriculture and services out<br />...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The World Trade Organization Goes Global<br />4<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Growth of Global Trade Integration<br />5<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Contribution of Foreign Direct Investments to Globalization, 1970–2007<br />6<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Liberal International Economic Order<br />Shadow of the Great Depression<br />Set of ...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Main Differences Between Liberalism and Mercantilism <br />For mercantilism economic...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Commercial Liberalism<br />Humans naturally want to cooperate<br />Trade can benefit ...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Theory of Comparative Advantage<br />By specializing and trading, states and indi...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Comparative Advantage and the Gains from Free Trade<br />11<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Balance of Trade <br />Exports minus Imports <br />Mathematical impossibility for...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Exchange Rates and the Balance of Trade <br />13<br />The Interaction of Exchange Ra...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Protectionism<br />Beggar-thy-neighbor policies<br />Import quotas<br />Export quotas...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Liberal Approach to Trade <br />Comparative Advantage <br />Mutual advantage thro...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Realist and Economic Structuralist Critique <br />Ask, “How are the gains from tr...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Realism–Mercantilism<br />Government regulates economy to increase power and security...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Economic Structuralism<br />Like realists, ask “What determines how the gains from tr...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Constructivism <br />Embedded liberalism <br />Aims at explaining what happened in th...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Feminism<br />By ignoring women and issues of gender, other theories cause harm to wo...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Hegemonic Stability Theory<br />Peace and free trade depend upon a great power willin...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />United States: Declining Hegemon?<br />Largest economy<br />Share of world output dec...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Trade Trends and Troubles<br />Regional trade blocs: <br />Caribbean Basin Initiative...
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The Growth of World Trade and Wealth, 1950–2010<br />24<br />
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The Volume of Trade Flows Between Major Regions, 2005-2008<br />25<br />
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Kegley chapter 12

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  • Globalization (related to trade) refers to a process in which international trade increases relative to domestic trade, and the time and costs for goods, people information and money to flow across borders decreases. Also refers to the fact that the world is increasingly defined by single markets.
  • In 1944, the United States and its allies met to establish a new trading and financial system: the Bretton Woods system. It was intended to promote free trade and increase wealth, with the added benefit of seeming to defeat communism and promote peace.
  • Fair trade policies allow producers in developing countries to promote local sustainability. They most benefit producers in developing countries who supply goods to developed countries (such as coffee, cocoa, sugar, tea, bananas, honey, and wine) and work to increase their role in international trade.
  • A beggar-thy-neighbor policy in the United States during the early years of the Great Depression had little success, except in decreasing international trade. What are the implications for today?
  • In 2008, fair trade sales total over $4 billion worldwide, a small fraction of international trade.
  • China, Japan and Singapore are often described as neomercantilist.
  • Even in the wealthiest industrialized nations, there is a disparity between the average earned income of men and women. It is even more dramatic in the poorest countries, where education is often less available to girls than boys.
  • NAFTA: U.S., Canada and Mexico
  • Kegley chapter 12

    1. 1. Chapter 12: The Political Economy of Trade and Monetary Relations<br />
    2. 2. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Globalization of Trade<br />GATT-based on non-discrimination, rather than reciprocity<br />World Trade Organization (WTO)<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />From GATT to WTO<br />Problems with GATT<br />Left agriculture and services out<br />Non-tariff barriers to trade<br />Quotas <br />VERs<br />Domestic content laws <br />Health and environmental regulations <br />Difficult to resolve non-tariff barriers <br />3<br />
    4. 4. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The World Trade Organization Goes Global<br />4<br />
    5. 5. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Growth of Global Trade Integration<br />5<br />
    6. 6. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Contribution of Foreign Direct Investments to Globalization, 1970–2007<br />6<br />
    7. 7. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Liberal International Economic Order<br />Shadow of the Great Depression<br />Set of regimes established after World War II to promote monetary stability and the free flow of trade and capital<br />Bretton Woods Conference<br />WTO/IMF/World Bank<br />Spurred by globalization and interdependence<br />7<br />
    8. 8. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Main Differences Between Liberalism and Mercantilism <br />For mercantilism economic relations are conflictual <br />To mercantilism the states are the only important actors <br />To mercantilism it is to serve the national interest<br />To mercantilism politics determines economics<br />Mercantilism postulates that world transformations are products of shifts in distribution of states’ relative power<br />For liberalism economic relations are harmonious<br />To liberalism the major actors are households/business firms<br />To liberalism the goal of economic activity is to maximize global welfare <br />To liberalism economics should determine politics<br />Liberalism’s theory pictures global change in a dynamic ever-adjusting equilibrium<br />8<br />
    9. 9. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Commercial Liberalism<br />Humans naturally want to cooperate<br />Trade can benefit all and promote peace<br />Problems of capitalism boom-and-bust can be solved<br />Open markets and free trade<br />Principle of comparative advantage<br />Absolute gains of trade more important than relative gains<br />9<br />
    10. 10. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Theory of Comparative Advantage<br />By specializing and trading, states and individuals can increase overall consumption and efficiency. <br />Powerfully contradicts the realist view that international affairs are a zero-sum game. <br />10<br />
    11. 11. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Comparative Advantage and the Gains from Free Trade<br />11<br />
    12. 12. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Balance of Trade <br />Exports minus Imports <br />Mathematical impossibility for two states to have a balance of trade with each other<br />Fair Trade<br />12<br />
    13. 13. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />Exchange Rates and the Balance of Trade <br />13<br />The Interaction of Exchange Rates and the Balance of Trade<br />Equilibrium: Balanced Trade, stable Exchange Rate<br />Decreased Demand for Imports from Europe (Due to Increased Price)<br />Increase in US Imports (Trade Deficit)<br />Increase Price (in Dollars) of Imports from Europe (Due to Increase in Euro Price)<br />Increased Demand for Euros (To Pay for Increased Imports)<br />Increased Price of Euros<br />(Due to Increased Demand)<br />
    14. 14. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Protectionism<br />Beggar-thy-neighbor policies<br />Import quotas<br />Export quotas<br />Voluntary export restrictions <br />Non-tariff barriers <br />Protection of infant industries<br />Strategic trade policy<br />Countervailing duties<br />Antidumping duties<br />14<br />
    15. 15. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Liberal Approach to Trade <br />Comparative Advantage <br />Mutual advantage through trade <br />Extreme poverty in the world not a result of free trade, but a result of not enough free trade<br />15<br />
    16. 16. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />The Realist and Economic Structuralist Critique <br />Ask, “How are the gains from trade divided?”<br />16<br />
    17. 17. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Realism–Mercantilism<br />Government regulates economy to increase power and security<br />Economy subordinate to needs of state<br />Trade: Relative gains more important than absolute gains<br />International politics as zero-sum game<br />Neomercantilism<br />17<br />
    18. 18. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Economic Structuralism<br />Like realists, ask “What determines how the gains from trade are divided?”<br />Improve working conditions in third world factories <br />Child labor <br />18<br />
    19. 19. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Constructivism <br />Embedded liberalism <br />Aims at explaining what happened in the past, rather than explaining what will happen in the future. <br />19<br />
    20. 20. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Feminism<br />By ignoring women and issues of gender, other theories cause harm to women by ignoring their role in the global marketplace.<br />Assigned economic roles<br />Domestic work undervalued, ignored<br />Educational opportunities<br />Sex tourism<br />20<br />
    21. 21. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Hegemonic Stability Theory<br />Peace and free trade depend upon a great power willing and able to use economic and military strength to promote global stability<br />United States now; Great Britain before<br />Hegemon helps provide collective goods that benefit all<br />Free riders<br />Promote free trade and free markets<br />21<br />
    22. 22. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />United States: Declining Hegemon?<br />Largest economy<br />Share of world output declining<br />Largest debtor nation<br />Imperial overstretch?<br />Uncertain future for the international system<br />22<br />
    23. 23. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning<br />Trade Trends and Troubles<br />Regional trade blocs: <br />Caribbean Basin Initiative<br />NAFTA<br />EU<br />Free Trade Area of the Americas<br />Most-favored-nation status<br />Domestic political and economic factors affect trade and trade policies<br />23<br />
    24. 24. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The Growth of World Trade and Wealth, 1950–2010<br />24<br />
    25. 25. Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning.<br />The Volume of Trade Flows Between Major Regions, 2005-2008<br />25<br />

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