Likewise, the earth’s atmospheric gases affect the ability of the earth to radiate the Sun’s energy back into space. Nitrogen, Oxygen and Argon make up >99% of the earth’s atmospheric gases and are non-greenhouse gases. Water, Carbon Dioxide, and Methane make up <1% of the earth’s atmosphere, but are greenhouse gases , since they cause the earth to retain heat.
Mount Kilimanjaro is the poster child of the global warming movement, since most of the glacier has disappeared over the last 30 years. However experts agree that the shrinking of the Mount Kilimanjaro glacier is more the result of deforestation of the surrounding area than changes due to global warming.
Mrs.Jessy Jacob, Mrs.Puvaneswari, Mrs.Vijayalakshmi Mrs.Subha, Mrs.Abinimol, Mrs.Sherin FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING DEPARTMENT NARAYANA HRUDAYALAYA COLLEGE OF NURSING BANGALORE
INTRODUCTION One of the major environmental issues haunting people is Global warming. Everyone agrees that our planet is getting warmer. Global Warming is one of the most dangerous situations, that the earth has to suffer in the upcoming years Its very important to consider this problem, because it is the problem of human existence.
Global warming is a phrase that is used to describe the increase in the earth ´s temperature. This rise in temperature is attributed to an increase in greenhouse gases ( Water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone, methane) Levels of greenhouse gases have increased substantially over the last century. A huge amount of carbon dioxide is spreading day by day in our environment.
MEANINGGlobal warming is an average increase in the temperature of theatmosphere . It happens when greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide,water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane) trap heat and lightfrom the sun in the earth’s atmosphere. Global warming canoccur from a variety of causes, both natural and human induced .
Report by fourth assessment-IPCC GAS PRE INDUSTRIAL CURRENT INCREASE LEVEL LEVEL SINCE 1750 CARBONDIOXIDE 280PPM 396 PPM 116PPM METHANE 700 PPB 1745 PPB 1045PPB NITROUS OXIDE 270 PPB 314 PPB 44PPB CFC 0 533 PPT 533PPT•Nitrous oxide absorbs 270 times more heat per molecule thancarbon dioxide•Methane absorbs 21 times more heat per molecule than carbondioxide.
GREEN HOUSE GASES Greenhouse gases are those that can absorb and emit infrared radiation . The primary greenhouse gases in the Earths atmosphere areWater vaporCarbon dioxideMethaneNitrous oxideOzone.Chlorofluorocarbons ( CFC)
Greenhouse effectThe greenhouse effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature
CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING•Natural causes•Man-made or anthropogeniccauses
Natural causesClimate Change Cycles- There are Cycles of cooling and cycles of warming every 40,000 yearsWetlands – It is characterized by water-logged soils that contributes atmospheric methane by methanogenesis (occurs in oxygen poor environments).
Tundra geography - Freezing ground releases a large and unexpected burst of methane into the air.Cattle - Cow releases 70 and 120 kg of Methane per year
Solar Cycles - High solar activity are on average 0.2°C warmer than times of low solar activity Sunspots –Sunspots are relatively dark areas on the radiating surface which elevates the radiating surface temperature
Volcanoes- Volcanoes release SO2, Cl2, HCl, H2O, Ash, and CO2 into the atmosphere. Over the past 100 years, the earth has warmed about one degree Fahrenheit
MAN MADE CAUSES Power plant - Burning of fossil fuels (Coal, oil and natural gas) for the purpose of electricity generation which releases carbon dioxide carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxide.
Transportation/ Air pollution - Emission from motor fuel accounts for 60% of carbon emissions over the past 20 years.
Increased Population leads to global warming because of increased need for food production, animals , transportation etc
Agriculture - Rice paddies, bovine flatulence, organic matter in the soil etc releases methane to the atmosphere
Deforestation - 1.6 billion tones of greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere each year by deforestation .Trees collect the CO2 and they give back oxygen .
Construction of Building-causes global warming because The use of electricity increases Emits CO2 while preparing of raw materials for building Garbage can liberate carbon dioxide and other gases
Fertilizers and Chemical Industry- Thinning of ozone layer or ozone hole is due to man-made chemicals like chlorofluorocarbons (CFC )
Plastics Manufacture of plastics uses a lot of energy and releases pollutants. It do not biodegrade in the environmentIncineration produces more greenhouse gases.
Impact of global warmingIce melting The ice of the Arctic region is disappearing. Summer in the Arctic could be ice free within 80 years. Melting of two massive ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland, Leads to Rise in sea levels
Floods Climate changes leads to warming of the sea. The warm water take up more space than cool water and surface level of sea’s increase.
Hurricanes As the temperature of the oceans rises there is more probability for frequent and stronger hurricanes
Extreme weather Erratic weather patterns that are increasingly being recorded around the world . It leads to wildfires and tornadoes. In 2007, more than 3,000 fires brought destruction to Southeastern Europe
Droughts and heat wavesAlthough some areas of Earth will become wetter due toglobal warming, other areas will suffer serious droughts andheat waves.
Diminished food and water suppliesReduced rainfall, severe droughts and loss of soil fertility affects food and water suppliesIt leads to disease, malnutrition, starvation and, ultimately, death
Tsunamis Extremely heavy, massive glaciers apply a considerable amount of pressure to the Earth’s surface underneath them. Diminished glaciers causes‘ freeing up’ of tectonic masses and leads to massive earthquakes and deadly tsunamis.
Increased volcanic activity Melting glaciers can cause frequent and more dangerous episodes of volcanic activity It releases tons of gases and solids into the atmosphere
Acidic oceansHigher levels of CO2 causes ocean acidification It is bad for coral reefs and other species.
Economic consequences Natural calamities like floods , hurricanes etc causes damage to life, infrastructure etcBillions of dollars are required for rehabilitation
Health consequences Vehicular fumes, industrial pollution and the stagnant hot air associated with heat waves etc causes immediate and chronic health problems such as emphysema, bronchitis and asthma
Outbreaks of deadly diseasesDiseases like Avian ‘Flu, Cholera, Plague and Tuberculosis willbe common.
Animal extinctionPolar Bears requires ice to live and might eventually go extinct as ice meltsSea turtles could go extinct as beaches are floodedOther species such as elephant may go extinct as rainfall patterns change throughout the world
Animal attacks : Animals may leave their natural habitats and come in contact with human settlements leading to many deaths among humans
Largest glacier in South America is disappearing at a rateof 200 meters each year.
Eat fresh, local and seasonal foodsReduces carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding long distance transportation , cold storage etc
Use alternate energy sourcesElectricity generation is the dominant industrial source of CO2 emissions. In Alternate energy sources such as Hydroelectric power, Solar ,Wind, Nuclear power etc CO2 emissions are negligible because no fuels are burned.Nuclear power : Releases one fiftieth of greenhouse gas into the atmosphere when compared to a coal plant.
Landfill GasCauses nitrogen oxides as well as carbon dioxide emissionsThe CO2 released from burning landfill gas is considered as a part of the natural carbon cycle of the earth.Producing electricity from landfill gas avoids the need to use non- renewable resources to produce the same amount of electricity.In addition, burning landfill gas prevents the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas into the atmosphere.
Biomass power plantsBiomass power plants emit nitrogen oxides and a small amount of sulfur dioxide. Burning of biomass produces carbon dioxide, but it is considered as the part of the natural carbon cycle of the earth. The plants take up carbon dioxide from the air while they are growing and then return it to the air when they are burned, thereby causing no net increase
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle waste Reduce waste by choosing reusable products instead of disposables. Buy products with minimal packaging Use cloth bags for shopping Donate unused house items rather than sending for land fill. Make best out of waste. Recycle paper, plastic newspaper, glass and aluminum cans. If you reduce your household garbage by 10 percent, you can save 1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.
Replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescentlight (CFL) bulbs.CFL uses two-thirds less energyGive off 70 percent less heat.Lasts 10 times longer than incandescent bulbs
Minimize the use of electricityBuy Energy-Efficient Products : Home appliances are now available in a range of energy-efficient models.Replace old itemsAvoid electronic exercisingUse full load while using dish washer or washing machines. It saves energy, time and water
Plant a TreeDuring photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of carbon dioxide during its lifetime
Use "Off" SwitchTurn off lights when leave a roomUse only as much light as you need.Turn off television, video player, stereo and computer when not using them. Switch off electronic equipments such as T.V, computers , fan, lights etc. when not using it
Save water Reuse water Turn off the water when not using it. While brushing your teeth shampooing the pet washing car. Install low-flow toilets in the home, or put a bottle of water in the tank of your current toilet. The space the bottle takes up in the bottom of the tank will permit you to useless water, but keep the toilet functioning.
Use Less Air ConditioningDress lightly when it is hot rather than using air conditioner or fanDress warmly when it is warm rather than using heatersControl your climate naturally. watch the temperature outside and open and close the windows accordingly. Setting thermostat just 2 degrees lower in winter and higher in summer could saves 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide each year.
Drive Less and Drive Smart Walk short distances rather than using vehicles Use energy efficient vehicles. Choose a vehicle that has good mileage. keeping the tires properly inflated improves the mileage more than 3 percent and also keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Check out options for carpooling ,Public transport etc. Reduce air travel.
Encourage OthersShare information about recycling and energy conservation with friends, neighbors and co-workersEncourage public officials to establish programs and policiesthat are good for the environment.
CONCLUSIONGlobal warming is a deep rooted problem, and only a collective effort of humanity can reduce its effects.Global warming wont disappear overnight, but if each of us follows the measures mentioned above we can prevent global warming to some extent.For us and for our future generations, each of us must make the decision to take whatever steps are necessary to prevent global warmingTogether we can make a difference!