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Creating and executing a successful mobile learning strategy – a Charles Sturt University case study
 

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Creating and executing a successful mobile learning strategy – a Charles Sturt University case study

Creating and executing a successful mobile learning strategy – a Charles Sturt University case study

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  • Professor Uys - Thank you for demonstrating a thoughtful and organized approach to creating an mLearning strategy. Too often new technology is used in education without considering the strategic goals.
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  • More mLearning links at http://www.globe-online.com/mobilelearning
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  • The slides, and other presentations and mlearning resources, are available from http://www.globe-online.com/mobilelearning
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  • Please also see http://www.slideshare.net/puys/the-mobile-movement-what-does-this-mean-for-tertiary-education
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  • Please also see http://www.slideshare.net/puys/mlearning-mobile-learning-seminar-philip-uys and http://www.slideshare.net/puys/the-mobile-learning-potential-of-the-sakai-cle-and-open-academic-environments
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    Creating and executing a successful mobile learning strategy – a Charles Sturt University case study Creating and executing a successful mobile learning strategy – a Charles Sturt University case study Presentation Transcript

    • Creating and executing a successful mobile learning strategy – a Charles Sturt University case study Assoc Prof Philip Uys Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia <puys@csu.edu.au>
    • > Rationale > Creating a mLearning strategy at CSU > Incorporating mLearning into your eLearning programs > Capabilities of mobile learning > Building mLearning content > Requirements for mLearning to be effective in higher education > Issues
    • Introduction
      • Sponsor CSU mLearn project; mlearning seminars in SA; judge of GSMA's 17th Global Mobile Awards ( Best Mobile Innovation for Education or Learning ) – worked into personas
      • Will be using cases and personas wherever possible
      • mlearning description
        • mLearning is about supporting the mobility of the learner (anywhere, anytime)
        • We are using the students devices (not the institution’s) and moving into their world in a more direct and personal way
        • Focus is on student learning (not access to general administrative information e.g. time tables, maps)
      • a mobile learning strategy has three key elements,
      • demonstrated in the personas that have been developed...
      adjusted from http://www.slideshare.net/dmolsenwvu/developing-a-progressive-mobile-strategy-bdconf-version
      • refer throughout to the mLearn project at CSU
      • the mLearn project at CSU
        • focuses on mobile learning within the unique context of Charles Sturt University
        • the biggest distance education provider in Australia: puts CSU in a unique position both locally and globally.
        • presents the project with a unique and dispersed student population who present challenges that are very different from many other universities.
      • mLearning project Objectives
        • Improve access
        • Leverage students mobility
        • Improve learning & teaching
        • Engage students
    • Rationale
      • Ed Tech survey responses June 2010 (n=4000)
        • 87% of students want to revisit work from lectures on their handheld/mobile device
        • Students were evenly split (50/50) among those who wish to access on campus information; subject information; subject readings; assessments or notifications on a handheld/mobile device.
        • 42% of students already had Internet enabled mobile phones. (Note that this survey was done very shortly after the iPad was launched in Australia, and while mobile devices are often in developing contexts the primary device, these devices are often secondary devices in developed contexts.
        • Since 2005 we have surveyed our first year students in the School of Communication about a range of technology/media issues. Of the 207 surveyed in 2010 - 94% own a portable media player (e.g. iPod) and 80% use iTunes at least weekly.
      • Other needs at CSU:
        • CSU students doing fieldwork need to access CSU’s learning and teaching systems wherever they are.
        • The envisaged increase in students from lower SES backgrounds could see a decrease in privately owned laptops with a resultant higher ratio of mobile (small screen) devices.
        • Enables and increases the opportunities for flexible delivery of CSU subject resources and other L&T content in line with CSU’s vision to be a leader in the provision of flexible delivery.
      • mlearning internationally
      • Take up by many universities in Australasia and internationally
      • Abilene Christian University: initial findings from 2008 to 2009 were above 80% satisfaction and the last two years this has risen to over 90%.
      • http://www.acu.edu/technology/mobilelearning/documents/ACU2009-10MobileLearningReport.pdf
      • Oklahoma State University reported 75% agreed or strongly agreed with the statement, “ I think the iPad enhanced the learning experience of this course. ”
      • http://news.okstate.edu/press-releases/929-ipad-study-released-by-oklahoma-state-university
      • • The Horizon Project is a long-running qualitative research project that seeks to identify and describe emerging technologies likely to have a large impact on teaching, learning, research, or creative expression within learning-focused organisations. For the last three years mobile learning has featured as the number one emerging technology both internationally and in Australasia
      • • Mobile devices (such as Phones, Smart phones, PDA ’ s, Tablets, Netbooks and Portable Gaming Platforms) are more common and we are seeing an increase in usage of handheld ‘ mobile ’ devices by staff, community members and students. Many of these are Internet capable , able to connect to the Internet via a wireless connection, or via the 3G mobile phone network..
      • • A changing trend in hardware towards mobile computing in a variety of forms. A multitude of Mobile Operating Systems are in development including Apple ’ s iPhone OS, Google ’ s Android, Microsoft ’ s Windows Mobile and various Linux based systems. These are being launched in conjunction with the next wave of Tablet hardware (See: Apple iPad http://www.apple.com/ ; Motorola Xoom http://bit.ly/kYOFbk and Samsung Galaxy Tab http://bit.ly/muWjfJ). There is a considerable market push towards Tablets and Netbooks
      • A typical Smartphone has not only a wireless internet connection but a GPS, accelerometer, compass and multi-touch interface which can be developed to create a much more personal experience where content can be delivered, created and contextualized by a student ’ s physical location. http://www.lukew.com/resources/articles/MobileFirst_LukeW.pdf
      • Tremendous growth in the number of new mobile devices, specifically tablets , expected over the next few years. Gartner predicts word wide rollout of 54.8 million tablet units in 2011, 103.4 million in 2012 and 154.2 million in 2013 on top of the 11 million sold in 2010. Source .
      • http://printceo.com/2010/11/gartner%E2%80%99s-optimistic-predictions-of-tablet-growth/
      • In the 3 years (2006-2009) mobile web traffic on the AT&T network in the USA increased 50 times, up 4,932%. AT&T, Morgan Stanley Research
      • At the March 2011 introduction of iPad 2, the late Apple CEO Steve Jobs then shared recent numbers on Apple's &quot;post-PC&quot; sales and market share. http://events.apple.com.edgesuite.net/1103pijanbdvaaj/event/index.html
          • • Apple recently shipped their 100 millionth iPhone.
          • • Apple has sold 15 million iPads - that's more than every tablet PC ever sold.
          • • There are 65,000 apps specifically developed for the iPad.
          • • There are more 350,000 apps available on the iPhone.
          • • More than 10 Billion Apps have been downloaded from the App Store.
      • In the final quarter of 2010 Fortune reported that Smartphones outsold PCs for the first time – a full two years before the prediction by Morgan Stanley – and according to the UN Telecommunications Agency www.itu.int 77% of the world ’ s population now has mobile devices .
      • By 2013, mobile phones will overtake PCs as the most common Web access device worldwide – Gartner Inc, 2010
      • http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1278413
      • By 2015, 80% of people accessing the Internet will be doing so from mobile devices – 2011 Horizon Report
      • http://wp.nmc.org/horizon2011/sections/mobiles/
      • The technology is here, ready, available and in wide spread use right now.
    • Creating a mLearning strategy at CSU
      • 2010 proposal to ILSCOSC, and investigation: consider national and international developments and developed key focii and personas
      • 2011: Propose CSU initiative through Initiative Handling Process
      • end 2011: staff appointments concluded (graphic/interface designer; mobile developer)
      • Implementation so far:
        • 2008 podcast tool in Interact: 2011 is 714 subject sites, out of approx 3600 sites = 20%
        • ePortfolio/PLE system mobile web and iPhone/iPad app since 2010 and 2011
    •  
    • http://eportfolio.csu.edu.au/pebblepad/mobile
      • General mobile access available since mid-2011: mobile web available targeting iphones and android phones http://m.csu.edu.au
      • 2012 iTunesU with CSU Replay
    • Incorporating mLearning into your eLearning programs
      • Balanced repertoire
    • http://www.csu.edu.au/division/lts/docs/role/ltsystemsdashboard.pdf
      • Synchronous and asynchronous: both in mlearn
      • Offline (including mobile) and online – often integration with online for further research or uploading content
      • 2012 and 2013 to expand mlearning and explore sustainability issues (around $.5 million):
        • Mobilise specific features and tools from Interact (CSU’s learning management system) then Interact 2 (Sakai OAE) as a whole (2013)
        • Run trials of tablet devices,
        • Develop mobile friendly media-rich learning materials, and
        • Mobilise the subject evaluation system.
        • Note: evaluation in July 2012 and end 2013
      • Develop a Web App (browser based application) for accessing Interact2 on a mobile device using the Sakai OAE Application Programming Interface (API) & Software Development Kit (SDK). Two unique user interfaces, one for smart phones and one for tablets, would be included in this development.
      • Creating a mobile interface for Interact2 will provide students with “everywhere, all the time” access to their central subject point. This will allow them to access all the relevant subject information, assessment and assignment information, learning resources and communication tools.
      • include self-assessment, classroom interaction, formal and informal messaging and access to learning materials.
      1. Mobilise specific features and tools from Interact (CSU’s learning management system) then Interact 2 (Sakai OAE) as a whole (2013)
      • purchase, support and maintain a number of different devices for trials during a 12 month period. These would be larger scale deployments than typical pilots and trials and consist of around 20-30 units to assess the devices for learning and teaching based outcomes. These trials by LTS could support design-based research activities by academic staff involved in the pilots..
      • inform further rollout, support and future direction in the area of mobile learning. Done in conjunction with research they will assist in measuring important outcomes such as student engagement, access, equity, experience and impacts on performance as well as the roll of the lecturer and instructor. The practical rollout of devices will also create an opportunity to discover issues especially in regards to equity and access, hardware, file formats, licensing and copyright.
      • on campus, DE students and students on practicum would all be targeted to see how well mobile devices can be incorporated to different learning environments.
      2. Run trials of tablet devices
      • deliver a full Subject Package in a format suited to delivery and consumption from a mobile device.
      • key to developing a strategy for blended and flexible learning that incorporates the affordances of a being truly mobile.
      3. Develop mobile friendly media-rich learning materials
      • investigate and trial a multifunction evaluation system for a mobile device that can be used in a variety of application (predominantly student feedback) to provide a simpler, quicker and easier ways of providing evaluation and feedback.
      • increased participation rates for the Online Evaluation Survey by building upon the ubiquity of mobile devices owned by students.
      4. Mobilise the subject evaluation system
    • Capabilities of mobile learning
      • Use the:
      • 1. inherent affordances of mobile devices themselves (mobility, audio, video etc, which is different than other educational technologies e.g. desktop)
      • plus
      • 2. functionality on the devices (apps)
      • Six of the “24 benefits of mobile learning - Marcus Boyes”
      • (embedded in the personas)
        • 1. Convenience and flexibility: mobile learning can be accessed
        • anywhere, at any time: at the exact moment learning is required.
        • 2.Relevance: mobile learning enables training and evidence collection to be ‘situated rather than simulated’ and so it makes learning possible at the point of need e.g. Induction
        • 3.Learner control: the always-available nature of mobile learning empowers learners to take the initiative and direct their own learning activities.
        • 4.Good use of ‘dead time’: mobile learning can happen during ‘dead time’, while travelling or waiting for a meeting to start.
        • 5.Elimination of technological and acceptance barriers: the use of a learner’s own mobile device means they are already familiar with the technology, eliminating technological barriers to accessing learning.
        • 6. Context sensitive learning: with GPS and the use of QR codes learning can become specific to a location or a real life QR code marker. But it’s not just location, it could be from your login to the LMS, your device setting or even your contacts list.
      • the three key elements of a mobile learning strategy will be demonstrated in the personas that follows...
      • Capabilities through:
      • 1. Students accessing learning materials
      • 2. Performing learning tasks
      • 3. Participating in learning interactions
      • 4. Performing assessment tasks
      • Students accessing learning support
      • 6. Evaluating teaching
    •  
    • a. Learning Packages Kevin (20) is a student stuck in public transport in a regional location. While waiting to get home he uses his mobile device (an android tablet) to download information regarding his subject, including  the subject study guide. He is then able to make use of this time to read through the content. b. eResources Michael (23) is a final year Vet student. His study is based in Canberra but he is going to do his 3rd clinical rotation in a dairy practice in Orange. Cattle are not his strong point, so he uses his iPad to download some readings and journals about common procedures that he can review in the field, or listen in audio format on the drive to the farm.
    • c. eBooks Martha (28) is studying by distance. Whilst on the train she is able to browse books and resources in an online store on her iPad. Before she reaches her destination she has read a few samples and chosen to purchase an eBook of her prescribed text so she can avoid lugging the large volume print copy to and from work. d. Pod/Vodcasts Rachel (43) has two children and is enrolled in CSU through distance education. She uses mobile technology mostly to complete her readings while on the move. She is able to access podcasts of her lectures while she is preparing dinner using iTunesU, and on her hands free mobile phone while travelling to work and socially
        • e. Digital Object Management system (DOMS) Susan (35) is a student doing two Early Childhood subjects in Education. Susan is able to use her tablet to search for resources that other students and staff have created that are stored in the DOMS (and accessible via Interact). She has found a couple of great resources and is able to quickly add them to her own collection for assessment and review purposes. Susan is able to quickly share the resource with other students by sending them links.
    • 3. Performing learning tasks
      • In the Learning Management System and for research Andre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to access his Learning Management System modules, and have a sense of it being a personal and personalised experience, and communicate with other students in the class using the chat tool.
      • He further finds relevant articles and add it to “Instapaper” to read later (“Instapaper” also allows Andre to change the font, size and colour.)
      b. ePortfolio/Personal Learning System Liz (24) is a final year student in B. Information Studies (DE only), currently studying Social Networking in Info Studies subject. She is able to update her ePortfolio using her smart phone to keep a record of any meetings that she will have in regards to work or study. She also uses the Pebble Pad application on her smart phone to document emergent, unintentional learning.
    • c. Mobile Capture Mick (44) is a mature age student, family man and farming outside Broken Hill. He is in his second year of study doing an joint agricultural /health science diploma by DE. Out in the field, where there is no network connection, Mick is still able to use his phone to take photos of examples from his study guide which are also geo-tagged. When he is back at the homestead he is able to upload them to the forums for discussion with his peers.. This supports contingent learning (reacting to the environment and changing experiences), situated learning (learning takes place in the surroundings that make learning meaningful). send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMS send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMS send x-ray with comments to academic for upload/upload in LMS Mick also sends x-rays from outstations with comments to the academic for upload in the LMS, or sometimes upload it himself at the homestead.
    • d. Geo-tagging Kevin (20) is a student in environmental science who with fellow students visits a natural reserve near Sydney where various plants and trees are geo-tagged to deliver online information and enhance users’ experiences via photo, video, audio and text; on the user’s mobile device. Kevin can add to the information which is then available to his peers. It is developed as an environmental teaching tool as well as an eco-guide for natural reserves and parks. e. SMS Michael (23) is a final year Vet student. He has a basic mobile phone (not a smart phone). He accesses CSU’s intelligent mobile answer engine that delivers knowledge bits over SMS. The return SMS will contain the exact answer to the query and not links to answers.
    • 4. Participating in learning interactions
    • b. CHAT Andre (42) is a 4th year education student on practicum in a small country town teaching year 2 children. He uses an iPad to access his Learning Management System modules and communicates with other students in the class using the chat tool. In addition, he belongs to a Mixit study group where he also participates actively in chats. He is also a bof on using his mobile phone to participate in Twitter discussions. a. Learning Management System Forums George (22) is on practicum for his nursing subject. He uses his mobile device to to access the online forums to see how his peers are going and to share his experiences. During his rounds he has had to deal with a particularly difficult patient and during his break post how he and his supervisor dealt with the situation. This stimulates a long thread of other students sharing stories and techniques that they have picked up. He also loads it up to his blog. Other students are able to read these and feel more prepared if they are placed in similar circumstances. This supports authentic learning (meaningful learning tasks are related to immediate learning goals).
    • c. Messaging System  - the Learning Management System Pete (41) is an academic teaching a distance education cohort in the Outback, with only two residential schools per session per year. His students in the region have intermittent Internet access at best and the mobile networks are far more robust. Pete sends notifications to students (using SMS) regarding the availability of new Internet resources as they are posted so students know when they need to get online. d. Web Application Client Liz (24) is a final year student in Bachelor of Information Studies currently studying a Social Networking subject. The class is immersed and engaged with variety of Web 2.0 tools integrated in Sakai OAE. Using a web application client, the class is able to aggregate and share content on their Galaxy Tablet from a variety of sites and applications in one central location. For Liz this is a great time saver. She can also use tools she is already using and familiar with. This supports personalised learning (learning is customised for the preferences, history and abilities of individual learners or groups of learners).
    • 5. Performing assessment tasks
    • a. Self Assessment Tools James (29) is studying a health science degree. James is about to undertake a multiple choice test on the train as part of his subject revision. To access this, James uses his tablet and an environment specifically designed for mobile use.  Once complete, James will get instantaneous feedback from the test and see where he may need to focus his studies for the exam b. Individual and Group assessment The academic upload x-rays in the LMS. James and other students,are then requested to comment on the x-rays. They access the LMS from their mobile phones and submit their comments for feedback by other students and the academic.
    • c. OLE Access – online assignment submission Sam (28) is a trainee parks manager completing a Bachelor of Environmental Sciences. Sam is struggling to connect to anything because of his location (very remote). Sam struggles with a poor internet connection on his homestead but is able to get mobile reception in some locations with higher elevation. Sam is able to take his tablet computer and submit his assessments using his mobile connection saving a long trek into town. Mobile learning thus addresses geographical or spatial distance. d. Radio-frequency identification (RFID) James (29) is studying a health science degree. He is required to attend a trade fair in Sydney and check in with at lesawt half of the stalls at the fair. RFID uses radio waves to transfer data from an electronic tag attached to the student, through a reader for the purpose of identifying and tracking the object. Students wear RFID bracelets that connects them to their Facebook and Twitter pages. At each station they scan their bracelet and have a post or tweet automatically sent to their pages.
    •  
    • a. Subject Outline/Syllabus Patrick (37) is a post grad MBA student part time that works in the city with a 45min commute each way. During his commute he remembers that one of his assessments is due next week but can ’ t remember the exact date. Using his smart phone he logs into the Learning Management System, checks his subject outline and then marks it into his calendar with a reminder for the weekend.
    • b. Learning Support Tools and SMS Robyn (58) is a mature age student returning to study after 25 years in the workforce. She is struggling with the Learning Management System and with the DE materials that are so different from when she got her degree. Fortunately she is able to access a range of resources and tools to help her, including interactive tutorials so she is able to see how things work. She has to contribute to a Wiki in one of her subjects and after watching a video showing how wiki formatting is done she feels more confident. She has downloaded a cheat sheet to her mobile that lists all the codes so she can refer to it quickly whenever and wherever she needs to. Furthermore, she has elected to receive targeted SMS messages such as reminders of assessments and encouraging messages at crucial milestones.
    • 6. Evaluating teaching
    • a. Classroom Feedback Leanne (31) - first year academic teaching Accounting. It ’ s her first full time teaching position and she is nervous about her performance and she will be in charge of reviewing and updating the subject next session. Leanne wants to ensure that she is engaging with the students, that they are finding the subject information useful and the assessments beneficial so she has deployed a range of feedback tools to her subject materials. Students can “ like ” sections of the online modules as well as make comments, which are recorded anonymously. Students have already commented on a number of areas that are difficult to understand and she now knows that they need further development. Students are able to update their comments simultaneously, using a their smart phone.
    • Building mLearning content
      • Integrate as part of the learning process – not an add-on extra, by supporting learning (including assessment) activities that is based on learning objectives/outcomes – example
      • i.e “do” and interactivity not just listen/read (supported by mlearning)
      • (Traditional: Learning outcomes  learning content)
      • Select the apps to be used (especially free ones!) – distinctive of mlearning
      http://langwitches.org/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Bloom-iPads-Apps.jpg
      • consider SMS / mobile web / mobile app (off-line + features of device e.g. Geo-location)
      • consider special affordances of mobile devices that might add to the learner experience
      • smaller chunks of material
      • create quick and simple interactions
    • Next Steps in Mobile Learning http://www.mobl21.com/blog/08/infographic-next-steps-in-mobile-learning/
    •  
    • Ethical issues
      • Inequity across different socio-economic groups and ability to use the technology – organisation could provide; alternatives
      • ( Cost of tablets should be coming down e.g. “$35 Tablet”, the UbiSlate, launched in India)
      • Radiation: disputes around tumour creation, impact on fertility - appropriate risk reduction strategies
      • Negative impact on sight and hearing
      • Mobile use in class, and in assessment contexts
    • Educational issues
      • Integrated within blended and flexible learning
      • Deep versus shallow learning
      • In-the-flesh communication vs mediated
      • True?
      http://olliebray.typepad.com/olliebraycom/ltscotland/
      • Appreciate varied learning preferences
      • Respect cognitive load ( “ head space ” )
      • Limitations of multi-tasking
      • Design of learning activities should be cognisant of relative small screen
      • Redefined role of the teacher/educator?
      • Informal/mobile language acceptable?
      • Netiquette
    • Technical issues
      • Variable access (regional and rural Australia – National Broadband Network)
      • strain on wireless networks (Stanford; Duke: 3 years to expand wireless and cellular
      • coverage to 95 % of the major areas on campus)
      • Variable platforms (apps against open “ web ” philosophy), so create once, publish everywhere
    • General issues
      • Is it a fad?
      Gartner ’ s Hype cycle
      • Spaces are not neutral e.g. in evaluation
      • Political, socio-economic factors and impact
      • Understand mLearning within an educational change management framework
    • Requirements for mobile learning to be effective in higher education
      • 1. Real world relevance: Use mobile learning in authentic contexts
      • 2. Mobile contexts: Use mobile learning in contexts where learners
      • are mobile
      • 3. Explore: Provide time for exploration of mobile technologies
      • 4. Blended: Blend mobile and non mobile technologies
      • 5. Whenever: Use mobile learning spontaneously
      • 6. Wherever: Use mobile learning in non traditional learning spaces
      • 7. Whomsoever: Use mobile learning both individually and
      • Collaboratively
      • 8. Affordances: Exploit the affordances of mobile technologies
      • 9. Personalise: Employ the learners’ own mobile devices
      • 10. Mediation: Use mobile learning to mediate knowledge
      • Construction.
      • 11. Prod use : Use mobile learning to produce and consume knowledge.
      Herrington, A., Herrington, J. & Mantei, J. (2009). Design principles for mobile learning. In J. Herrington, A. Herrington, J. Mantei, I. Olney, & B. Ferry (Eds.), New technologies, new pedagogies: Mobile learning in higher education (pp. 129-138). Wollongong: University of Wollongong. Retrieved from http://ro.uow.edu.au/edupapers/88/
      • mLearn project at CSU
      • http://www.csu.edu.au/division/landt/resources/mobilelearning/index.htm
      • mLearning project blog
      • http://mlearnproject.wordpress.com/
      • Uys, Philip mLearning collection
      • http://www.globe-online.com/mobilelearning
      • 24 benefits of mobile learning, by Marcus Boyes
      • http://insights.elearningnetwork.org/?p=507
      • mLearning in Higher Education (Curated by Tim Klapdor)
      • http://www.scoop.it/t/mlearning-in-higher-education
      URLs
      • Design principles for mobile learning
      • http://ro.uow.edu.au/edupapers/88/
      • Top 50 Mobile Learning Resources
      • http://www.upsidelearning.com/blog/index.php/2009/11/02/top-50-mobile-learning-resources
      • ADL Mobile Learning Handbook
      • https://sites.google.com/a/adlnet.gov/mobile-learning-guide/home
      • Top 50 mLearning Resources
      • http://www.slideshare.net/UpsideLearning/top-50mlearningmobilelearningresources
      • Plan – design – implement – evaluate
      • Think:
      • Seek out appropriate apps
      • Use the affordances of the mobile device and the applications
      Conclusion
      • Use mobile learning to generate knowledge
      • We are in their world
      • Think:
        • The future is not some place we are going to, but one we are creating;
        • The paths to it are not found but made, and the activity of making them changes both the maker and the destination
      • Peter Ellyard as cited by Hogan 2003
      • Hogan, C. (2003) Practical Facilitation. A toolkit of Techniques . Kogan Page, London and Sterling, VA.
    • Thank you Assoc Prof Philip Uys Director, Strategic Learning and Teaching Innovation Division of Learning and Teaching Services Charles Sturt University, Australia <puys@csu.edu.au> Slides available from www.globe-online.com/philip.uys