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The mobile learning potential of the Sakai CLE and Open Academic Environments

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The mobile learning potential of the Sakai CLE and Open Academic Environments. …

The mobile learning potential of the Sakai CLE and Open Academic Environments.

Dr Philip Uys
Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation
Division of Learning and Teaching Services
Charles Sturt University, Australia
<puys>

Tim Klapdor
Media Technologist
Division of Learning and Teaching Services
Charles Sturt University, Australia
<tklapdor>

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  • Mobile Interact is the big win – we can offer students better access to their learning materials, communication and interaction tools, social and collaborative spaces. Device trials will allow us to see how this technology will work at CSU – in our distinct learning situations – DE, work place learning, blended learning Learning Materials – the technology brings with it new ways of publishing content – eTexts, eBooks, Interactivity, Socialisation Subject Evaluations – key measurable of learning and teaching – want to improve response rates
  • Access – mobilising key services, applications, information Leverage – create new learning environments, create blended learning spaces, break away from the classroom, - applies to DE and workplace learning Technology – trialing ways to improve learning and teaching to be more timely, interactive, informative, Engaging – create learning that engages students
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    • 1. The mobile learning potential of the Sakai CLE and Open Academic Environments Dr Philip Uys Tim KlapdorDirector, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Media Technologist Division of Learning and Teaching Services Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia Charles Sturt University, Australia <puys@csu.edu.au> <tklapdor@csu.edu.au> DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 2. Key tenets of mLearning- mLearning deals with the mobility of the learner (anywhere, anytime)- It also integrates other uses of mobile devices (e.g. polls in the classroom)- Universities are using the students’ devices (not the university’s) , and we are movinginto their world in a more direct and personal way- mLearning via the Sakai CLE and Sakai OAE supports - Personalised learning par excellence - Supports authentic, situated, contingent and contextualised learning - Supports emergent learning - Supports social constructivist learning via direct communication and social media.It is difficult to define mobile devices because of the greyness of such a definition, but hereis an attempt:A mobile device is typically a pocket-sized or handheld computing communication device having adisplay screen with touch input, keypad or keyboard. Mobile Devices are typically wireless enabledallowing access to the Internet and use mobile Web 2.0 tools to connect and engage with somecomputing capabilities. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 3. mLearning within CSU’s online learning environment http://www.csu.edu.au/division/lts/docs/role/ltsystemsdashboard.pdf DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 4. Para-analysis (Buchan, 2010) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 5. SynopsisThe presentation aims to encourage discussion about new options for studentlearning through the use of mobile devices via the CLE and OAE.These new options relate to students accessing learning materials; accessinglearning support materials; performing learning tasks; participating in learninginteractions; performing assessment tasks; and evaluating teaching.Typical personas, real life examples, issues espoused in the literature will bediscussed and built upon. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 6. StructureIntroduction1. Students accessing learning materials2. Performing learning tasks3. Participating in learning interactions4. Performing assessment tasks6. Students accessing learning support6. Evaluating teaching7. Issues: Ethical; Educational; Technical; OtherClosingNote: The six areas are not watertight and overlap, separated merely as a framework DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 7. Introduction1. Focus on student learning Not student access to general administrative information e.g. time tables, maps Not staff use (although implications and overlaps) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 8. 2. Some recent studies•Abilene Christian University (Tim Klapdor visited): initial findings from 2008 to 2009 wereabove 80% satisfaction and the last two years this has risen to over 90%.•http://www.acu.edu/technology/mobilelearning/documents/ACU2009-10MobileLearningReport.pdf•Oklahoma State University reported 75% agreed or strongly agreed with the statement,“I think the iPad enhanced the learning experience of this course.”•http://news.okstate.edu/press-releases/929-ipad-study-released-by-oklahoma-state-university DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 9. 3. Some international developments• The Horizon Project is a long-running qualitative research project that seeks to identifyand describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning,research, or creative expression within learning-focused organisations. For the last threeyears mobile learning has featured as the number one emerging technology bothinternationally and in Australasia• Mobile devices (such as Phones, Smart phones, PDA’s, Tablets, Netbooks and PortableGaming Platforms) are more common and we are seeing an increase in usage ofhandheld ‘mobile’ devices by staff, community members and students. Many of these areInternet capable, able to connect to the Internet via a wireless connection, or via the 3Gmobile phone network.. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 10. • A changing trend in hardware towards mobile computing in a variety of forms. Amultitude of Mobile Operating Systems are in development including Apple’s iPhone OS,Google’s Android, Microsoft’s Windows Mobile and various Linux based systems. Theseare being launched in conjunction with the next wave of Tablet hardware (See: Apple iPadhttp://www.apple.com/ ; Motorola Xoom http://bit.ly/kYOFbk and Samsung Galaxy Tabhttp://bit.ly/muWjfJ). There is a considerable market push towards Tablets andNetbooks• A typical Smartphone has not only a wireless internet connection but a GPS,accelerometer, compass and multi-touch interface which can be developed to create amuch more personal experience where content can be delivered, created andcontextualized by a student’s physical location.http://www.lukew.com/resources/articles/MobileFirst_LukeW.pdf DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 11. • Tremendous growth in the number of new mobile devices, specifically tablets,expected over the next few years. Gartner predicts word wide rollout of 54.8 million tabletunits in 2011, 103.4 million in 2012 and 154.2 million in 2013 on top of the 11 million soldin 2010. Source.http://printceo.com/2010/11/gartner%E2%80%99s-optimistic-predictions-of-tablet-growth/•In the 3 years (2006-2009) mobile web traffic on the AT&T network in the USAincreased 50 times, up 4,932%. AT&T, Morgan Stanley Research•At the March 2011 introduction of iPad 2, Apple CEO Steve Jobs shared recent numberson Apples "post-PC" sales and market share.http://events.apple.com.edgesuite.net/1103pijanbdvaaj/event/index.html • Apple recently shipped their 100 millionth iPhone. • Apple has sold 15 million iPads - thats more than every tablet PC ever sold. • There are 65,000 apps specifically developed for the iPad. • There are more 350,000 apps available on the iPhone. • More than 10 Billion Apps have been downloaded from the App Store. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 12. • Relevant to CSU: the iPhone is the clear market leader in Australia with over 74%market share followed by Android with 13% ; in terms of tablets the iPad has a 92%share. iOS devices, which includes iPhones, iPods and iPads, account for more than 5%of the total web traffic in Australia.• In the final quarter of 2010 Fortune reported that Smartphones outsold PCs for thefirst time – a full two years before the prediction by Morgan Stanley – and according tothe UN Telecommunications Agency www.itu.int 77% of the world’s population nowhas mobile devices.• 99% of the students of the Catholic University of Mozambique has a cell phone,while less than 10% have computers• While mobile devices are often in developing contexts the primary device, thesedevices are often secondary devices in developed contexts.The technology is here in both developing and developed contexts, ready, available and in wide spread use right now. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 13. 5. mLearning at Charles Sturt University• CSU Educational Technology Survey among students (July 2010 ; n = 4000) o A large majority (87%) of students indicated that they wanted to revisit work from lectures on their handheld/mobile device. o Students were evenly split (50/50) among those who wish to access on campus information; subject information; subject readings; assessments or notifications on a handheld/mobile device. o 42% of students already had Internet enabled mobile phones. (Note that this survey was done very shortly after the iPad was launched in Australia). o Since 2005 we have surveyed our first year students in the School of Communication about a range of technology/media issues. Of the 207 surveyed in 2010 - 94% own a portable media player (e.g. iPod) and 80% use iTunes at least weekly." DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 14. • Investigation in 2010 identified need and optionshttp://www.csu.edu.au/division/landt/resources/mobilelearning/index.htm• Podcasting tool in Interact DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 15. • ePortfolio/PLE (Pebblepad) iPhone/iPod/iPad apps, as well as mobile web http://eportfolio.csu.edu.au/pebblepad/mobile DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 16. • CSU Replay (Echo360) which caters for lesson recording and vodcasts - accessplanned via iTunesU (second half of 2011)• Funding received for the mobile learning project for 2011 to 2013 o Mobile Interact (Sakai CLE in hybrid with Sakai Open Academic Environment) o Mobile device trials o Mobile learning materials primarily for distance students o Mobile subject evaluation at the end of each session DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 17. mLearning roject Objectives• Improve access• Leverage students mobility• To improve learning & teaching• Engage students DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 18. • General mobile access available: mobile web available targeting iphones and androidphones http://m.csu.edu.au DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 19. Mobile app this year will in addition have:• campus maps• contacts• student news• centralised messaging centre (up to 10 different sources) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 20. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 21. a. Learning PackagesKevin (20) is a student stuck in public transport in a regionallocation. While waiting to get home he uses his mobile device(an android tablet) to download information regarding hissubject, including the subject study guide. He is then able tomake use of this time to read through the content. b. eResources Michael (23) is a final year Vet student. His study is based in Canberra but he is going to do his 3rd clinical rotation in a dairy practice in Orange. Cattle are not his strong point, so he uses his iPad to download some readings and journals about common procedures that he can review in the field, or listen in audio format on the drive to the farm. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 22. c. eBooksMartha (28) is studying by distance. Whilst on the train she isable to browse books and resources in an online store on heriPad. Before she reaches her destination she has read a fewsamples and chosen to purchase an eBook of her prescribedtext so she can avoid lugging the large volume print copy to andfrom work.d. Pod/VodcastsRachel (43) has two children and is enrolled in CSU throughdistance education. She uses mobile technology mostly tocomplete her readings while on the move. She is able to accesspodcasts of her lectures while she is preparing dinner usingiTunesU, and on her hands free mobile phone while travelling towork and socially DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 23. e. Digital Object Management system (DOMS)Susan (35) is a student doing two Early Childhood subjects inEducation. Susan is able to use her tablet to search forresources that other students and staff have created that arestored in the DOMS (and accessible via Interact). She has founda couple of great resources and is able to quickly add them toher own collection for assessment and review purposes. Susanis able to quickly share the resource with other students bysending them links. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 24. 3. Performing learning tasks DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 25. a. In the Learning Management SystemAndre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in asmall country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad toaccess his Learning Management System modules, and have asense of it being a personal and personalised experience, andcommunicate with other students in the class using the chat tool.b. ePortfolio/Personal Learning SystemLiz (24) is a final year student in B. Information Studies (DE only),currently studying Social Networking in Info Studies subject. She isable to update her ePortfolio using her smart phone to keep arecord of any meetings that she will have in regards to work orstudy. She also uses the Pebble Pad application on her smartphone to document emergent/unintentional learning. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 26. send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMSc. Mobile CaptureMick (44) is a mature age student, family man and farming outsideBroken Hill. He is in his second year of study doing an joint agricultural/health science diploma by DE. Out in the field, where there is no networkconnection, Mick is still able to use his phone to take photos of examplesfrom his study guide which are also geo-tagged. When he is back at thehomestead he is able to upload them to the forums for discussion with hispeers. This supports contingent learning (reacting to the environment andchanging experiences), situated learning (learning takes place in thesurroundings that make learning meaningful). Mick also sends x-rays from outstations with comments to the academic for upload in the LMS, or sometimes upload it himself at the homestead. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 27. 4. Participating in learning interactions DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 28. a. Learning Management System ForumsGeorge (22) is on practicum for his nursing subject. He uses his mobiledevice to to access the online forums to see how his peers are going andto share his experiences. During his rounds he has had to deal with aparticularly difficult patient and during his break post how he and hissupervisor dealt with the situation. This stimulates a long thread of otherstudents sharing stories and techniques that they have picked up. Healso loads it up to his blog. Other students are able to read these and feelmore prepared if they are placed in similar circumstances. This supportsauthentic learning (meaningful learning tasks are related to immediatelearning goals).b. CHATAndre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small countrytown teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to access his LearningManagement System modules and communicates with other students in theclass using the chat tool. In addition, he belongs to a Mixit study groupwhere he also participates actively in chats. He is also a bof on using hismobile phone to participate in Twitter discussions. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 29. c. Messaging System - the Learning ManagementSystemPete (41) is an academic teaching a distance education cohort in theOutback, with only two residential schools per session per year. Hisstudents in the region have intermittent Internet access at best and themobile networks are far more robust. Pete sends notifications to students(using SMS) regarding the availability of new Internet resources as theyare posted so students know when they need to get online.d. Web Application ClientLiz (24) is a final year student in Bachelor of Information Studies currentlystudying a Social Networking subject. The class is immersed and engagedwith variety of Web 2.0 tools integrated in Sakai OAE. Using a webapplication client, the class is able to aggregate and share content on theirGalaxy Tablet from a variety of sites and applications in one central location.For Liz this is a great time saver. She can also use tools she is alreadyusing and familiar with. This supports personalised learning (learning iscustomised for the preferences, history and abilities of individual learners orgroups of learners). DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 30. 5. Performing assessment tasks DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 31. a. Self Assessment ToolsJames (29) is studying a health science degree. James is aboutto undertake a multiple choice test on the train as part of hissubject revision. To access this, James uses his tablet and anenvironment specifically designed for mobile use. Oncecomplete, James will get instantaneous feedback from the testand see where he may need to focus his studies for the examb. Individual and Group assessmentThe academic upload x-rays in the LMS. James and otherstudents,are then requested to comment on the x-rays. Theyaccess the LMS from their mobile phones and submit theircomments for feedback by other students and the academic. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 32. c. OLE Access – online assignment submissionSam (28) is a trainee parks manager completing a Bachelor ofEnvironmental Sciences. Sam is struggling to connect to anythingbecause of his location (very remote). Sam struggles with a poor internetconnection on his homestead but is able to get mobile reception in somelocations with higher elevation. Sam is able to take his tablet computerand submit his assessments using his mobile connection saving a longtrek into town. Mobile learning thus addresses geographical or spatialdistance. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 33. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 34. a. Subject Outline/SyllabusPatrick (37) is a post grad MBA student part time that works inthe city with a 45min commute each way. During his commutehe remembers that one of his assessments is due next week butcan’t remember the exact date. Using his smart phone he logsinto the Learning Management System, checks his subjectoutline and then marks it into his calendar with a reminder forthe weekend. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 35. b. Learning Support ToolsRobyn (58) is a mature age student returning to study after 25 years inthe workforce. She is struggling with the Learning Management Systemand with the DE materials that are so different from when she got herdegree. Fortunately she is able to access a range of resources and toolsto help her, including interactive tutorials so she is able to see how thingswork. She has to contribute to a Wiki in one of her subjects and afterwatching a video showing how wiki formatting is done she feels moreconfident. She has downloaded a cheat sheet to her mobile that lists allthe codes so she can refer to it quickly whenever and wherever sheneeds to. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 36. 6. Evaluating teaching DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 37. a. Classroom FeedbackLeanne (31) - first year academic teaching Accounting. It’s her first fulltime teaching position and she is nervous about her performance andshe will be in charge of reviewing and updating the subject next session.Leanne wants to ensure that she is engaging with the students, that theyare finding the subject information useful and the assessments beneficialso she has deployed a range of feedback tools to her subject materials.Students can “like” sections of the online modules as well as makecomments, which are recorded anonymously. Students have alreadycommented on a number of areas that are difficult to understand and shenow knows that they need further development. Students are able toupdate their comments simultaneously, using a their smart phone. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 38. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 39. Ethical issues• Inequity across different socio-economicgroups and ability to use the technology –organisation could provide; alternatives• Radiation: disputes around tumourcreation, impact on fertility - appropriate riskreduction strategies (e.g. Cancer Foundationof SA)• Negative impact on sight and hearing• Mobile use in class, and in assessment DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 40. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 41. Ethical issues•Privacy issue of being able to identify cellidentification numbers when “anonymous”participation is required• Fuelling addiction? DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 42. Educational issues• Integrated within blended and flexiblelearning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 43. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 44. Educational issues• Deep space learning versus shallowlearning• Real communication vs mediated• Appreciate varied learning preferences• Respect cognitive load (“head space”)• Limitations of multi-tasking• Redefined role of the teacher/educator? DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 45. Educational issues• Informal/mobile language acceptable?• Netiquette DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 46. Technical issues• Variable access (also regional and ruralAustralia – National Broadband Network) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 47. Technical issues• Variable platforms (apps against open“web” philosophy) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 48. General issues• Is it a fad? Gartner’s Hype cycle DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 49. General issues• Spaces are not neutral e.g. in assessmentand evaluation• Security (“mobile crime”!)• Political, socio-economic factors andimpact•Understand mLearning within aneducational change management framework DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 50. Four key change managementvariables1. People2. Tasks3. Organisational Structure/design4. Technology DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 51. LASO model(Uys, P.M., 2007): top down and bottom up strategies need to work in unison DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 52. In a time of drastic changeit is the learners who survive,the ‘learned’ find themselves fully equipped to live in a world that no longer exists Eric Hoffer DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 53. Conclusion DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 54. The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating; The paths to it are not found but made, and the activity of making them changes both the maker and the destination. Peter Ellyard as cited by Hogan 2003Hogan, C. (2003) Practical Facilitation. A toolkit of Techniques. Kogan Page, London and Sterling, VA. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 55. Ownership, initiative, ingenuity, responsibility DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 56. Thank you Dr Philip Uys Tim KlapdorDirector, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Media Technologist Division of Learning and Teaching Services Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia Charles Sturt University, Australia <puys@csu.edu.au> <puys@csu.edu.au> DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 57. LinksCSU Mobile Learning Investigation:http://www.csu.edu.au/division/landt/resources/mobilelearning/index.htmUys, P. M. (2010, December). Implementing an open source learning management system: A criticalanalysis of change strategies. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26(7), 980-995.http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet26/uys.htmlUys, P.M. (2007). Enterprise-Wide Technological Transformation in Higher Education: The LASOModel. International Journal of Educational Management (ISSN: 0951-354X), Emerald, UK.http://www.globe-online.com/philip.uys/2006 08 uysLASOmodel.htmCSU Educational Technology Dashboardhttp://www.csu.edu.au/division/lts/docs/role/ltsystemsdashboard.pdfCSU Educational Technology Frameworkhttp://www.csu.edu.au/division/landt/resources/documents/CSUEducationalTechnologyFramework.pdfPersonal mLearning collectionhttp://www.globe-online.com/mobilelearning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES