National airspace

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National airspace

  1. 1. NATIONAL AIRSPACE status & regulation Agus Susanto SH.MM.
  2. 2. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Vertical Limits </li></ul><ul><li>Airspace : </li></ul><ul><li>- Extends From Surface Upwards </li></ul><ul><li>- No Defined Upper Limit </li></ul><ul><li>Outer Space: </li></ul><ul><li>- Exists Above Airspace </li></ul><ul><li>- No Defined Lower Limit </li></ul><ul><li>- Probably Lowest Point Of Sustainable Orbit </li></ul>NATIONAL AIRSPACE Vertical Limits Airspace : - Extends From Surface Upwards - No Defined Upper Limit Outer Space: - Exists Above Airspace - No Defined Lower Limit - Probably Lowest Point Of Sustainable Orbit
  3. 3. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Status Of Airspace – Early Theories : </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom Of Airspace : </li></ul><ul><li> - Airspace a free medium for communication by all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. just like the high seas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Strata of territorial airspace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-Vertical application of territorial sea concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I.e. zone of territorial airspace with free airspace above </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Status Of Airspace – Early Theories : </li></ul><ul><li>3. Total airspace sovereignty with right of innocent passage : </li></ul><ul><li> - adapting law of the sea concept allowing innocent passage through territorial waters </li></ul><ul><li>4. Unqualified airspace sovereignty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-states enjoy complete and exclusive sovereignty over their territorial airspace </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Lateral limits of territorial airspace </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago Convention </li></ul><ul><li>state have complete and exclusive sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>in the airspace above their “territory” </li></ul><ul><li>“ territory” = land areas & territorial sea </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. lateral territorial airspace boundary =outer limit of territorial sea </li></ul><ul><li>UNCLOS : United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>territorial sea width – valid up to 12 nautical miles </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Lateral limits of archipelagic airspace - </li></ul><ul><li>UNCLOS </li></ul><ul><li>- archipelagic state sovereignty extends to waters enclosed within archipelagic baselines </li></ul><ul><li>- territorial sea extends up to 12 nautical miles beyond archipelagic baselines </li></ul><ul><li>- sovereignty extends to airspace above archipelagic waters and adjacent </li></ul><ul><li>territorial sea </li></ul>
  7. 7. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Contiguous zone - </li></ul><ul><li>UNCLOS : </li></ul><ul><li> - contiguous zone extends outwards up to 24 miles from baselines </li></ul><ul><li>- state jurisdiction to apply customs, fiscal, immigration and sanitary (health) laws </li></ul>
  8. 8. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Exclusive economic zone - </li></ul><ul><li>UNCLOS : </li></ul><ul><li> - EEZ extends outwards up to 200 miles from baselines </li></ul><ul><li>- EEZ state has sovereign right to exploit natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>- all states have freedom of flight over EEZ </li></ul><ul><li>- states may also establish artificial islands or structures : </li></ul><ul><li>- with exclusive jurisdiction over island or structure </li></ul><ul><li>- and right to declare 500 meter safety zones </li></ul>
  9. 9. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>High seas – </li></ul><ul><li>UNCLOS </li></ul><ul><li>- High seas are all seas not part of EEZ (i.e. beyond EEZ) and not part of a state’s archipelagic waters </li></ul><ul><li>- High seas are not subject top sovereign claims </li></ul><ul><li>- all states enjoy freedom of over flight above high seas </li></ul><ul><li>- over flight freedom must be exercised with due regard for the interests of other states </li></ul>
  10. 10. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Stateless territories - </li></ul><ul><li> - no state sovereignty over surface or airspace above </li></ul><ul><li>- all states enjoy freedom overflight </li></ul><ul><li>Antartica : </li></ul><ul><li>- sovereign claims suspended </li></ul><ul><li>- airspace safety regulated by state consensus </li></ul><ul><li>per Antartic Treaty 1959 </li></ul>
  11. 11. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>International straits regime – </li></ul><ul><li>UNCLOS : </li></ul><ul><li> - applies where territorial waters cover the full width of an international strait </li></ul><ul><li>- grants all ship & aircraft unimpeded transit passage rights through strait – thus qualifying sovereign airspace rights </li></ul><ul><li>- straits transit passage must be continuous & expeditious </li></ul><ul><li>- aircraft must observe ICAO Rules of the Air & monitor assigned radio frequencies </li></ul>
  12. 12. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Archipelagic sea lanes passage regime - </li></ul><ul><li>UNCLOS : </li></ul><ul><li> - applies to archipelagic waters traditionally used for international navigation between parts of EEZ & High Seas </li></ul><ul><li>- grants all ship & aircraft unimpeded transit passage rights through & above state designated sea lanes </li></ul><ul><li>- UNCLOS prescribes sea lanes where state fails to do so </li></ul>
  13. 13. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Archipelagic sea lanes passage regime – </li></ul><ul><li>UNCLOS : </li></ul><ul><li> - sea lanes passage must be continuous & expeditious </li></ul><ul><li>- aircraft must observe ICAO Rules of the Air & monitor assigned radio frequencies </li></ul><ul><li>- regime has more significance for military flights than commercial airline service </li></ul>
  14. 14. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Airspace control – </li></ul><ul><li>- legal controls : flight imposed by State civil aviation laws (regulations) </li></ul><ul><li>- common approach : flight generally prohibited – except where regulations are observed </li></ul><ul><li>- enforcement : required by Chicago Convention Art. 12 </li></ul>
  15. 15. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Airspace control – </li></ul><ul><li>Required ICAO-based areas of regulation included: </li></ul><ul><li>- aircraft nationality & registration markings; </li></ul><ul><li>- aircraft airworthiness certification; </li></ul><ul><li>- aircraft maintenance releases; </li></ul><ul><li>- personnel licensing (eg. air crew, engineers); </li></ul><ul><li>- operator licenses & certificates (eg. AOC); </li></ul><ul><li>- rules of the air. </li></ul>
  16. 16. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Airspace control – </li></ul><ul><li>- flight & maneuver: </li></ul><ul><li> - classifications of operations </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Private, commercial, airline etc. </li></ul><ul><li>- classifications of airspace </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Controlled / uncontrolled </li></ul><ul><li>- air routes : </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago Convention permits states to prescribe air routes for international flights </li></ul>
  17. 17. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Airspace control – </li></ul><ul><li>prohibited & restricted areas : </li></ul><ul><li>- prohibited areas : military reasons make flight totally prohibited </li></ul><ul><li>- restricted areas : public safety permits flight only on special conditions </li></ul><ul><li>- danger areas : danger to aircraft permits flight only on special conditions </li></ul>
  18. 18. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Use of force – </li></ul><ul><li>forms of provocation </li></ul><ul><li>by foreign military or civil aircraft - </li></ul><ul><li> - unauthorized instructions into national airspace </li></ul><ul><li>- deviating from authorized air routes </li></ul><ul><li>- entering prohibited areas </li></ul>
  19. 19. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Use of force </li></ul><ul><li>forms of response - </li></ul><ul><li> - radio directions to land or change course </li></ul><ul><li>- aerial interception </li></ul><ul><li>- close surveillance & further directions </li></ul><ul><li>- warning with weapons fire </li></ul><ul><li>- use of weapons against straying aircraft </li></ul>
  20. 20. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Use of force </li></ul><ul><li>against straying airliners.. </li></ul><ul><li> 1952 : Air France – by Soviet fighters </li></ul><ul><li>1955 : El Al – by Bulgarian fighters </li></ul><ul><li>1973 : Libyan Airlines – by Israeli fighter </li></ul><ul><li>1978 : Korean Airlines – by Soviet fighters </li></ul><ul><li>1983 : Korean Airlines – by Soviet fighters </li></ul>
  21. 21. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Use of force </li></ul><ul><li>customary international law </li></ul><ul><li>permissible responses to </li></ul><ul><li>unauthorized instructions by : </li></ul><ul><li> - military attack aircraft : no prior warning </li></ul><ul><li>- military non – attack aircraft : possible warning </li></ul><ul><li>- civil aircraft : utmost restraint unless self defence </li></ul>
  22. 22. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Use of force </li></ul><ul><li>customary international law </li></ul><ul><li>UN Security Council Resolution, 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Reaffirming the rules of international law that prohibit acts of violence which pose a threat to the safety of international civil aviation </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Declares that such use of armed force against international civil is incompatible with norms governing international behavior and elementary considerations of humanity </li></ul>
  23. 23. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Use of force </li></ul><ul><li>treaty law – Chicago Convention </li></ul><ul><li> Art 3(d) : regulations for state aircraft.. </li></ul><ul><li>Art 4 : no uses inconsistent with Chicago aims </li></ul><ul><li>Art 9(c) : right to require landing.. </li></ul><ul><li>Art 25 : assistance to aircraft in distress </li></ul>
  24. 24. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Use of force </li></ul><ul><li>treaty law – Chicago Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Annex 2 : Rules of the Air </li></ul><ul><li>International standards : </li></ul><ul><li> 3.8.1 Contracting states must issue regulations governing interception of civil aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>3.8.2 Pilot in command must comply with directions from intercepting aircraft </li></ul>
  25. 25. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Use of force </li></ul><ul><li>treaty law – Chicago Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Article 3 bis : </li></ul><ul><li>(a) The contracting States recognize that every State must refrain from resorting to the use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight and that, in case of interception, the lives of person on board and the safety of aircraft must not be endangered…. </li></ul>
  26. 26. NATIONAL AIRSPACE <ul><li>Use of force </li></ul><ul><li>treaty law – Chicago Convention </li></ul><ul><li>Article 3 bis : </li></ul><ul><li>(b) ..every state is entitled to require a landing (by an authorized aircraft) & must publish its regulations on interception </li></ul><ul><li>(c) every civil aircraft must comply with directions…and violations to be punished by severe penalties </li></ul><ul><li>(d) states to prohibit deliberate use of civil aircraft for purposes inconsistent with Convention…. </li></ul>

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