Bank & lembaga keuangan nonbank1
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  • 1. BANK & LEMBAGA KEUANGAN NON BANK 1 Provided by Ari Raharjo
  • 2. Asal Muasal
    • Transaksi keuangan: Barter (penjual & pembeli bertemu langsung)
    • Berkembang: muncul perantara (penjual & pembeli tdk bertemu langsung)
    • Muncul “uang” sbg alat pembayaran
    • Perantara “uang” adl lembaga keuangan
  • 3. Sejarah
    • Sdh ada pd jaman babylonia (2000 thn sblm masehi)
    • Bank modern: Inggris, Belanda & Belgia (abad 16), masih berupa emas & perak sbg alat p’byran
  • 4. Bank vs non bank Penghimpunan dana
    • Langsung mrpk simpanan masy
    • Tidak langsung berupa kertas berharga/penyertaan/pinjaman
    • Tidak langsung berupa kertas berharga/penyertaan/pinjaman
  • 5. Bank vs non bank Penyaluran dana
    • Utk modal kerja, investasi, konsumsi
    • Utk badan usaha dan individu
    • Utk jangka pendek, menengah dan panjang
    • Terutama utk investasi
    • Terutama utk badan usaha
    • Terutama utk jangka menengah & panjang
  • 6. Jenis Lemb Keu
    • Perbankan (UU no. 10, 1998:
    • Jenis:
    • Bank Umum
    • BPR
    • Prinsip Usaha:
    • Konvensional
    • Syariah
    • Non Bank:
    • Leasing
    • Asuransi
    • Modal ventura
    • Anjak Piutang
    • Pegadaian
    • Dana pensiun
    • Kartu kredit
    • Pasar modal
  • 7. Klasifikasi uang
    • Narrow Money (M1):
    • Uang kartal (uang kertas, koin)
    • Uang Giral/demand deposite (giro)
    • Broad Money:
    • M2 = M1 + Saving deposite (tabungan) + Time deposite (deposito)
    • M3 = M2 + simpanan dana di LKBB
    • Tingkat likuiditas:
    • Kartal > giral > tabungan > deposito > Dana LKBB
    • M1 > M2 > M3
  • 8. Fungsi Bank
    • Agent of Trust
    • Agent of Development (pemberian kredit utk pembangunan
    • Agent of services (jasa transfer, save deposite box, jaminan bank)
  • 9. Financial Intermediaries Unit Defisit Borrowers Unit Surplus Lenders Bank & Non Bank Fund Fund Income Income
  • 10. Otoritas Moneter
    • UU no. 23, 1999 tentang Bank Sentral  BI
    • Tugas BI:
    • Menetapkan & melaksanakan kebijakan moneter: laju inflasi, operasi pasar uang, menentukan tk diskonto, cadangan wajib minimum, kredit, kebijakan nilai tukar, cadangan devisa
    • Mengatur & menjaga kelancaran sistem pembayaran
    • Mengatur & mengawasi bank
  • 11. Kesehatan Bank
    • BMPK (batas Maks Pemberian kredit/Legal Lending Limit)
    • Likuiditas Wajib Minimum/cadangan wajib minimum/reserve requirement
    • Posisi devisa netto (Net open position): selisih aktiva & pasiva dlm valas
    • Rasio kecukupan modal (Capital Adequacy Ratio): Penyediaan modal minimum thd Aktiva Tertimbang Menurut Resiko)
  • 12. Kesehatan Bank
    • Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR): kredit berbanding dana pihak ketiga
    • Return on Asset & Return on Equity
  • 13. Regulasi
    • Sebelum thn 1980
    • Belum ada peraturan yg jelas tentang perbankan
    • Kredit likuiditas BI hy utk bank2 tertentu (bank pemerintah)
    • Bank menanggung program pemerintah
    • Baru ada Surat Berharga Pasar Uang (SBPU)
    • Bank swasta relatif sedikit
    • Bank Pemerintah: BRI 1951, BEII 1968, BBD 1968, BDN 1960, BTN 1963, BNI 1946, Bapindo 1960
  • 14. Regulasi
    • Sejak 1980 – 1990
    • Paket 1 Juni 1983: Penghapusan pagu kredit, pengurangan KLBI, kebebasan penetapan suku bunga
    • 1984: BI menerbitkan SBI
    • Paket 27 Okt 1988: Kemudahan membuka kantor bank, kemudahan pendirian bank swasta, boleh menyelenggarakan tabungan. Likuiditas min turun mjd 2%, tdk ada batas maks pinjaman, Penambahan modal BLBB dpt melalui pasar modal
  • 15. Regulasi
    • Paket 20 Des 1988: Penyelenggaraan bursa efek oleh swasta, leasing, anjak piutang, modal ventura, kartu kredit, pembiayaan konsumen
    • Paket 29 Mei 1993: penyempurnaan aturan kesehatan bank (CAR, LLL, KUK, LDR)
  • 16. Regulasi
    • Dampak:
    • Adanya kepastian hukum
    • Bank swasta bertambah
    • Tingkat persaingan bank naik
    • SBI & SBPU semakin populer
    • Mobilisasi dana melalui bank naik
  • 17. Regulasi
    • Sejak Krisis Ekonomi 1997
    • Tingkat kepercayaan masy turun
    • Sebagian besar bank tdk sehat
    • Terjadi negatif spread (suku bunga tab/dep > kredit)
    • Muncul peraturan2 baru: UU no. 23 1999, UU no. 10 1998 dst
    • Jumlah bank menurun (237 bank sblm krisis mjd 89 bank)
  • 18. Jenis Bank
    • Menurut Kegiatan Usaha:
    • Bank Umum
    • Bank Perkreditan Rakyat
  • 19. Bank Umum
    • Adl bank yg melaksanakan kegiatannya secara konvensional dan/atau syariah dan memberikan jasa dlm lalu lintas pembayaran
    • Kegiatan: menghimpun dana dari masy (giro, deposito berjangka, sertifikat deposito, tabungan), kredit, surat pengakuan hutan, transfer, save deposit box, dll
  • 20. BPR
    • Adl bank yg melaksanakan kegiatannya secara konvensional dan/atau syariah dan tidak memberikan jasa lalu lintas pembayaran
    • Kegiatan: menghimpun dana masy (deposito berjangka, tabungan), kredit
  • 21. MICROFINANCE IN INDONESIA MFIs Bank Non Bank Rural Banks (BPR/BPRS) Act = The Banking Act No.7/1992 as amended by the Act No.10/1998 License = Bank Indonesia, the Central Bank Supervision = The Central Bank Act No.23/1999 BRI Unit Act = The Banking Act No.10/1998 License = Bank Indonesia, the Central Bank Supervision = * BRI Branches * Bank Indonesia for BRI as a Whole (Commercial Bank) Village Credit Agency (Badan Kredit Desa/BKD) Act = Banking Act No.10/1998 License = Based on Decree of Ministry of Finance Supervision = BRI on behalf of Bank Indonesia Cooperatives (KOSIPA) Act = Cooperative Act No.25/1992 License = State Ministry of cooperative & SME Supervision = State Ministry of cooperative & SME Non Formal Formal LDKP (Village Fund and Credit Institutions) Act = --------- License = Governor of each Province Supervision = Local Government Level I
    • Non Government Organization (NGO)
    • Self Help Group
    • BMT (microfinance based on syariah/Islamic principles)
    Pawnshop: Owned by the government Supervision : Ministry of Finance
  • 22. I. MICROFINANCE PROFILE *) Not including BPR under Syariah principles 4 2 , 199 1,756 1,756 970 Na 970 Na 39, 4 7 3 460 6, 707 3 0 , 090 No. Depositors (thousand) 4 7 ,7 43 549 549 4,286 2,789 966 531 42 ,9 08 23 7 20 , 434 2 7 ,78 9 Total Loan ( Billion Rp) 8,8 97 5 6 , 183 7 4 , 055 17, 564 TOTAL 1,680 567 Na 3,043 SUB TOTAL 1,680 567 Na 3,043 Cooperatives under Syariah Principles (BMT) (Sept-04) B. NON FORMAL 972 1,202 4,996 3,243 SUB TOTAL Na Na 3,474 850 Pawnshop (Dec-04) 317 1,117 1,437 1,296 Village Credit Institution in Bali (LPD) (Dec-04) 655 85 85 1,097 Saving and Loan Coop. (Apr-00)
    • FORMAL
    NON BANK 6, 245 5 4 , 414 6 9,059 11, 278 SUB TOTAL 383 71 3 72 5,345 BKD (Aug- -0 7 ) 2 ,578 1 7 , 690 2 6 , 080 1.8 23 Rural Bank (BPR) (Sep -0 7) 3,4 43 44 , 389 4 8 , 535 4, 2 2 9 BRI Unit ( Mar -0 7 ) BANK No. of Debtors (thousand) Total Saving (Billion Rp ) Total Asset ( Billion Rp ) No. of Unit Institution
  • 23. II. THE HISTORY OF RURAL BANKS
    • 1. 19 th Century under the colonial period
    • BPR (Rural Banks) were recognized as Bank Kredit Desa (Village Credit Bank), Lumbung Desa (Paddy Bank), Bank Desa (Village Bank), and Badan Kredit Desa (Village Credit Agency)
    • 2. Bank Indonesia Deregulation Package, October 1988 :
    • BPR could be established by a minimum capital requirements of 50 millions rupiahs
    • 3. Rural Bank was legalized by the Banking Act No.7 of 1992. This Banking Act recognizes 2 type of banks : commercial banks and rural banks
  • 24. II. THE HISTORY OF RURAL BANKS
    • The Banking Act No. 7 of 1992
    • Rural bank is established to extend financial services to low income level community especially in rural areas.
    • Non bank financial institutions had been granted licenses from ministry of finance might transform their businesses into banks max in 1 (one) year
    • Other non bank financial institutions could get license as rural banks by fulfilling requirement stipulated by government regulation No. 71 of 1992 with the deadline to fulfill the requirement was October 31, 1997.
  • 25. III. RURAL BANK PERFORMANCES . (in billion Rp) 6.5% 9.9% 14.3% 69.3% 2.96% 87,37% 6.83 9.73% 509 365 11,190 6,555 4,581 15,771 2,471 16,948 23,045 1,880 2006 4,8% 11,2% 14,4% 69.6% 2.62% 84.26% 5.06% 8.49% 513 371 12,315 6,336 5,375 17,690 2,578 20,434 26,080 1,823 Sep 2007 10% 9% 16% 65%   3.72% 77% 5.9 8.7% 338 438 4,124   4,891 2,002   6,126 1,825 6,683   9,080 2,141 2002 7% 8% 8% -    Unsound   9% 8% 8% -    Less sound   13% 16% 17% -    Fairly sound   71% 68% 67% -    Sound       Rural Bank Soundness 10 3.0% 3.2% 3.4% Return on Asset (RoA) 8 82% 80.7% 74.5% Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR) 8 5.8 5.3 5.6 Non Performing Loan (NPL) Net 7 7.98% 7.59% 8,0% Non Performing Loan (NPL) Gross 6 604 539 429 Current year profit/ loss 5 332 322 489 - No. of accounts (in thousands) 9,421 7,860 6,251 - Total     b. Time Deposit   5,672 5,439 5,046 - No. of accounts (in thousands) 3,757 3,301 2,617 - Total     a. Saving Deposit   13,178 11,161 8,868 Third party fund 4 2,478 2,167 1,993 - no. of accounts (in thousands) 14,654 12,149 8,985 - total     Loan: 3 20,393 16,707 12,635 Total Asset 2 2,009 2,158 2,141 No. of Rural Banks 1 2005 2004 2003 Accounts No.
  • 26. RURAL BANK PERFORMANCES
  • 27. RURAL BANK CHARACTERISTICS
    • 1. LOCATION
    • a. Close to its community
    • b. Located primarily in rural areas
    • 2. ORGANIZATION
    • a. Community banking system within province
    • b. Can be owned only by Indonesia citizen either individual or corporation
    • 3. OPERATION
    • a. Can only take deposits and provide loans
    • b. Can not access to payment system
    • c. Can not deal with foreign exchange
    • 4. PROCEDURES
    • - BPR implements simple and fast procedures in providing services to its customers (2- 3 days)
    • - Loan analysis is done in one or two sheet evaluation form
    • - BPR staff approach the customers for direct transaction (deposit, credit
    • installment)
    • 5. PRODUCTS
    • a. Loan : - short term (weekly and monthly)
    • - mostly for working capital
    • b. Deposit : saving and time deposit
    • 6. CUSTOMERS
    • a. Micro, small enterprises and low level income people in villages, rural, urban and city
    • b. Economic sectors : agriculture; small and home industry;trading, restaurant, hostel;
    • services; and others
  • 28. RURAL BANK CREDIT BASED ON ECONOMIC SECTORS - Sep 2007
  • 29. Jenis Bank
    • Menurut Bentuk Badan Usaha
    • PT
    • Koperasi
    • Perusahaan Daerah
    • Menurut target pasar:
    • Retail bank
    • Corporate bank
    • Retail-corporate bank
  • 30. Aktiva Bank
    • Giro (checking account): simpanan yg penarikannya dpt dilakukan sewaktu2 dg cek atau bilyet giro.
    • Cek : perintah membyr kpd bank pd saat penyerahan. Tidak dpt dibatalkan
    • Bilyet giro : perintah pemindahbukuan pd tgl tertentu dan pihak yg tercantum dlm bilyet. Dapat dibatalkan
  • 31. Aktiva Bank
    • Deposito Berjangka: Simpanan pihak III yg pengambilannya berdasarkan waktu tertentu sesuai perjanjian
    • Tabungan: Simpanan pihak III yg pengambilannya dpt dilakukan sewaktu2.
  • 32. Aktiva Bank
    • Sertifikat Deposito: Simpanan pihak III yang pencairannya pd waktu tertentu dan bunganya dibayar didepan serta dpt diperjual belikan
    • Deposit on call: Penarikannya hy dpt dilakukan dg pemberitahuan terlebih dahulu
  • 33. Aktiva Bank
    • Rekening Giro terkait Tabungan: menjaga saldo giro minimal
    • Call Money: pinjaman jk pendek yg bisa diperoleh bank dr interbank call money market (kalah kliring / rush)
    • Pinjaman antar bank: utk jk pendek & menengah
  • 34. Aktiva bank
    • KLBI: digunakan utk membantu bank yg kalah kliring / rush
    • Setoran Jaminan: digunakan utk LC atau Bank Garansi
    • Jasa Transfer
    • SBPU
  • 35. Aktiva bank
    • Sumber lain:
    • Setoran jaminan (Storjam)
      • Biasanya utk LC atau bank garansi
    • Dana Transfer
      • Dana transfer dr masy yg belum dikeluarkan oleh bank
    • SBPU
      • Beli dg harga discount dan dpt diperjualbelikan pd saat bank kurang likuid
  • 36. Jenis Kredit
    • Kredit Modal Kerja
    • Kredit Investasi
    • Kredit Konsumsi
  • 37. Jasa-jasa Bank
    • Bank Garansi
    • Letter of Credit (LC)
    • Pengiriman uang
    • Kliring & inkaso
    • Kartu plastik
    • Money changer
    • Telebanking
    • Custodian
    • Wali amanat
    • Safe deposite box
    • Traveller check
  • 38. Mekanisme LC Bank di Indonesia Bank Asing PT Ekspor PT Asing 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 5 6 6
    • Kontrak jual beli
    • Buka LC
    • Klarifikasi antar bank
    • Info LC sdh dibuka
    • Kirim brg & dok
    • Pembayaran
  • 39.
    • Kliring:
    • Adl pertukaran warkat atau data keuangan elektronik antar bank baik atas nama bank maupun nasabah yang perhitungannya diselesaikan pada waktu tertentu
    • Warkat / data keuangan bukan uang tunai
  • 40. Bank Umum Syariah
    • Dasar hukum: UU no. 10 thn 1998
    • Pengertian: Bank yg dlm aktifitasnya baik penghimpunan dana maupun penyaluran dana memberikan imbalan atas dasar syariah yaitu jual beli dan bagi hasil.
  • 41. Prinsip Kegiatan usaha
    • Hiwalah:
    • Akad pemindahan piutang nasabah (muhil) kpd bank (muhal’alaih) dari nasabah lain (muhal)
    • Ijarah:
    • Akad sewa menyewa barang antar bank (muaajir) dg penyewa (mustajir).
  • 42.
    • Istisha:
    • Akad jual beli brg antara pemesan dg penerima pesanan
    • Kafalah:
    • Akad pemberian jaminan yg diberikan satu pihak kpd pihak lain sbg pemberi jaminan bertanggungjawab atas pembayaran kembali suatu hutang
  • 43.
    • Mudharabah:
    • Akad antara pemilik modal dg pengelola utk memperoleh keuntungan.
    • Murabahah:
    • Akad jual beli antara bank dg nasabah
    • Musyarakah:
    • Akad kerjasama usaha patungan
  • 44.
    • Qardh
    • Akad pinjaman dari bank kpd pihak tertentu yg wajib dikembalikan dg jml yg sama sesuai pinjaman
    • Al Rahn
    • Akad penyerahan brg harta dr nasabah kpd bank sbg jaminan
    • Sharf
    • Akad jual beli suatu valuta dg valuta lain
  • 45.
    • Wadi’ah
    • Akad penitipan brg/uang antara pihak yg memp brg dg pihak yg diberi kepercayaan utk menjaga keselamatan/keamanan/keutuhan brg
    • Wakalah
    • Akad pemberian kuasa dari pemberi kuasa kpd penerima kuasa
  • 46.
    • Modal disetor Rp. 3 trilyun