SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

C H A P T E R

7
Irwin/McGraw-Hill

DATA MODELIN...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Chapter Seven
•

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling and Analysis

Def...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Chapter Map

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Copyright © 2000...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

System Models

A model is a representation of re...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling

Data modeling is a technique for ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Sample Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD)

Irwin/...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Entity

An entity is a c...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Entity

An entity instan...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Attributes
An attribute ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Domains

The data type f...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Identification
A key is ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Identification Keys & Su...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Relationships

A relatio...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Cardinality

Cardinality...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Degree

The degree of a ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Degree

A recursive rela...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Degree

Relationships ma...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Degree
An associative
en...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Foreign Keys
A foreign k...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Foreign Keys
Nonidentify...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Foreign Keys

Irwin/McGr...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Foreign Keys
A nonspecif...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Resolving Nonspecific Relationships (continued)
...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Resolving Nonspecific Relationships (continued)
...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Modeling Concepts: Generalization

Generali...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Generalization Hierarchy

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Cop...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Entity Discovery for SoundStage
Entity Name
agre...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

The Context Data Model

MEMBER ORDER

is a

sell...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

The Key-based Data Model
MEMBER ORDER
Primary Ke...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

The Key-based Data Model With Generalization
is ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

The Fully-Attributed Data Model

sells

MEMBER O...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Data Analysis & Normalization

Data analysis is ...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Normalization: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF
• An entity is in f...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

First Normal Form Example

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Co...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

First Normal Form Example

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Co...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Second Normal Form Example

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

C...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Second Normal Form Example

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

C...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Third Normal Form Example

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Co...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Third Normal Form Example

Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Co...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

SoundStage 3NF Data Model
MEMBER ORDERED PRODUCT...
SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Customer
.Customer Number
.Customer Name
.Custom...
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  • This repository of slides is intended to support the named chapter. The slide repository should be used as follows:
    Copy the file to a unique name for your course and unit.
    Edit the file by deleting those slides you don’t want to cover, editing other slides as appropriate to your course, and adding slides as desired.
    Print the slides to produce transparency masters or print directly to film or present the slides using a computer image projector.
    Each slide includes instructor notes. To view those notes in PowerPoint, click left on the View Menu; then click left on Notes View sub-menu. You may need to scroll down to see the instructor notes.
    The instructor notes are also available in hard copy as the Instructor Guide to Accompany Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 5/ed.
  • No additional notes
  • Teaching Notes
    The emphasis of this chapter is upon the DATA. It also reflects the fact that data modeling may be performed during certain analysis phases and involves not only systems analysts…but owners and users.
  • Teaching Tips:
    While we do provide some subsequent slides that are examples of different types of models, you may obtain additional slides from chapters 7 and 8 to show them examples of logical data models and logical process models, and you may obtain additional slides from chapters 11-15 to show them examples of various physical models. Be sure to emphasis that the models represent or document technical implementations.
  • No additional notes
  • Teaching Tips
    Be sure to explain that this is merely an example –there are numerous data modeling notations. While they may differ in appearance (symbology) the knowledge that data models are intended to convey the same.
  • Teaching Tips:
    Prompt the students for additional examples. Have them classify their example(s).
    Obtain a data model from a source other than the textbook. Ask the students to classify the entities.
  • Teaching Tips
    Substitute the name(s) of one or more of your students.
    Be sure to explain that these are “instances” and that instances do NOT appear in the names of entity symbols.
  • Teaching Tips:
    Show the students slide #6. Pick an entity and ask the students to list attributes that they feel describe those entities.
    Show the students a form. Ask the students to identify the attributes. Be sure that the students recognize what items appearing on the form are truly attributes and those that are simply headings or preprinted items. Also, often times students accidentally identify attribute values as attributes. For example, they may say that an item that appears as a check box is an attribute when in fact it may be the value of an attribute (ie. Male and female are values, whereas GENDER is the real attribute).
  • No additional notes
  • No additional notes
  • No additional notes
  • Teaching Tips
    Explain that there may be more than one relationship between two entities. You may reinforce this by adding additional relationships to the example (such as “transferred from” (to reflect a relationship where students changed from one curriculum to another).
  • Teaching Tips
    Ask the students to read (or write) declarative sentences to reflect the bidirectional meaning of the relationship between student and curriculum.
  • Teaching Tips:
    Provide the students with an ERD that does not contain relationships. Ask the students to identify possible relationships and indicate a possible degree for that relationship.
    Emphasize to the students that the degree represents a business rule! Failure to accurately identify and document the degree will result in a system that does not reflect a correct business requirement.
  • Teaching Tips
    Ask the students to read (or write) declarative sentences to reflect the bidirectional meaning of the relationship.
    We created a composite key in this example. Be sure to point out the notation.
  • Teaching Tips
    The example also depicts an associative entity for the first time…as explained on the next slide.
  • No additional notes
  • Teaching Tips
    Additional examples should be given to test the student’s ability to recognize the parent entity. We suggest you also provide an example of a one-to-one relationship!
  • No additional notes
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  • No additional notes
  • No additional notes
  • Teaching Tips:
    Ask the students to identify a generalization example. What are some common attributes? What are some unique attributes associated with the subtype(s)?
  • No additional notes
  • Conversion Notes
    Several business changes were made to the SoundStage running case study. Thus, the entity list and subsequent data models and normalization examples have changed from the previous edition.
  • No additional notes.
  • Edit this slide as needed to ensure readability.
  • Edit this slide as needed to ensure readability.
  • Edit this slide as needed to ensure readability.
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  • Edit this slide as needed to ensure readability.
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  • Asi Chap007

    1. 1. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman C H A P T E R 7 Irwin/McGraw-Hill DATA MODELING AND ANALYSIS Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    2. 2. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Chapter Seven • Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling and Analysis Define systems modeling and differentiate between logical and physical system models. • Define data modeling and explain its benefits. • Recognize and understand the basic concepts and constructs of a data model. • Read and interpret an entity relationship data model. • Explain when data models are constructed during a project and where the models are stored. • Discover entities and relationships. • Construct an entity-relationship context diagram. • Discover or invent keys for entities and construct a key-based diagram. • Construct a fully attributed entity relationship diagram and describe all data structures and attributes to the repository or encyclopedia. • Normalize a logical data model to remove impurities that can make a database unstable, inflexible, and nonscalable. • Describe a useful tool for mapping data requirements to business operating locations. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved Irwin/McGraw-Hill
    3. 3. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Chapter Map Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    4. 4. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman System Models A model is a representation of reality. Logical models show what a system is or does. They are implementation independent; that is, they depict the system independent of any technical implementation. Physical models show not only what a system is or does, but also how the system is physically and technically implemented. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    5. 5. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Data modeling is a technique for organizing and documenting a system’s data. Data modeling is sometimes called database modeling because a data model is eventually implemented as a database. It is sometimes called information modeling. The actual model is frequently called an entity relationship diagram (ERD) because it depicts data in terms of the entities and relationships described by the data. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    6. 6. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Sample Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    7. 7. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Entity An entity is a class of persons, places, objects, events, or concepts about which we need to capture and store data. Name of Entity  Persons: agency, contractor, customer, department, division, employee, instructor, student, supplier.  Places: sales region, building, room, branch office, campus.  Objects: book, machine, part, product, raw material, software license, software package, tool, vehicle model, vehicle.  Events: application, award, cancellation, class, flight, invoice, order, registration, renewal, requisition, reservation, sale, trip.  Concepts: account, block of time, bond, course, fund, qualification, stock. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    8. 8. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Entity An entity instance is a single occurrence of an entity. Example: instances of the entity STUDENT may include  Betty Arnold  John Taylor  Lisa Simmons  Bill Macy  Heather Leath  Tim Wrench Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    9. 9. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Attributes An attribute is a descriptive property or characteristic of an entity. Synonyms include element, property, and field. A compound attribute is one that actually consists of other attributes STUDENT Na me .Last Name .First Name .Middle Initial Address .Street Address .City .State or Province .Country .Postal Code Phone Number .Area Code .Exchange Number .Number Within Exchange Date of Birth Gender Race Major Grade Poin t Average Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    10. 10. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Domains The data type for an attribute defines what type of data can be stored in that attribute. The domain of an attribute defines what values an attribute can legitimately take on. The default value for an attribute is the value that will be recorded if not specified by the user. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    11. 11. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Identification A key is an attribute, or a group of attributes, that assumes a unique value for each entity instance. A group of attributes that uniquely identifies an instance of an entity is called a concatenated key. A candidate key is a “candidate to become the primary key” of instances of an entity. A primary key is that candidate key that will most commonly be used to uniquely identify a single entity instance. Any candidate key that is not selected to become the primary key is called an alternate key. A subsetting criteria is an attribute (or concatenated attribute) whose finite values divide all entity instances into useful subsets. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    12. 12. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Identification Keys & Subsetting Criteria STUDENT Student Number (Primary Key) Social Security Number (Alternate Key) Name .Last Name .First Name .Middle Initial Address .Street Address .City .State or Province .Country .Postal Code Phone Number .Area Code .Exchange Number .Number Within Exchange Date of Birth Gender (Subsetting Criteria 1) Race (Subsetting Criteria 2) Major (Subsetting Criteria 3) Grade Po int Average Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    13. 13. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Relationships A relationship is a natural business association that exists between one or more entities. The relationship may represent an event that links the entities or merely a logical affinity that exists between the entities. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    14. 14. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Cardinality Cardinality defines the minimum and maximum number of occurrences of one entity that may be related to a single occurrence of the other entity. Because all relationships are bidirectional, cardinality must be defined in both directions for every relationship. bidirectional Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    15. 15. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Degree The degree of a relationship is the number of entities that participate in the relationship. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    16. 16. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Degree A recursive relationship is a relationship that exists between different instances of the same entity Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    17. 17. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Degree Relationships may exist between more than two entities and are called N-ary relationships. The example ERD depicts a ternary relationship. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    18. 18. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Degree An associative entity is an entity that inherits its primary key from more than one other entity (called parents). Each part of that concatenated key points to one and only one instance of each of the connecting entities. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    19. 19. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Foreign Keys A foreign key is a primary key of one entity that is contributed to (duplicated in) another entity to identify instances of a relationship. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    20. 20. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Foreign Keys Nonidentifying relationships are those in which each of the participating entities has its own independent primary key, In other words, none of the primary key attributes is shared. Identifying relationships are those in which the parent entity contributes its primary key to become part of the primary key of the child entity. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    21. 21. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Foreign Keys Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    22. 22. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Foreign Keys A nonspecific relationship (or manyto-many relationship) is one in which many instances of one entity are associated with many instances of another entity. Nonspecific relationships must be resolved. Most nonspecific relationships can be resolved by introducing an associative entity. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    23. 23. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Resolving Nonspecific Relationships (continued) Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    24. 24. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Resolving Nonspecific Relationships (continued) Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    25. 25. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Modeling Concepts: Generalization Generalization is a technique wherein the attributes that are common to several types of an entity are grouped into their own entity, called a supertype. An entity supertype is an entity whose instances store attributes that are common to one or more entity subtypes. An entity subtype is an entity whose instances inherit some common attributes from an entity supertype and then add other attributes that are unique to an instance of the subtype. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    26. 26. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Generalization Hierarchy Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    27. 27. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Entity Discovery for SoundStage Entity Name agreement A contract whereby a member agrees to purchase a certain number of products within a certain time. After fulfilling that agreement, the member becomes eligible for bonus credits that are redeemable for free or discounted products. member An active member of one or more clubs. Note: A target system objective is to re-enroll inactive members as opposed to deleting them. member order An order generated for a member as part of a monthly promotion, or an order initiated by a member. Note: The current system only supports orders generated from promotions; however, customer initiated orders have been given a high priority as an added option in the proposed system. transaction A business event to which the Member Services System must respond. product An inventoried product available for promotion and sale to members. Note: System improvement objectives include (1) compatibility with new bar code system being developed for the warehouse, and (2) adaptability to a rapidly changing mix of products. promotion Irwin/McGraw-Hill Business Definition A monthly or quarterly event whereby special product offerings are made available to members. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    28. 28. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman The Context Data Model MEMBER ORDER is a sells responds to MEMBER places PRODUCT has conducted TRANSACTION generates binds features Irwin/McGraw-Hill PROMOTION AGREEMENT Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    29. 29. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman The Key-based Data Model MEMBER ORDER Primary Key Order-Number [PK1] sells is a responds to MEMBER ORDERED PRODUCT Primary Key Order-Number [PK1] [FK] Product-Number [PK2] [FK] places MEMBER Primary Key Member-Number [PK1] has conducted sold as PRODUCT Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] generates Irwin/McGraw-Hill TRANSACTION Primary Key Transaction-Reference-Number [PK1] AGREEMENT Primary Key Agreement-Number [PK1] is featured as TITLE PROMOTION Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Promotion-Number [PK2] [FK] binds features PROMOTION Primary Key Promotion-Number [PK1] Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    30. 30. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman The Key-based Data Model With Generalization is a MEMBER ORDER Primary Key Order-Number [PK1] sells responds to MEMBER ORDERED PRODUCT Primary Key Order-Number [PK1] [FK] Product-Number [PK2] [FK] MEMBER Primary Key Member-Number [PK1] places has conducted binds sold as TRANSACTION Primary Key Transaction-Reference-Number [PK1] AGREEMENT Primary Key Agreement-Number [PK1] PRODUCT Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] generates is a MERCHANDISE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] is a AUDIO TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Irwin/McGraw-Hill is a TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] is a VIDEO TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] PROMOTION Primary Key Promotion-Number [PK1] is featured as PROMOTION TITLE Primary Key Promotion-Number [PK1] [FK] Product-Number [PK2] [FK] is a features GAME TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    31. 31. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman The Fully-Attributed Data Model sells MEMBER ORDERED PRODUCT Primary Key Order-Number [PK1] [FK] Product-Number [PK2] [FK] sold as MEMBER ORDER Primary Key Order-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Order-Creation-Date Order-Fill-Date Member-Name Member-Address Shipping-Address-Name Shipping-Street-Address Shipping-City Shipping-State Shipping-Zip Shipping-Instructions Order-Sub-Total Order-Sales-Tax Order-Shipping-Method Order-Shipping-&-Handling-Cost Order-Status Order-Prepaid-Amount Order-Prepayment-Method Promotion-Number [FK] Member-Number [FK] Member-Number-1 . Member-Number [FK] Ordered-Product-Number Quantity-Shipped Quantity-Backordered Ordered-Product-Description Ordered-Product-Title Purchased-Unit-Price Extended-Price is a responds to places MEMBER Primary Key Member-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Member-Name Member-Status Member-Street-Address Member-Post-Office-Box Member-City Member-State Member-Zip-Code Member-Daytime-Phone-Number Member-Date-of-Last-Order Member-Balance-Due Member-Credit-Card-Type Member-Credit-Card-Number Member-Credit-Card-Expire-Date Member-Bonus-Balance-Available Audio-Category-Preference Audio-Media-Preference Date-Enrolled Expiration-Date Game-Category-Preference Game-Media-Preference Number-of-Credits-Earned Video-Category-Preference Video-Media-Preference Agreement-Number [FK] Privacy-Code Email-Address PRODUCT Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes "Universal-Product-Code (Alternate Key)" Quantity-in-Stock Product-Type Suggested-Retail-Price Default-Unit-Price Current-Special-Unit-Price Current-Month-Units-Sold Current-Year-Units-Sold Total-Lifetime-Units-Sold is a MERCHANDISE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Merchandise-Name Merchandise-Description Merchandise-Type Unit-of-Measure is a AUDIO TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Artist Audio-Category Audio-Sub-Category Number-of-Units-in-Package Audio-Media-Code Content-Advisory-Code Irwin/McGraw-Hill has conducted TRANSACTION Primary Key Transaction-Reference-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Transaction-Date Transaction-Type Transaction-Description Transaction-Amount Member-Number [FK] Order-Number [FK] AGREEMENT Primary Key Agreement-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Agreement-Expire-Date Agreement-Active-Date Fulfillment-Period Required-Number-of-Credits binds is a TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Title-of-Work Title-Cover Catalog-Description Copyright-Date Entertainment-Category Credit-Value is a VIDEO TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Producer Director Video-Category Video-Sub-Category Closed-Captioned Language Running-Time Video-Media-Type Video-Encoding Screen-Aspect MPA-Rating-Code generates is featured as TITLE PROMOTION Primary Key Promotion-Number [PK1] [FK] Product-Number [PK2] [FK] PROMOTION Primary Key Promotion-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Promotion-Release-Date Promotion-Status Promotion-Type Product-Number Title-of-Work features is a GAME TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Manufacturer Game-Category Game-Sub-Category Game-Platform Game-Media-Type Number-of-Players Parent-Advisory-Code Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    32. 32. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Data Analysis & Normalization Data analysis is a process that prepares a data model for implementation as a simple, nonredundant, flexible, and adaptable database. The specific technique is called normalization. Normalization is a data analysis technique that organizes data attributes such that they are grouped to form nonredundant, stable, flexible, and adaptive entities. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    33. 33. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Normalization: 1NF, 2NF, 3NF • An entity is in first normal form (1NF) if there are no attributes that can have more than one value for a single instance of the entity. Any attributes that can have multiple values actually describe a separate entity, possibly an entity and relationship. • An entity is in second normal form (2NF) if it is already in 1NF and if the values of all nonprimary key attributes are dependent on the full primary key—not just part of it. Any nonkey attributes that are dependent on only part of the primary key should be moved to any entity where that partial key is actually the full key. This may require creating a new entity and relationship on the model. • An entity is in third normal form (3NF) if it is already in 2NF and if the values of its nonprimary key attributes are not dependent on any other non-primary key attributes. Any nonkey attributes that are dependent on other nonkey attributes must be moved or deleted. Again, new entities and relationships may have to be added to the data model. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    34. 34. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman First Normal Form Example Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    35. 35. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman First Normal Form Example Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    36. 36. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Second Normal Form Example Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    37. 37. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Second Normal Form Example Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    38. 38. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Third Normal Form Example Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    39. 39. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Third Normal Form Example Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    40. 40. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman SoundStage 3NF Data Model MEMBER ORDERED PRODUCT Primary Key Order-Number [PK1] [FK] Product-Number [PK2] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Quantity-Ordered Quantity-Shipped Quantity-Backordered Purchase-Unit-Price Credits-Earned sells MEMBER ORDER Primary Key Order-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Order-Creation-Date Order-Fill-Date Shipping-Address-Name Shipping-Street-Address Shipping-City Shipping-State Shipping-Zip Shipping-Instructions Order-Sub-Total Order-Sales-Tax Order-Shipping-Method Order-Shipping-&-Handling-Cost Order-Status Order-Prepaid-Amount Order-Prepayment-Method Promotion-Number [FK] Member-Number [FK] Member-Number-1 . Member-Number [FK] sold as PRODUCT Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes "Universal-Product-Code (Alternate Key)" Quantity-in-Stock Product-Type Suggested-Retail-Price Default-Unit-Price Current-Special-Unit-Price Current-Month-Units-Sold Current-Year-Units-Sold Total-Lifetime-Units-Sold is a MERCHANDISE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Merchandise-Name Merchandise-Description Merchandise-Type Unit-of-Measure is a AUDIO TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Artist Audio-Category Audio-Sub-Category Number-of-Units-in-Package Audio-Media-Code Content-Advisory-Code Irwin/McGraw-Hill is a responds to places MEMBER Primary Key Member-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Member-Name Member-Status Member-Street-Address Member-Post-Office-Box Member-City Member-State Member-Zip-Code Member-Daytime-Phone-Number Member-Date-of-Last-Order Member-Balance-Due Member-Credit-Card-Type Member-Credit-Card-Number Member-Credit-Card-Expire-Date Member-Bonus-Balance-Available Audio-Category-Preference Audio-Media-Preference Date-Enrolled Expiration-Date Game-Category-Preference Game-Media-Preference Number-of-Credits-Earned Video-Category-Preference Video-Media-Preference Agreement-Number [FK] Privacy-Code Email-Address is a binds TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Title-of-Work Title-Cover Catalog-Description Copyright-Date Entertainment-Category Credit-Value is a VIDEO TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Producer Director Video-Category Video-Sub-Category Closed-Captioned Language Running-Time Video-Media-Type Video-Encoding Screen-Aspect MPA-Rating-Code generates has conducted TRANSACTION Primary Key Transaction-Reference-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Transaction-Date Transaction-Type Transaction-Description Transaction-Amount Member-Number [FK] Order-Number [FK] AGREEMENT Primary Key Agreement-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Agreement-Expire-Date Agreement-Active-Date Fulfillment-Period Required-Number-of-Credits is featured as TITLE PROMOTION Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Promotion-Number [PK2] [FK] is a GAME TITLE Primary Key Product-Number [PK1] [FK] Non-Key Attributes Manufacturer Game-Category Game-Sub-Category Game-Platform Game-Media-Type Number-of-Players Parent-Advisory-Code features PROMOTION Primary Key Promotion-Number [PK1] Non-Key Attributes Promotion-Release-Date Promotion-Status Promotion-Type 3NF Member Services (Entity Relation Subject Area) SA/2001 Tue May 02, 2000 10:41 Comment Sandra Shepherd Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
    41. 41. SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Customer .Customer Number .Customer Name .Customer Address .Customer Credit Rating .Customer Balance Due Order .Order Number .Order Date .Order Amount Ordered Product .Quantity Ordered .Ordered Item Unit Price Product .Product Number .Product Name .Product Description .Product Unit of Measure .Product Current Unit Price .Product Quantity on Hand INDV R RU RU X R INDV SRD SRD SRD INDV SUD SUD ALL R R R R R X R R R ALL R R R ALL R R ALL CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD ALL R R RU R R SS R R SS R ALL R R R R RU ALL CRUD CRUD CRUD R R ALL CRUD CRUD CRUD ALL CRUD CRUD ALL R R R R R R ALL R R R RU RU R R R R R SS CRUD CRUD CRUD R R SS CRUD CRUD CRUD SS CRUD CRUD ALL R R R R R R INDV = individual SS = subset C = create R = read U = update SS R R R SS R R R SS ALL R R R R R RU . Warehose San Diego San Francisco . Sales SS CRUD CRUD CRUD R R SS CRUD CRUD CRUD SS CRUD CRUD ALL R R R R R R SS R R R SS R R R SS ALL R R R R R RU X = no access S = submit Irwin/McGraw-Hill ALL = ALL . Warehouse . Sales Boston . A/R . Sales . Warehouse . Advertsing . Marketing Kansas City Customers Entity . Attribute Location Data-to-Location-CRUD Matrix D = delete Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved

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