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Mobile learning in higher education - updated

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    Mobile learning in higher education - updated Mobile learning in higher education - updated Presentation Transcript

    • Mobile Learning in Higher Education Assoc Prof Philip Uys Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia puys@csu.edu.auKeynote presentation at the Australasian Council on Open, Distance and E-Learning (ACODE) 59 workshop. Melbourne, Australia. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 1. Introduction2. Examining the impact of mobile devices on highereducation3. Investigating mobile learning for Charles Sturt University4. Identifying and overcoming ethical, educational, technicaland general challenges5. Implementing a mobile learning strategy6. Summary DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 1. Introduction- Involvement: Sponsor CSU mLearn project; 2011 mlearning seminars in SA; judge ofGSMAs 17th Global Mobile Awards (Best Mobile Innovation for Education or Learning);attended the mLearnCon conference in San Jose last week.- mlearning - mLearning is about supporting the mobility of the learner (anywhere, anytime) with contemporary mobile devices - We are using the students devices (not the institution’s) and moving into their world in a more direct and personal way - Synchronous and asynchronous - Offline and online - Social/conversational - On-demand learning: more often than online learning, but shorter periods of access - With the expectation to continue on other devices - Tablets has accelerated the growth and demand for mobile learning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 2. Examining the impact of mobiledevices on higher education- general access to the “University”; learning and teaching; research – willfocus on the impact on learning in this presentation DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - CSU Ed Tech survey responses June 2010 (n=4000) • 87% of students want to revisit work from lectures on their handheld/mobile device • Students were evenly split (50/50) among those who wish to access on campus information; subject information; subject readings; assessments or notifications on a handheld/mobile device. • Since 2005 we have surveyed our first year students in the School of Communication about a range of technology/media issues. Of the 207 surveyed in 2010 - 94% own a portable media player (e.g. iPod) and 80% use iTunes at least weekly. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - CSU website access through mobile devices per month: January 2012: 51, 533 visits (growth of more than 1000% since January 2010) iOS accounted for 40,000. Total 245,508 unique visitors = 21% mobile- Other needs at CSU: - CSU students doing fieldwork need to access CSU’s learning and teaching systems wherever they are. - The envisaged increase in students from lower SES backgrounds could see a decrease in privately owned laptops with a resultant higher ratio of mobile (small screen) devices - Web content now “mobile first” DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - some mlearning developments in Australasia and beyond• Take up by many universities in Australasia and internationally due to mobile capabilityof LMSs• Abilene Christian University: initial findings from 2008 to 2009 were above 80%satisfaction and the last two years this has risen to over 90%.http://www.acu.edu/technology/mobilelearning/documents/ACU2009-10MobileLearningReport.pdf(ACU, 2011) 84 percent of ACUs faculty reported using their devices frequently in class tofacilitate enhanced classroom collaboration. 86 percent of students reported improvedstudent-to-student and student-to-teacher collaboration when using mobile devices in theinstructional process.• Oklahoma State University reported 75% agreed or strongly agreed with the statement,“I think the iPad enhanced the learning experience of this course.”http://news.okstate.edu/press-releases/929-ipad-study-released-by-oklahoma-state-university• Earlypilot programs have found that students feel that mobile technology encouragesexploration of additional course topics, helps manage time, provides new functions/tools, increases learning, and makes courses more interesting (University of NotreDame, 2011) and provide additional motivation for learning (Bond University, 2011) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • The Horizon Project is a long-running qualitative research project that seeks to identifyand describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning,research, or creative expression within learning-focused organisations. For the last threeyears mobile learning has featured as the number one emerging technology bothinternationally and in Australasia• Mobile devices (such as Phones, Smart phones, PDA’s, Tablets, Netbooks and PortableGaming Platforms) are more common and we are seeing an increase in usage ofhandheld ‘mobile’ devices by staff, community members and students. Many of these areInternet capable, able to connect to the Internet via a wireless connection, or via the 3Gmobile phone network.• A typical Smartphone has not only a wireless internet connection but a GPS,accelerometer, compass and multi-touch interface which can be developed to create amuch more personal experience where content can be delivered, created andcontextualized by a student’s physical location.http://www.lukew.com/resources/articles/MobileFirst_LukeW.pdf• In the 3 years (2006-2009) mobile web traffic on the AT&T network in the USAincreased 50 times AT&T, Morgan Stanley Research DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • Tremendous growth in the number of new mobile devices, specifically tablets,expected over the next few years. Gartner predicts word wide rollout of 103.4 million in2012 and 154.2 million in 2013http://printceo.com/2010/11/gartner%E2%80%99s-optimistic-predictions-of-tablet-growth/ DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • In the final quarter of 2010 Fortune reported that Smartphones outsold PCs for thefirst time – a full two years before the prediction by Morgan Stanley – and according tothe UN Telecommunications Agency www.itu.int 77% of the world’s population nowhas mobile devices.• By 2013, mobile phones will overtake PCs as the most common Web access deviceworldwide – Gartner Inc, 2010http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1278413• By 2015, 80% of people accessing the Internet will be doing so from mobile devices– 2011 Horizon Reporthttp://wp.nmc.org/horizon2011/sections/mobiles/ The technology is here, ready, available and in widespread use BUT availability does not mean that students are demanding it or that by itself it has potential to enhance learning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Impact on learning “There is something counter-intuitive but familiar about this approach to technology: new technologies often heralded and sold as “revolutionary,” are deployed to do the same old things” (p. 11). Hanley, L. (2011). Teacher as bricoleur. Radical Teacher, 90, 9-14. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - focus in this presentation on distinctive aspects compared to f2f anddistance educationSuch as using the:5.inherent affordances of mobile devices themselves (mobility, GPS,etc.)as well as the2. functionality on the devices (apps) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - A few standout items of the “24 benefits of mobile learning - MarcusBoyes” -1.Relevance: mobile learning enables training and evidence collection to be ‘situated rather than simulated’ and so it makes learning possible at the point of need e.g. Induction - 2. Elimination of technologicaland acceptance barriers: the use of a learner’s own mobile device means they are already familiar with the technology, eliminating technological barriers to accessing learning. - 3. Context sensitive learning: with GPS and the use of QR codes learning can become specific to a location DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Distinctive capabilities in learning and teaching through (personas):1. Students accessing learning materials2. Performing learning tasks3. Participating in learning interactions4. Performing assessment tasks7. Students accessing learning support6. Evaluating teaching DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Designing Content for Multiple Devices; Brandon Carson, Michelle Lentz DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Dell’s use of mobile training (MLearnCon)How Dell Is Building and Implementing Mobile Learning Alex Turkovic DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • a. eBooksMartha (28) is studying by distance. Whilston the train she is able to browse booksand resources in an online store on heriPad. Before she reaches her destinationshe has read a few samples and chosen topurchase an eBook of her prescribed textso she can avoid lugging the large volumeprint copy to and from work. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • b. Pod/VodcastsRachel (43) has two children and is enrolledin CSU through distance education. Sheuses mobile technology mostly to completeher readings while on the move. She is ableto access podcasts of her lectures while sheis preparing dinner using iTunesU, and onher hands free mobile phone while travellingto work and socially DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 3. Performing learning tasks DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • Research Andre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to find relevant articles and add it to “Instapaper” to read later (“Instapaper” also allows Andre to change the font, size and colour.) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • b. ePortfolio/Personal Learning SystemLiz (24) is a final year student in B.Information Studies (Distance Ed only),currently studying Social Networking in InfoStudies subject. She is able to update herePortfolio using her smartphone to keep a record of any meetings that she will have in regards to work or study.She also uses the Pebble Pad applicationon her smart phone todocument emergent,unintentional learning. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMSc. Mobile CaptureMick (44) is a mature age student, family man andfarming outside Broken Hill. He is in his second year ofstudy doing an joint agricultural /health science diplomaby DE. Out in the field, where there is no networkconnection, Mick is still able to use his phone to takephotos of examples from his study guide which are alsogeo-tagged. When he is back at the homestead he isable to upload them to the forums for discussion with hispeers.. This supports contingent learning (reacting to theenvironment and changing experiences), and situatedlearning (learning takes place in the surroundings thatmake learning meaningful). Mick also sends x-rays from outstations with comments to the academic for upload in the LMS, or sometimes upload it himself at the homestead. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • d. Geo-taggingKevin (20) is a student in environmentalscience who with fellow students visits anatural reserve near Sydney where variousplants and trees are geo-tagged to deliveronline information and enhance users’experiences via photo, video, audio andtext; on the user’s mobile device. Kevincan add to the information which is thenavailable to his peers. It is developed asan environmental teaching tool as well asan eco-guide for natural reserves andparks. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • e. SMSMichael (23) is a final year Vet student. Hehas a basic mobile phone (not a smartphone). He accesses CSU’s intelligentmobile answer engine that deliversknowledge bits over SMS. The return SMSwill contain the exact answer to the queryand not links to answers. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 4. Participating in learning interactions DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • a. CHATAndre (42) is a 4th year education studenton practicum in a small country townteaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad toaccess his Learning Management Systemmodules and communicates with otherstudents in the class using the chat tool. Inaddition, he belongs to a Mixit study groupwhere he also participates actively in chats.He is also an expert on using his mobilephone to participate in Twitter discussions. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • b. Messaging System - the LearningManagement SystemPete (41) is an academic teaching adistance education cohort in the Outback,with only two residential schools persession per year. His students in theregion have intermittent Internet access atbest and the mobile networks are far morerobust. Pete sends notifications to students(using SMS) regarding the availability ofnew Internet resources as they are postedso students know when they need to getonline. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • c. Web Application ClientLiz (24) is a final year student in Bachelor ofInformation Studies currently studying a SocialNetworking subject. The class is immersed andengaged with variety of Web 2.0 tools integrated inSakai OAE. Using a web application client, the classis able to aggregate and share content on theirGalaxy Tablet from a variety of sites and applicationsin one central location. For Liz this is a great timesaver. She can also use tools she is already usingand familiar with. This supports personalised learning(learning is customised for the preferences, historyand abilities of individual learners or groups oflearners). DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 5. Performing assessment tasks DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • a. Self Assessment ToolsJames (29) is studying a health sciencedegree. James is about to undertake amultiple choice test on the train as part ofhis subject revision. To access this, Jamesuses his tablet and an environmentspecifically designed for mobile use. Oncecomplete, James will get instantaneousfeedback from the test and see where hemay need to focus his studies for the exam DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • b. OLE Access – online assignmentsubmissionSam (28) is a trainee parks managercompleting a Bachelor of EnvironmentalSciences. Sam is struggling to connect toanything because of his location (very remote).Sam struggles with a poor internet connectionon his homestead but is able to get mobilereception in some locations with higherelevation. Sam is able to take his tabletcomputer and submit his assessments usinghis mobile connection saving a long trek intotown. Mobile learning thus addressesgeographical or spatial distance. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • c. Radio-frequency identification (RFID)James (29) is studying a health sciencedegree. He is required to attend a trade fair inSydney and check in with at least half of thestalls at the fair. RFID uses radio waves totransfer data from an electronic tag attached tothe student, through a reader for the purposeof identifying and tracking the object. Studentswear RFID bracelets that connects them totheir Facebook and Twitter pages. At eachstation they scan their bracelet and have apost or tweet automatically sent to their pages. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • a. Learning Support Tools and SMSRobyn (58) is a mature age student returning to studyafter 25 years in the workforce. She is struggling withthe Learning Management System that is so differentfrom how she studied when she got her degree.Fortunately she is able to access a range of resourcesand tools to help her, including interactive tutorials soshe is able to see how things work. She has tocontribute to a Wiki in one of her subjects and afterwatching a video showing how wiki formatting is doneshe feels more confident. She has downloaded a cheatsheet to her mobile that lists all the codes so she canrefer to it quickly whenever and wherever she needs to.Furthermore, she has elected to receive targeted SMSmessages such as reminders of assessments andencouraging messages at crucial milestones. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 6. Evaluating teaching DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • a. Classroom FeedbackLeanne (31) - first year academic teaching Accounting.It’s her first full time teaching position and she isnervous about her performance and she will be incharge of reviewing and updating the subject nextsession. Leanne wants to ensure that she is engagingwith the students, that they are finding the subjectinformation useful and the assessments beneficial soshe has deployed a range of feedback tools to hersubject materials through mobile devices. Students can“like” and rate sections of the online modules as well asmake comments, which are recorded anonymously.Students have already commented on a number ofareas that are difficult to understand and she nowknows that they need further development. Students areable to update their comments simultaneously, using asmart phone. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 3. mLearning at CSU DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • http://www.csu.edu.au/division/lts/docs/role/ltsystemsdashboard.pdf DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Implementation thus far: - 2012 iTunesU (private) with CSU Replay - since 2008 podcast tool in Interact: 2011 in 714 subject sites, out of approx 3600 sites = 20% - since 2010 ePortfolio/PLE system mobile web and iPhone/iPad app 2011 - 2013 mLearn project at CSU DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • http://eportfolio.csu.edu.au/pebblepad/mobile DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • General mobile access available since mid-2011: mobile web available targetingiphones and android phones http://m.csu.edu.au DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - 2011 TO 2013 to expand mlearning and explore sustainability issues(around $.5 million): • Mobilise specific features and tools from Interact (CSU’s learning management system Sakai) then Interact 2 (Sakai OAE) as a whole (2013) • Run trials of tablet devices: nuclear medicine; eCommerce; education • Develop mobile friendly media-rich learning materials, and • Mobilise the subject evaluation system. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Phase One trials: • Nuclear medicine: interactive elements to the classroom using responseware (clicker app); an information access point and communication tool for students on placement; Use multimedia capabilities to record learning practice in a video diary • eCommerce (ITC594 E-commerce Technologies): multiple cohorts; mobile technology and e-commerce; students create and develop content for assessment directly on the device • Education (EML302 Investigation: Literacy): create multimodal text; participate in weekly tutorial sessions with the iPad; develop writing tasks using the iPad; post writing tasks to a class blog DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Phase Two trials:•Demonstrating mathematics using an iPad.A combined trial involving academics teaching mathematics across the university - inPhysics, Business and in Learning Skills•Apps in Nursing: Simulation and Resources.Use of simulation application and digital copies of traditional paper based resources.•iPads for Accessibility.iPads given to disability students to assess the capabilities, improvements andaccessibility.•Online Tutorials from an iPad.Investigate the ability of staff to run online tutorials with students from an iPad.•iPads for Teaching.Academics from a number of schools including nursing, community health andenvironmental science will use iPads in their teaching practice and assess suitability as aplatform for a range of tasks from including in the classroom, to create content, paperlessmarking & integrating social media.•Class TrialsOne set to be used writing subjects to assess their ability and provide a platform forpaperless marking and use of social media. The other in a class Understanding DigitalMedia with advertising and communication students. DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 4. Identifying and overcomingethical, educational, technical andgeneral challenges DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Ethical issues• Inequity across different socio-economicgroups and ability to use the technology –organisation could provide; alternatives;decreasing cost of devices; blended• Radiation: disputes around tumourcreation, impact on fertility - appropriate riskreduction strategies• Negative impact on sight and hearing –blended learning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • Mobile use in class, and inassessment contexts DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Educational issues• Integrated within blended and flexiblelearning• Deep versus shallow learning DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • In-the-flesh communication vs mediated• Appreciate diversified learning preferences• Respect cognitive load (“head space”)• Limitations of multi-tasking DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • Redefined role of the teacher/educator?• Informal/mobile language acceptable? DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Technical issues• Variable access (regional and ruralAustralia) – National Broadband Network DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • strain on wirelessnetworks (Stanford; Duke:3 years to expand wireless andcellular coverage to 95 % of themajor areas on campus) http://www.ausnetech.com.au/images/cartoons/sept2004.gif DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • Variable platforms (apps against open“web” philosophy), create once, publisheverywhere – the promise of HTML5 DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • General issues• Is it a fad? Gartner’s Hype cycle • Spaces are not neutral e.g. in evaluation DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • • Academic needs DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 5. Implementing a mobile strategy DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - a mobile learning strategy has three variables: LAP modeladjusted from http://www.slideshare.net/dmolsenwvu/developing-a-progressive-mobile-strategy-bdconf-version DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Clark Quinn DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • CSU’s potential Mobile Learning Framework (to be followed by a Plan)• Background• Purpose• Context• Introduction •Aims and objectives of mobile learning •Definition of “mobile learning”• A vision for the use and research of mobile learning •Vision •Objectives• Key drivers• Key values and principles of using mobile learning• Principles governing the introduction of mobile learning• Strategies for increasing the appropriate use of mobile learning• Areas for development and review of policies to guide practice across CSU• Principles and standards of the required systems environment and infrastructure• Strategies for professional development and training• Principles about support for the use of mobile learning• The governance structure supporting mobile learning including committees• High level indicators of successful mobile learning at CSU DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Ric Canale: mLearning PolicyRoger Cook: mLearning Guidelines DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Building mLearning content- Integrate as part of the learning processi.e “doing” and interactivity, not just listen/read (supported by mlearning)(Traditional: Learning outcomes  learning content) DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - Select the apps to be used (especially free ones!) – distinctive of mlearning http://langwitches.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Bloom-iPads- Apps.jpg DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - consider platform: SMS / mobile web / mobile app (off-line + features of devicee.g. Geo-location)- consider special affordances of mobile devices that might add to the learnerexperience e.g. location/context awareness DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • One of the keys of a mobile learning strategy for highereducation: Produse: Use mobile learning to produce and consume knowledge Herrington, A., Herrington, J. & Mantei, J. (2009). Design principles for mobile learning. In J. Herrington, A. Herrington, J. Mantei, I. Olney, & B. Ferry (Eds.), New technologies, new pedagogies: Mobile learning in higher education (pp. 129-138). Wollongong: University of Wollongong. Retrieved from http://ro.uow.edu.au/edupapers/88/ DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • URLsBibliography provided to ACODE members as take home resourcemLearn project at CSUhttp://www.csu.edu.au/division/landt/resources/mobilelearning/index.htmmLearning project bloghttp://mlearnproject.wordpress.com/Uys, Philip mLearning collectionhttp://www.globe-online.com/mobilelearning24 benefits of mobile learning, by Marcus Boyeshttp://insights.elearningnetwork.org/?p=507mLearning in Higher Education (Curated by Tim Klapdor)http://www.scoop.it/t/mlearning-in-higher-education DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Design principles for mobile learninghttp://ro.uow.edu.au/edupapers/88/Top 50 Mobile Learning Resourceshttp://www.upsidelearning.com/blog/index.php/2009/11/02/top-50-mobile-learning-resourcesADL Mobile Learning Handbookhttps://sites.google.com/a/adlnet.gov/mobile-learning-guide/homeTop 50 mLearning Resourceshttp://www.slideshare.net/UpsideLearning/top-50mlearningmobilelearningresources DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • 6. Summary- On-demand learning: more often than online learning, butshorter access periods  chunking – example oftechnology changing pedagogy-- Seek out appropriate apps- Use the inherent affordances of the mobile devices DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • - Use mobile learning to generate knowledge- We are in their world: the learning is morepersonal-- “Mobile first” – for new content- New opportunity – fresh start – reboot!- DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES
    • Thank youSlides available from www.globe-online.com/philip.uys Assoc Prof Philip Uys Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia <puys@csu.edu.au> DIVISION OF LEARNING AND TEACHING SERVICES