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Analisis Sistem Informasi

Analisis Sistem Informasi

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  • This repository of slides is intended to support the named chapter. The slide repository should be used as follows: <br /> Copy the file to a unique name for your course and unit. <br /> Edit the file by deleting those slides you don’t want to cover, editing other slides as appropriate to your course, and adding slides as desired. <br /> Print the slides to produce transparency masters or print directly to film or present the slides using a computer image projector. <br />   <br /> Each slide includes instructor notes. To view those notes in PowerPoint, click left on the View Menu; then click left on Notes View sub-menu. You may need to scroll down to see the instructor notes. <br /> The instructor notes are also available in hard copy as the Instructor Guide to Accompany Systems Analysis and Design Methods, 5/ed. <br />
  • Chapter 6 objectives. <br />
  • No additional notes <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> This chapter focuses on the techniques and activities for eliciting system requirements as well as how to properly validate and document requirements. The authors have placed an emphasis on this chapter because recent studies have shown that as many as 80% of all system development failures can be traced back to problems with requirements. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> A functional requirement is an action of the system and usually is written using an action verb phrase. For example: <br /> ·         The system should process a checking account deposit <br /> ·         The system should calculate the GPA for a student <br /> ·         The system should capture the account holder identification information <br /> Examples of nonfunctional requirements. <br /> ·         be user friendly <br /> ·         be able to accommodate users at different physical locations <br /> Teaching Tips <br /> Have students give examples of different types of requirements and classify this as functional versus nonfunctional. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Review each category and have the students give additional examples. <br /> Teaching Notes <br /> Other classifications of requirements exist and are published by IEEE and in Military standards. We chose to use PIECES to be consistent and reinforce the theme of the textbook. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Try to give other examples of a requirements statement that can be interpreted many ways. These can relate to homework assignments, current events, or normal household chores. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Table based on work by Barry W. Boehm, a noted expert in information technology economics. Based on these findings, an erroneous requirement that goes undetected and unfixed until the operation phase may cost 1,000 times more than if it were detected and fixed in the requirements phase! <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> The goal of the systems analyst is to define system requirements that meet the following criteria: <br /> ·         Consistent  the requirements are not conflicting or ambiguous. <br /> ·         Complete  the requirements describe all possible system inputs and responses. <br /> ·         Feasible  the requirements can be satisfied based on the available resources and constraints (feasibility analysis is covered in Chapter 9). <br /> ·         Required  the requirements are truly needed and fulfill the purpose of the system. <br /> ·         Accurate  the requirements are stated correctly. <br /> ·         Traceable  the requirements directly map to the functions and features of the system. <br /> ·         Verifiable  the requirements are defined so they can be demonstrated during testing. <br />
  • Teaching notes <br /> The process of requirements discovery consists of four activities. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Explain concept to students. Try to do another example during lecture based on a well-known problem that most students experience – registration. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Stress that fact-finding is a technique that is used across the entire development cycle but it is extremely critical in the requirements analysis phase. <br /> Teaching Tips <br /> Be sure to discuss the role of ethics during the fact-finding activity. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> There is no standard name or format for this document. In fact, many organizations use different names such as requirements statement, requirements specification, requirements definition, functional specification, etc., and the format is usually tailored to that organization’s needs. For those companies that provide information systems and software to the U.S. government, the government requires that they use the format and naming conventions specified in their published standards document MIL-STD-498[1]. Many organizations have created their own standards adapted from MIL-STD-498 because of its thoroughness and because many people are already familiar with it. In this book we will use the term requirements definition document . <br /> [1] MIL-STD-498 is a standard that merges DOD-STD-2167A and DOD-STD-7935A to define a set of activities and documentation suitable for the development of both weapon systems and automated information systems. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Requirements validation is performed on a final draft of the requirements definition document after all input has been solicited from the system owners and users. The purpose of this activity is for the systems analyst to ensure the requirements are written correctly. <br /> Teaching Tip <br /> Have students provide examples of errors the validation activity may identify. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Over the lifetime of the project it is very common for new requirements to emerge and existing requirements to change once a requirements definition document has been approved. Some studies have shown that over the life of a project as much as 50 percent or more of the requirements will change before the system is put into production. <br /> Requirements management encompasses the policies, procedures, and processes that govern how a change to a requirement is handled. In other words, it specifies how a change request should be submitted, how it is analyzed for impact to scope, schedule, and cost, how it’s approved or rejected, and how the change is implemented if approved. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Two versions of the sampling formula are provided in the textbook. The first uses a heuristic (.25) to calculate the sample size and the second replaces the (.25) with p(1-p) to reflect the knowledge of errors in the sample population. Review each with students and calculate various sample sizes using different levels of certainty. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> For randomization you just randomly choose the number of sample items based on the sample size calculated. <br /> For computerized files, stratification sampling can be executed by writing a simple program. For instance, suppose invoices were stored in a database that had a volume of approximately 250,000. If the required sample size was 25, a program could be written that prints every 10,000th record (=250,000/25). <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> This technique is often used when the validity of data collected through other methods is in question or when the complexity of certain aspects of the system prevents a clear explanation by the end-users. <br /> Teaching Tips <br /> Have students review The Railroad Paradox by Gerald M. Weinberg. Discuss the moral of the story. <br /> Have students provide advantages and disadvantages of observation. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Have students provide advantages and disadvantages of observation. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Have students provide examples of both free-format and fixed-format questions. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> For multiple-choice questions, the respondent is given several answers. The respondent should be told if more than one answer might be selected. <br /> For rating questions, the respondent is given a statement and asked to use supplied responses to state an opinion. To prevent built-in bias, there should be an equal number of positive and negative ratings. <br /> For ranking questions, the respondent is given several possible answers, which are to be ranked in order of preference or experience. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Interviewing can be used to achieve any or all of the following goals: find facts; verify facts; clarify facts; generate enthusiasm; get the end-user involved; identify requirements; and solicit ideas and opinions. <br /> Teaching Tips <br /> Have students provide advantages and disadvantages of interviews. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> An unstructured interview frequently gets off track, and the analyst must be prepared to redirect the interview back to the main goal or subject. For this reason, unstructured interviews don&apos;t usually work well for systems analysis and design. <br /> No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Have students provide examples of open-ended and closed-ended questions. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Have students provide examples of loaded, leading, and biased questions. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Discuss with the students each of the items and the reasons for their classifications. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Ask the students to comment on hearing versus listening. Ask them to give you examples. <br /> Focus on the story by Art Linkletter and why not assuming anything is important. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Research studies have determined a startling fact — of a person&apos;s total feelings, only 7 percent are communicated verbally (in words), 38 percent are communicated by the tone of voice used, and 55 percent of those feelings are communicated by facial and body expressions. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Certain types of communications take place only in some of these zones. For example, an analyst conducts most interviews with system users in the personal zone. But the analyst may need to move back to the social zone if the user displays any signs (body language) of being uncomfortable. Sometimes increasing eye contact can make up for a long distance that can&apos;t be changed. Many people use the fringes of the social zone as a ``respect&apos;&apos; distance. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Discovery prototyping is frequently applied to systems development projects, especially in those cases where the development team is having problems defining the system requirements. The philosophy is that the users will recognize their requirements when they see them. <br /> Teaching Tips <br /> Have students provide advantages and disadvantages of discovery prototyping. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> JRP (and JAD) techniques are becoming increasingly common in systems planning and systems analysis to obtain group consensus on problems, objectives, and requirements. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Discuss the role of each. Be sure to focus on the skills needed to be a successful JRP facilitator. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Discuss why the JRP session location should be held off-site. <br /> Discuss why many companies opt to hire qualified JRP facilitators from outside the organization. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Discuss the seating arrangement of the participants as well as where the equipment is located. Also solicit the opinions of students in the way of providing refreshments. Do they think it is necessary? <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Sometimes, one of the goals of a JRP session is to generate possible ideas to solve a problem. Brainstorming is a common approach that is used for this purpose. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Be sure to discuss the rules of brainstorming: <br /> Be spontaneous. Call out ideas as fast as they occur. <br /> Absolutely no criticism, analysis, or evaluation of any kind is permitted while the ideas are being generated. Any idea may be useful, if only to spark another idea. <br /> Emphasize quantity of ideas, not necessarily quality. <br />
  • Teaching Tips <br /> Discuss the reasons why JRP reduces the amount of time required to develop systems. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> An analyst needs an organized method for collecting facts. An inexperienced analyst will frequently jump right into interviews. ``Go to the people. That&apos;s where the real facts are!&apos;&apos; Wrong! This attitude fails to recognize an important fact of life: people must complete their day-to-day jobs! Your job is not their main responsibility. Your demand on their time is their money lost. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Use cases describe the system functions from the perspective of external users and in the manner and terminology in which they understand. They are the results of decomposing the scope of system functionality into many smaller statements of system functionality. <br /> An actor initiates system activity, a use case, for the purpose of completing some business task. An actor represents a role fulfilled by a user interacting with the system and is not meant to portray a single individual or job title. <br /> Teaching Tips <br /> Discuss with the students examples of use cases including temporal events. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> In order for use cases to be successful, participation by the user is imperative. <br />
  • No additional notes. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br />  1. A reference to the requirement(s) in which it can be traced to. <br />  2. A typical event course describing the use case’s major steps, from beginning to end of this interaction with the actor. <br />  3. Alternate courses describing exceptions to the typical course of events. <br /> 4. Precondition describing the state the system is in before the use case is executed. <br />  5. Postcondition describing the state the system is in after the use case is executed. <br />  6. An assumptions section, which includes any nonbehavioral issues, such as performance or security, that is associated with the use case, but is difficult to model within the use case’s course of events. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br />  1. A reference to the requirement(s) in which it can be traced to. <br />  2. A typical event course describing the use case’s major steps, from beginning to end of this interaction with the actor. <br />  3. Alternate courses describing exceptions to the typical course of events. <br /> 4. Precondition describing the state the system is in before the use case is executed. <br />  5. Postcondition describing the state the system is in after the use case is executed. <br />  6. An assumptions section, which includes any nonbehavioral issues, such as performance or security, that is associated with the use case, but is difficult to model within the use case’s course of events. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Requirements tables can be very valuable if a requirement changes and you need to evaluate what impact that change may have on other requirements. By documenting requirements in this manner, related and dependent requirements can be grouped together or queried to make the systems analyst job easier. Other benefits to this style of documentation include it facilitates the prioritization of requirements by being able to specify the criticality of the requirement. It facilitates the tracking of changes of requirements and it provides a checkoff list when users are ready to accept the finished system to make sure all their needs were met. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Example of documenting requirements using a table. <br />
  • Teaching Notes <br /> Example of documenting requirements using a case tool such as System Architect. <br />

Asi Chap006 Asi Chap006 Presentation Transcript

  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman C H A P T E R 6 Irwin/McGraw-Hill REQUIREMENTS DISCOVERY Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Chapter Six Requirements Discovery • • • • • • • • • • • • Define system requirements and differentiate between functional and nonfunctional requirements. Understand the activity of problem analysis and be able to create an Ishikawa (fishbone) diagram to aid in problem solving. Understand the concept of requirements management. Identify seven fact-finding techniques and characterize the advantages and disadvantages of each. Understand six guidelines for doing effective listening. Understand what body language and proxemics are, and why a systems analyst should care. Characterize the typical participants in a JRP session and describe their roles. Complete the planning process for a JRP session, including selecting and equipping the location, selecting the participants, and preparing an agenda to guide the JRP session. Describe several benefits of using JRP as a fact-finding technique. Describe a fact-finding strategy that will make the most of your time with end-users. Describe various techniques to document and analyze requirements. Understand use cases and be able to document them. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Chapter Map Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Introduction to Requirements Discovery Requirements discovery includes those techniques to be used by systems analysts to identify or extract system problems and solution requirements from the user community. Problem analysis is the activity of identifying the problem, understanding the problem (including causes and effects), and understanding any constraints that may limit the solution. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Introduction to Requirements Discovery A system requirement (also called a business requirement) is a description of the needs and desires for an information system. A requirement may describe functions, features (attributes), and constraints. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Types of Requirements A functional requirement is a function or feature that must be included in an information system in order to satisfy the business need and be acceptable to the users. A nonfunctional requirement is a description of the features, characteristics, and attributes of the system as well as any constraints that may limit the boundaries of the proposed solution. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Types of Nonfunctional Requirements Requirement Type Performance Information Control (and Security) Irwin/McGraw-Hill Explanation Performance requirements represent the performance the system is required to exhibit to meet the needs of users. · What is the acceptable throughput rate? · What is the acceptable response time? Informatio requirements represent the information that is pertinent to the n users in terms of content, timeliness, accuracy, and format. · What are the necessary inputs and outputs? When must they happen? · What is the required data to be stored? · How current must the information be? · What are the interfaces to external systems? Economy requirements represent the need for the system to reduce costs or increase profits. · What are the areas of the system where costs must be reduced? · How much should costs be reduced or profits be increased? · What are the budgetary limits? · What is the timetable for development? Control requirements represent the environment in which the system must operate, as well as the type and degree of security that must be provided. · Must access to the system or information be controlled? · What are the privacy requirements? · Does the criticality of the data necessitate the need for special handling (backups, offsite storage, etc.) of the data? Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Types of Nonfunctional Requirements (concluded) Requirement Type Efficiency Explanation Efficiency requirements represent the systems ability to produce outputs with minimal waste. · · Service Are there duplicate steps in the process that must be eliminated? Are there ways to reduce waste in the way the system uses it resources? Service requirements represent needs in order for the system to be reliable, flexible, and expandable. · · Will there be different types of users? · What are the appropriate human factors? · What training devices and training materials are to be included in the system? · What training devices and training materials are to be developed and maintained separately from the system, such as stand- alone computer based training (CBT) programs or databases? · What are the reliability/availability requirements? · How should the system be packaged and distributed? · Irwin/McGraw-Hill Who will use the system and where are they located? What documentation is required? Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman An Ambiguous Requirements Statement Requirement: Create a means to transport a single individual from home to place of work. Management Interpretation Irwin/McGraw-Hill IT Interpretation User Interpretation Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Results of Incorrect Requirements • The system may cost more than projected. • The system may be delivered later than promised. • The system may not meet the users’ expectations and that dissatisfaction may cause them not to use it. • Once in production, the costs of maintaining and enhancing the system may be excessively high. • The system may be unreliable and prone to errors and downtime. • The reputation of the IT staff on the team is tarnished because any failure, regardless of who is at fault, will be perceived as a mistake by the team. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Relative Cost to Fix an Error Phase in Which Found Cost Ratio Requirements 1 Design 3-6 Coding 10 Development Testing 15-40 Acceptance Testing 30-70 Operation 40-1000 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Criteria to Define System Requirements • • • • • • • Consistent Complete Feasible Required Accurate Traceable Verifiable Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman The Process of Requirements Discovery • • • • Problem discovery and analysis Requirements discovery Documenting and analyzing requirements Requirements management Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Ishikawa Diagram The Ishikawa diagram is a graphical tool used to identify, explore, and depict problems and the causes and effects of those problems. It is often referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram or a fishbone diagram. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Requirements Discovery Fact-finding is the formal process of using research, interviews, questionnaires, sampling, and other techniques to collect information about problems, requirements, and preferences. It is also called information gathering. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Seven Fact-Finding Methods • Sampling of existing documentation, forms, and databases. • Research and site visits. • Observation of the work environment. • Questionnaires. • Interviews. • Prototyping. • Joint requirements planning (JRP). Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Documenting and Analyzing Requirements A requirements definition document should consist of the following. – The functions and services the system should provide. – Nonfunctional requirements including the system’s features, characteristics, and attributes. – The constraints that restrict the development of the system or under which the system must operate. – Information about other systems the system must interface with. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Sample Requirements Definition Outline Requirements Definition Report 1. Introduction 1.1 Purpose 1.2 Background 1.3 Scope 1.4 Definitions, Acronyms, and Abbreviations 1.5 References 2. General Project Description 2.1 System Objectives 3. Requirements and Constraints 3.1 Functional Requirements 3.2 Nonfunctional Requirements 4. Conclusion 4.1 Outstanding Issues Appendix (optional) Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Validating Requirements Requirements validation is an activity that checks the requirements definition document for accuracy, completeness, consistency, and conformance to standards. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Requirements Management Requirements management is the process of managing change to the requirements. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Sampling • Sampling is the process of collecting a representative sample of documents, forms, and records. – Determining the sample size: • Sample Size = 0.25 x (Certainty factor/Acceptable error)2 – For a 90% certainty: • Sample Size = 0.25(1.645/0.10)2 = 68 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Sampling Techniques Randomization is a sampling technique characterized as having no predetermined pattern or plan for selecting sample data. Stratification is a systematic sampling technique that attempts to reduce the variance of the estimates by spreading out the sampling—for example, choosing documents or records by formula—and by avoiding very high or low estimates. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Observation Observation is a fact-finding technique wherein the systems analyst either participates in or watches a person perform activities to learn about the system. Advantages? Disadvantages? Work sampling is a fact-finding technique that involves a large number of observations taken at random intervals. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Observation Guidelines • Determine the who, what, where, when, why, and how of the observation. • Obtain permission from appropriate supervisors or managers. • Inform those who will be observed of the purpose of the observation. • Keep a low profile. • Take notes during or immediately following the observation. • Review observation notes with appropriate individuals. • Don't interrupt the individuals at work. • Don't focus heavily on trivial activities. • Don't make assumptions. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Questionnaires Questionnaires are special-purpose documents that allow the analyst to collect information and opinions from respondents. – Advantages? – Disadvantages? Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Types of Questionnaires Free-format questionnaires offer the respondent greater latitude in the answer. A question is asked, and the respondent records the answer in the space provided after the question. Fixed-format questionnaires contain questions that require selection of predefined responses from individuals. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Types of Fixed-Format Questions • Multiple-choice questions • Rating questions • Ranking questions Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Questionnaire Procedure 1. Determine what facts and opinions must be collected and from whom you should get them. 2. Based on the needed facts and opinions, determine whether free- or fixed-format questions will produce the best answers. 3. Write the questions. 4. Test the questions on a small sample of respondents. 5. Duplicate and distribute the questionnaire. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Interviews Interviews are a fact-finding technique whereby the systems analysts collect information from individuals through face-to-face interaction. – Advantages? – Disadvantages? Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Types of Interviews Unstructured interviews are conducted with only a general goal or subject in mind and with few, if any, specific questions. The interviewer counts on the interviewee to provide a framework and direct the conversation. In structured interviews the interviewer has a specific set of questions to ask of the interviewee. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Types of Interview Questions Open-ended questions allow the interviewee to respond in any way that seems appropriate. Closed-ended questions restrict answers to either specific choices or short, direct responses. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Procedure to Conduct an Interview 1. Select Interviewees 2. Prepare for the Interview 1. An interview guide is a checklist of specific questions the interviewer will ask the interviewee. 3. Conduct the Interview 4. Follow Up on the Interview Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Interview Questions • Types of Questions to Avoid – Loaded questions – Leading questions – Biased questions • Interview Question Guidelines – – – – – Use clear and concise language. Don’t include your opinion as part of the question. Avoid long or complex questions. Avoid threatening questions. Don’t use “you” when you mean a group of people. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Sample Interview Guide Interviewee: Jeff Bentley, Accounts Receivable Manager Date: Tuesday, March, 23, 2000 Time: 1:30 P.M. Place: Room 223, Admin. Bldg. Subject: Current Credit-Checking Policy Time Allocated Interviewer Question of Objective Interviewee Response 1 to 2 min. Objective Open the interview: • Introduce Ourselves • Thank Mr. Bentley for his valuable time • State the purpose of the interview--to obtain an understanding of the existing credit-checking policies 5 min. Question 1 What conditions determine whether a customer’s order is approvedfor credit? Follow-up 5 min. Question 2 What are the possible decisions or actions that might be taken once these conditions have been evaluated? Follow-up 3 min. Question 3 How are customers notified when credit is not approved for their order? Follow-up (continued) Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Sample Interview Guide (concluded) 1 min. Question 4 After a new order is approved for credit and placed in the file containing orders that can be filled, a customer might request that a modification be made to the order. Would the order have to go through credit approval again if the new total order cost exceeds the original cost? Follow-up 1 min. Question 5 Who are the individuals that perform the credit checks? Follow-up 1 to 3 mins. Question 6 May I have permission to talk to those individuals to learn specifically how they carry out the credit-checking process? Follow-up 1 min. Objective Conclude the interview: • Thank Mr. Bentley for his cooperation and assure him that he will be receiving a copy of what transpired during the interview 21 minutes Time allotted for base questions and objectives. 9 minutes Time allotted for follow-up questions and redirection 30 minutes Total time allotted for interview (1:30 p.m. to 2:00 p.m.) General Comments and Notes: Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Interviewing Do’s and Don’ts Do • • • • • Be courteous Listen carefully Maintain control Probe Observe mannerisms and nonverbal communication • Be patient • Keep interviewee at ease • Maintain self-control Avoid • • • • • • • • Irwin/McGraw-Hill Continuing an interview unnecessarily. Assuming an answer is finished or leading nowhere. Revealing verbal and nonverbal clues. Using jargon Revealing your personal biases. Talking instead of listening. Assuming anything about the topic and the interviewee. Tape recording -- a sign of poor listening skills. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Communicating With the User • Listening - “To hear is to recognize that someone is speaking, to listen is to understand what the speaker wants to communicate.” (Gildersleeve – 1978) • Guidelines for Communicating – – – – – – Approach the Session with a Positive Attitude Set the Other Person at Ease Let Them Know You Are Listening Ask Questions Don’t Assume Anything Take Notes Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Body Language and Proxemics Body language is all of the nonverbal information being communicated by an individual. Body language is a form of nonverbal communications that we all use and are usually unaware of. Proxemics is the relationship between people and the space around them. Proxemics is a factor in communications that can be controlled by the knowledgeable analyst. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Spatial Zones • • • • Intimate zone—closer than 1.5 feet Personal zone—from 1.5 feet to 4 feet Social zone—from 4 feet to 12 feet Public zone—beyond 12 feet Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Discovery Prototyping Discovery prototyping is the act of building a smallscale, representative or working model of the users’ requirements in order to discover or verify those requirements. – Advantages? – Disadvantages? Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Joint Requirements Planning Joint requirements planning (JRP) is a process whereby highly structured group meetings are conducted for the purpose of analyzing problems and defining requirements. JRP is a subset of a more comprehensive joint application development or JAD technique that encompasses the entire systems development process. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman JRP Participants • • • • • Sponsor Facilitator Users and Managers Scribes I.T. Staff Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Steps to Plan a JRP Session 1. Selecting a location 2. Selecting the participants 3. Preparing the agenda Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Typical room layout for JRP session 41' 0" Food & Refreshments IT Professionals & Other Observers Scribe Flipchart Workstation (for CASE tool) Users and Managers Computer Projection Device 30' 0" Scribe Blackboard Overhead Projector JAD Facilitator Printer Workstation (for prototyping tool) IT Professionals & Other Observers Irwin/McGraw-Hill Scribe Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Guidelines for Conducting a JRP Session • • • • • • • • Do not unreasonably deviate from the agenda Stay on schedule Ensure that the scribe is able to take notes Avoid the use of technical jargon Apply conflict resolution skills Allow for ample breaks Encourage group consensus Encourage user and management participation without allowing individuals to dominate the session • Make sure that attendees abide by the established ground rules for the session Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Brainstorming Brainstorming is a technique for generating ideas during group meetings. Participants are encouraged to generate as many ideas as possible in a short period of time without any analysis until all the ideas have been exhausted. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Brainstorming Guidelines • Isolate the appropriate people in a place that will be free from distractions and interruptions • Make sure that everyone understands the purpose of the meeting • Appoint one person to record ideas • Remind everyone of the brainstorming rules • Within a specified time period, team members call out their ideas as quickly as they can think of them • After the group has run out of ideas and all ideas have been recorded, then and only then should the ideas be analyzed and evaluated • Refine, combine, and improve the ideas that were generated earlier Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Benefits of JRP • JRP actively involves users and management in the development project (encouraging them to take “ownership” in the project) • JRP reduces the amount of time required to develop systems • When JRP incorporates prototyping as a means for confirming requirements and obtaining design approvals, the benefits of prototyping are realized Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman A Fact-Finding Strategy 1. Learn all you can from existing documents, forms, reports, and files 2. If appropriate, observe the system in action 3. Given all the facts that you've already collected, design and distribute questionnaires to clear up things you don't fully understand 4. Conduct your interviews (or group work sessions) 5. (Optional). Build discovery prototypes for any functional requirements that are not understood or if requirements need to be validated 6. Follow up Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Documenting Requirements Using Use Cases A use case is a behaviorally related sequence of steps (a scenario), both automated and manual for the purpose of completing a single business task. An actor represents anything that needs to interact with the system to exchange information. An actor is a user, a role, which could be an external system as well as a person. A temporal event is a system event that is triggered by time. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Benefits of Using Use Cases • Facilitates user involvement. • A view of the desired system’s functionality from an external person’s viewpoint. • An effective tool for validating requirements. • An effective communication tool. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Example of a High-Level Use Case Author: S. Shepard Date: 03/01/200 Use Case Name: New Member Order Actors: Member Description: This use case describes the process of a member submitting an order for SoundStage products. On completion, the member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Example of a Requirements Use Case Author: S. Shepard Date: 10/05/200 Use Case Name: Submit New Member Order Actor(s): Member Description: This use case describes the process of a member submitting an order for SoundStage products. On completion, the member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted. References: MSS-1.0 1 System response Step This is Typical Course Actor1:Actionuse case member Step 2: The member’s personal information such as address is validated initiated when a submits an order to be of Events: against what is currently recorded in member services. processed 2 Step 7: This use case concludes when the member receives the order confirmation notice. Irwin/McGraw-Hill Step 3: The member’s credit status is checked with Accounts Receivable to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 4: For each product being ordered, validate the product number and then check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information. Step 5: Create a picking ticket for the member order containing all ordered products that are available and route it to the warehouse for processing. Step 6: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating the status of the order and send it to the member. Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Example of a Requirements Use Case (concluded) Alternate Courses: 3 Pre-condition: Step 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on the promotion order, update the club member’s record with the new information. Step 3: If Accounts Receivable returns a credit status that the customer is in arrears, send an order rejection notice to the member. Step 4: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting them to submit a valid product number. If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark as “back-ordered.” Orders can only be submitted by members. 4 Post-condition: Member order has been recorded and the picking ticket has been routed to the warehouse. 5 Assumptions: None at this time. 6 Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Requirements Tables Requirements traceability is the ability to trace a system function or feature back to the requirement that mandates it. Requirement Explanation Requirement number: Indicate a unique number or identifier of the requirement Requirement title: Assign short phrase indicating nature of the requirement Requirement text: Provide a textual statement of the requirement Requirement type: Indicate the requirement type Requirement details and constraints Rev date and rev #: Functional characteristics or dimensions Criticality Irwin/McGraw-Hill Indicate the acceptance date and revision number of current (accepted/baselined) version Must, Want, or Optional Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Partial List of Member Services System Requirements Requirement Explanation Requirement number: MSS-1.0 Requirement title: Process New Member Order Requirement text: The system should be able to process new member orders. Within this process it should be able to validate member demographic information, verify credit worthiness, inquire and modify inventory levels based on quantity of product ordered, initiate backorder process in the event of insufficient inventory to fulfill order, and send an order confirmation notice once the order has been placed. Functional Requirement type: Requirement details and constraints Rev date and rev#: Member credit status will be obtained from the Account Receivable system. A picking ticket, containing the available ordered items, must be generated and routed to the warehouse. Version 1.0 Criticality Must Requirement Explanation Requirement number: MSS -- 14.0 Requirement title: One Hour Order Confirmation Notice Requirement text: An E-mail notice must be generated and sent to the member, within one hour from the time the member placed the order. Performance Requirement type: Requirement details and constraints Rev date and rev #: The member’s E-mail address must be stored on the system within the member’s profile. The one- hour constraint applies only to the sending of the notification And not when it’s received by the member. Related requirement(s): MSS-1.0 Version 1.0 Criticality Must Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved
  • SYSTEMS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN METHODS 5th Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman System Architect Requirement Example Irwin/McGraw-Hill Copyright © 2000 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights reserved