annex 14 (aerodrome)

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  • 1. COVER SHEET TO AMENDMENTS 8 AND 9 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AERODROMES ANNEX 14TO THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION VOLUME I AERODROME DESIGN AND OPERATIONS FOURTH EDITION — JULY 2004INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION
  • 2. Checklist of Amendments to Annex 14, Volume I Date of Effective date applicabilityFourth Edition (incorporates Amendments 1 to 6) 12 July 2004 25 November 2004Amendment 7(adopted by the Council on 2 March 2005) 11 July 2005 24 November 2005Amendment 8(adopted by the Council on 14 March 2006)Replacement pages (iii), (vi), (vii), (ix), (x), (xi), (xii), (xiii), (xiv), (xv),1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7, 1-8, 3-12, 4-1, 4-5, 4-6, 5-2, 5-15, 5-16, 5-62,6-4, 9-9 and 9-10 17 July 2006 23 November 2006Amendment 9(approved by the Council on 15 June 2006)Replacement pages (xv) and 3-11 — —
  • 3. Transmittal note Amendments 8 and 9 to the International Standards and Recommended Practices AERODROMES (Annex 14, Volume I, to the Convention on International Civil Aviation)1. Insert the following replacement pages in Annex 14, Volume I (Fourth Edition) to incorporate Amendment 8 which becomes applicable on 23 November 2006: a) Pages (iii) to (v) — Table of Contents b) Page (vi) — Abbreviations and symbols c) Page (vii) — Publications d) Pages (ix) to (xiv) — Foreword e) Pages 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-5, 1-6, 1-7 and 1-8 — Chapter 1 f) Page 3-12 — Chapter 3 g) Pages 4-1, 4-5 and 4-6 — Chapter 4 h) Pages 5-2, 5-15, 5-16, 5-62 — Chapter 5 i) Page 6-4 — Chapter 6 j) Pages 9-9 and 9-10 — Chapter 92. Insert the following replacement pages in Annex 14, Volume I (Fourth Edition) to incorporate Amendment 9 which was approved on 15 June 2006: a) Page (xv) — Foreword b) Page 3-11 — Chapter 33. Record the entry of these amendments on page (ii). ___________________ 17/7/06
  • 4. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PageAbbreviations and symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (vi) CHAPTER 4. Obstacle restriction and removal . . . . . . 4-1Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (vii) 4.1 Obstacle limitation surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 4.2 Obstacle limitation requirements . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (ix) 4.3 Objects outside the obstacle limitation surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9CHAPTER 1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 4.4 Other objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9 1.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1.2 Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 CHAPTER 5. Visual aids for navigation . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 1.3 Common reference systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 5.1 Indicators and signalling devices . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 1.4 Certification of aerodromes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6 5.1.1 Wind direction indicators . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 1.5 Safety management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 5.1.2 Landing direction indicator . . . . . . . . . 5-1 1.6 Airport design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 5.1.3 Signalling lamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 1.7 Reference code. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 5.1.4 Signal panels and signal area . . . . . . . 5-2 5.2 Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2CHAPTER 2. Aerodrome data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 5.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 2.1 Aeronautical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 5.2.2 Runway designation marking . . . . . . . 5-3 2.2 Aerodrome reference point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 5.2.3 Runway centre line marking . . . . . . . . 5-4 2.3 Aerodrome and runway elevations . . . . . . . . . 2-2 5.2.4 Threshold marking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5 2.4 Aerodrome reference temperature . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 5.2.5 Aiming point marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 2.5 Aerodrome dimensions and related 5.2.6 Touchdown zone marking . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 5.2.7 Runway side stripe marking . . . . . . . . 5-9 2.6 Strength of pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 5.2.8 Taxiway centre line marking. . . . . . . . 5-9 2.7 Pre-flight altimeter check location. . . . . . . . . . 2-4 5.2.9 Runway turn pad marking. . . . . . . . . . 5-9 2.8 Declared distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 5.2.10 Runway-holding position marking . . . 5-11 2.9 Condition of the movement area and related 5.2.11 Intermediate holding position facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-11 2.10 Disabled aircraft removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 5.2.12 VOR aerodrome check-point 2.11 Rescue and fire fighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 2.12 Visual approach slope indicator systems . . . . . 2-6 5.2.13 Aircraft stand markings . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 2.13 Coordination between aeronautical information 5.2.14 Apron safety lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14 services and aerodrome authorities . . . . . . . . . 2-6 5.2.15 Road-holding position marking. . . . . . 5-14 5.2.16 Mandatory instruction marking . . . . . . 5-14CHAPTER 3. Physical characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 5.2.17 Information marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15 3.1 Runways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 5.3 Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16 3.2 Runway shoulders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 5.3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16 3.3 Runway turn pads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 5.3.2 Emergency lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19 3.4 Runway strips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 5.3.3 Aeronautical beacons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19 3.5 Runway end safety areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 5.3.4 Approach lighting systems . . . . . . . . . 5-20 3.6 Clearways. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 5.3.5 Visual approach slope indicator 3.7 Stopways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26 3.8 Radio altimeter operating area . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 5.3.6 Circling guidance lights. . . . . . . . . . . . 5-35 3.9 Taxiways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 5.3.7 Runway lead-in lighting systems . . . . 5-36 3.10 Taxiway shoulders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15 5.3.8 Runway threshold identification 3.11 Taxiway strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15 lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-36 3.12 Holding bays, runway-holding positions, 5.3.9 Runway edge lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-37 intermediate holding positions and 5.3.10 Runway threshold and wing bar road-holding positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16 lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-37 3.13 Aprons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-17 5.3.11 Runway end lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-38 3.14 Isolated aircraft parking position . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 5.3.12 Runway centre line lights . . . . . . . . . . 5-38 3.15 De-icing/anti-icing facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 5.3.13 Runway touchdown zone lights . . . . . 5-41ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I (iii) 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 5. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I Page Page 5.3.14 Rapid exit taxiway indicator lights . . 5-42 9.5 Apron management service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7 5.3.15 Stopway lights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-43 9.6 Ground servicing of aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7 5.3.16 Taxiway centre line lights . . . . . . . . . 5-43 9.7 Aerodrome vehicle operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8 5.3.17 Taxiway edge lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-46 9.8 Surface movement guidance and control 5.3.18 Runway turn pad lights. . . . . . . . . . . . 5-47 systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8 5.3.19 Stop bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-47 9.9 Siting of equipment and installations on 5.3.20 Intermediate holding position lights. . 5-48 operational areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9 5.3.21 De-icing/anti-icing facility exit lights 5-49 9.10 Fencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 5.3.22 Runway guard lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-49 9.11 Security lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10 5.3.23 Apron floodlighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-51 5.3.24 Visual docking guidance system . . . . 5-52 CHAPTER 10. Aerodrome maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 5.3.25 Aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance 10.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-53 10.2 Pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 5.3.26 Road-holding position light . . . . . . . . 5-53 10.3 Runway pavement overlays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 5.4 Signs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-54 10.4 Visual aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 5.4.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-54 5.4.2 Mandatory instruction signs . . . . . . . . 5-55 5.4.3 Information signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-59 APPENDIX 1. Colours for aeronautical 5.4.4 VOR aerodrome check-point sign . . . 5-60 ground lights,markings, signs and panels . . . . . . . . APP 1-1 5.4.5 Aerodrome identification sign . . . . . . 5-61 1. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APP 1-1 5.4.6 Aircraft stand identification signs . . . 5-62 2. Colours for aeronautical ground lights . . . . APP 1-1 5.4.7 Road-holding position sign. . . . . . . . . 5-62 3. Colours for markings, signs and panels . . . APP 1-2 5.5 Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-62 5.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-62 APPENDIX 2. Aeronautical ground light 5.5.2 Unpaved runway edge markers . . . . . 5-62 characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APP 2-1 5.5.3 Stopway edge markers . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-63 5.5.4 Edge markers for snow-covered APPENDIX 3. Mandatory instruction markings runways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-63 and information markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APP 3-1 5.5.5 Taxiway edge markers . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-63 5.5.6 Taxiway centre line markers . . . . . . . 5-63 APPENDIX 4. Requirements concerning design 5.5.7 Unpaved taxiway edge markers . . . . . 5-64 of taxiing guidance signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APP 4-1 5.5.8 Boundary markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-64CHAPTER 6. Visual aids for denoting obstacles . . . . 6-1 APPENDIX 5. Aeronautical data quality 6.1 Objects to be marked and/or lighted . . . . . . . . 6-1 requirements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APP 5-1 6.2 Marking of objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 6.3 Lighting of objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5 APPENDIX 6. Location of lights on obstacles. . . APP 6-1CHAPTER 7. Visual aids for denoting restricteduse areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 ATTACHMENT A. Guidance material 7.1 Closed runways and taxiways, or parts supplementary to Annex 14, Volume I . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-1 thereof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 1. Number, siting and orientation of runways. ATT A-1 7.2 Non-load-bearing surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 2. Clearways and stopways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-1 7.3 Pre-threshold area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 3. Calculation of declared distances . . . . . . . . ATT A-2 7.4 Unserviceable areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 4. Slopes on a runway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-3CHAPTER 8. Electrical systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 5. Runway surface evenness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-3 8.1 Electrical power supply systems for 6. Determining and expressing the friction air navigation facilities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 characteristics of snow- and ice-covered 8.2 System design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 paved surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-5 8.3 Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2 7. Determination of friction characteristics of wet paved runways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-6CHAPTER 9. Aerodrome operational services, 8. Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-8equipment and installations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 9. Runway end safety areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-8 9.1 Aerodrome emergency planning . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 10. Location of threshold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-8 9.2 Rescue and fire fighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 11. Approach lighting systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-9 9.3 Disabled aircraft removal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 12. Priority of installation of visual approach 9.4 Bird hazard reduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-7 slope indicator systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-1525/11/04 (iv)
  • 6. Table of contents Annex 14 — Aerodromes Page Page 13. Lighting of unserviceable areas . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-16 19. The ACN-PCN method of reporting 14. Rapid exit taxiway indicator lights. . . . . . . . ATT A-16 pavement strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-19 15. Intensity control of approach and runway lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-16 ATTACHMENT B. Obstacle limitation surfaces. ATT B-1 16. Signal area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-17 17. Rescue and fire fighting services . . . . . . . . . ATT A-17 LIMITED INDEX OF SIGNIFICANT SUBJECTS 18. Operators of vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATT A-18 INCLUDED IN ANNEX 14, VOLUME I . . . . . . . 1 (v) 25/11/04
  • 7. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS Page Page (used in Annex 14, Volume I)Abbreviations Abbreviations ACN Aircraft classification number MPa Megapascal aprx Approximately NM Nautical mile ASDA Accelerate-stop distance available NU Not usable ATS Air traffic services OCA/H Obstacle clearance altitude/height cd Candela OFZ Obstacle free zone C Degree Celsius PCN Pavement classification number CBR California bearing ratio RESA Runway end safety area CIE Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage RVR Runway visual range cm Centimetre TODA Take-off distance available DME Distance measuring equipment TORA Take-off run available ft Foot VMC Visual meteorological conditions ILS Instrument landing system VOR Very high frequency omnidirectional IMC Instrument meteorological conditions radio range K Degree Kelvin kg Kilogram km Kilometre Symbols km/h Kilometre per hour kt Knot ° Degree L Litre = Equals LDA Landing distance available ′ Minute of arc m Metre µ Friction coefficient max Maximum > Greater than mm Millimetre < Less than mnm Minimum % Percentage MN Meganewton ± Plus or minus23/11/0625/11/04 (vi) No. 8
  • 8. PublicationsTable of contents Annex 14 — Aerodromes PUBLICATIONS Page Page (related to the specifications of this Annex)Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157) Guidance on the Balanced Approach to Aircraft Noise Part 1 — Runways Management (Doc 9829) Part 2 — Taxiways, Aprons and Holding Bays Part 3 — Pavements Heliport Manual (Doc 9261) Part 4 — Visual Aids Part 5 — Electrical Systems Human Factors Training Manual (Doc 9683) Part 6 — Frangibility Manual of Aircraft Ground De-icing/Anti-icing OperationsAeronautical Information Services Manual (Doc 8126) (Doc 9640) Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and Control SystemsAirport Planning Manual (Doc 9184) (SMGCS) (Doc 9476) Part 1 — Master Planning Part 2 — Land Use and Environmental Control Manual on Certification of Aerodromes (Doc 9774) Part 3 — Guidelines for Consultant/Construction Part 3 — Services Manual on Laser Emitters and Flight Safety (Doc 9815)Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137) Manual on the ICAO Bird Strike Information System (IBIS) Part 1 — Rescue and Fire Fighting (Doc 9332) Part 2 — Pavement Surface Conditions Part 3 — Bird Control and Reduction Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Aircraft Operations Part 5 — Removal of Disabled Aircraft (PANS-OPS) (Doc 8168) Part 6 — Control of Obstacles Volume I — Flight Procedures Part 7 — Airport Emergency Planning Volume II — Construction of Visual and Instrument Part 8 — Airport Operational Services Volume II — Flight Procedures Part 9 — Airport Maintenance Practices Procedures for Air Navigation Services — Air Traffic Management (PANS-ATM) (Doc 4444)Air Traffic Services Planning Manual (Doc 9426) Safety Management Manual (SMM) (Doc 9859)Airworthiness Manual (Doc 9760) Volume I — Organization and Procedures Stolport Manual (Doc 9150) Volume II — Design Certification and Continuing Volume II — Airworthiness World Geodetic System — 1984 (WGS-84) Manual (Doc 9674) (vii) 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 9. FOREWORD Historical background Status of Annex componentsStandards and Recommended Practices for Aerodromes were An Annex is made up of the following component parts, notfirst adopted by the Council on 29 May 1951 pursuant to the all of which, however, are necessarily found in every Annex;provisions of Article 37 of the Convention on International they have the status indicated:Civil Aviation (Chicago 1944) and designated as Annex 14 tothe Convention. The Standards and Recommended Practiceswere based on recommendations of the Aerodromes, Air 1.— Material comprising the Annex proper:Routes and Ground Aids Division at its third session inSeptember 1947 and at its fourth session in November 1949. a) Standards and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council under the provisions of the Convention. Table A shows the origin of subsequent amendments They are defined as follows:together with a list of the principal subjects involved and thedates on which the Annex and the amendments were adopted Standard: Any specification for physical characteris-by the Council, when they became effective and when they tics, configuration, matériel, performance, personnelbecame applicable. or procedure, the uniform application of which is rec- ognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with the Conven- tion; in the event of impossibility of compliance, Action by Contracting States notification to the Council is compulsory under Article 38.Notification of differences. The attention of Contracting Statesis drawn to the obligation imposed by Article 38 of theConvention by which Contracting States are required to notify Recommended Practice: Any specification forthe Organization of any differences between their national physical characteristics, configuration, matériel,regulations and practices and the International Standards performance, personnel or procedure, the uniformcontained in this Annex and any amendments thereto. application of which is recognized as desirable in theContracting States are invited to extend such notification to interest of safety, regularity or efficiency of inter-any differences from the Recommended Practices contained in national air navigation, and to which Contractingthis Annex and any amendments thereto, when the notification States will endeavour to conform in accordance withof such differences is important for the safety of air the Convention.navigation. Further, Contracting States are invited to keep theOrganization currently informed of any differences which may b) Appendices comprising material grouped separatelysubsequently occur, or of the withdrawal of any differences for convenience but forming part of the Standardspreviously notified. A specified request for notification of and Recommended Practices adopted by the Council.differences will be sent to Contracting States immediately afterthe adoption of each amendment to this Annex. c) Definitions of terms used in the Standards and The attention of States is also drawn to the provisions of Recommended Practices which are not self-Annex 15 related to the publication of differences between explanatory in that they do not have acceptedtheir national regulations and practices and the related ICAO dictionary meanings. A definition does not haveStandards and Recommended Practices through the Aero- independent status but is an essential part of eachnautical Information Service, in addition to the obligation of Standard and Recommended Practice in which theStates under Article 38 of the Convention. term is used, since a change in the meaning of the term would affect the specification. Promulgation of information. The establishment and with-drawal of and changes to facilities, services and procedures d) Tables and Figures which add to or illustrate aaffecting aircraft operations provided in accordance with the Standard or Recommended Practice and which areStandards and Recommended Practices specified in this Annex referred to therein, form part of the associatedshould be notified and take effect in accordance with the Standard or Recommended Practice and have theprovisions of Annex 15. same status.ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I (ix) 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 10. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I 2.— Material approved by the Council for publication in the Convention, either through direct use or throughassociation with the Standards and Recommended Practices: translation into its own national language, and to notify the Organization accordingly. a) Forewords comprising historical and explanatory material based on the action of the Council and including an explanation of the obligations of States with regard to the application of the Standards and Editorial practices Recommended Practices ensuing from the Conven- tion and the Resolution of Adoption. The following practice has been adhered to in order to indicate at a glance the status of each statement: Standards have been b) Introductions comprising explanatory material intro- printed in light face roman; Recommended Practices have duced at the beginning of parts, chapters or sections been printed in light face italics, the status being indicated by of the Annex to assist in the understanding of the the prefix Recommendation; Notes have been printed in light application of the text. face italics, the status being indicated by the prefix Note. c) Notes included in the text, where appropriate, to give The following editorial practice has been followed in the factual information or references bearing on the writing of specifications: for Standards the operative verb Standards or Recommended Practices in question, “shall” is used, and for Recommended Practices the operative but not constituting part of the Standards or verb “should” is used. Recommended Practices. The units of measurement used in this document are in d) Attachments comprising material supplementary to accordance with the International System of Units (SI) as the Standards and Recommended Practices, or specified in Annex 5 to the Convention on International Civil included as a guide to their application. Aviation. Where Annex 5 permits the use of non-SI alternative units these are shown in parentheses following the basic units. Where two sets of units are quoted it must not be assumed that the pairs of values are equal and interchangeable. It may, how- Selection of language ever, be inferred that an equivalent level of safety is achieved when either set of units is used exclusively.This Annex has been adopted in five languages — English,Arabic, French, Russian and Spanish. Each Contracting State Any reference to a portion of this document, which isis requested to select one of those texts for the purpose of identified by a number and/or title, includes all subdivisions ofnational implementation and for other effects provided for in that portion.23/11/0625/11/04 (x) No. 8
  • 11. Foreword Annex 14 — Aerodromes Table A. Amendments to Annex 14, Volume I Adopted/Approved Effective Amendment Source(s) Subject(s) Applicable 1st Edition Third and Fourth — 29 May 1951 Sessions of the 1 November 1951 Aerodromes, Air 1 June 1952* Routes and Ground 1 June 1954 Aids Division 1 to 6 Fifth Session of the Physical characteristics of runways, strips, clearways, stopways, taxiways and 20 May 1953 Aerodromes, Air aprons; physical characteristics of channels, turning basins, taxi channels and 1 September 1953 Routes and Ground mooring areas; approach areas; clearing and restriction of obstructions; 1 April 1954* Aids Division obstruction marking; marking of unserviceable portions of the movement area; 1 January 1955 secondary power supply; aerodrome beacon; runway markings; stopway markers; approach, lead-in and runway lighting. 7 to 13 Sixth Session of the Physical characteristics of runways, strips, taxiways and aprons; approach and 12 May 1958 Aerodromes, Air take-off areas and surfaces; clearing and restriction of obstructions; obstruction 1 September 1958 Routes and Ground markings; runway markings; stopway markers; taxiway markings; approach, 1 December 1958 Aids Division runway and taxiway lighting; circling guidance lights; rescue and fire fighting services. 14 Correspondence Precision approach lighting system. 7 May 1959 1 October 1959 1 October 1959 15 Vertical Separation Pre-flight altimeter check-point. 15 May 1959 Panel 1 October 1959 1 October 1959 16 Correspondence Extinguishing agents. 2 December 1960 2 December 1960 2 December 1960 17 Correspondence Pre-flight altimeter check-point. 2 December 1960 2 December 1960 2 December 1960 18 First Meeting of the VASIS 9 June 1961 ANC Visual Aids 1 October 1961 Panel 1 October 1961 19 Seventh Session of Physical characteristics of runways, clearways, stopways, taxiways and aprons; 23 March 1964 the Aerodromes, Air take-off and approach areas; clearing and restriction of obstructions; obstruction 1 August 1964 Routes and Ground markings; wind direction indicator; landing direction indicator; aerodrome 1 November 1964 Aids Division beacon; runway markings; approach lighting system; runway alignment indicator; runway centre line; touchdown zone and taxiway lighting; rescue and fire fighting services. 20 Second Meeting of Visual aids for use in operational performance category II conditions. 13 December 1965 the ANC Visual 13 April 1966 Aids Panel 25 August 1966* Two applicability dates approved. (xi) 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 12. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I Adopted/Approved Effective Amendment Source(s) Subject(s) Applicable 21 Fourth Air Emergency lighting; threshold marking; fixed distance marking; approach light 28 June 1967 Navigation beacons; taxiway centre line lighting; secondary power supply; maintenance of 28 October 1967 Conference and aerodrome lighting and marking aids; monitoring of visual aids. 8 February 1968 Fourth Meeting of the ANC Visual Aids Panel 22 Correspondence and VOR aerodrome check-point marking and sign. 28 June 1968 ANC Visual Aids 28 October 1968 Panel 18 September 1969 23 Fifth Air Navigation Declared distances; strength of pavements; information on aerodrome conditions; 23 January 1969 Conference reference code letters; runway length correction for slope; runway strips; taxiway 23 May 1969 clearances; holding bays; taxi-holding position markings; approach lighting 18 September 1969 systems; visual approach slope indicator systems; secondary power supply; rescue and fire fighting services; bird hazard reduction services. 24 Fifth Meeting of the Marking of unusable or unserviceable portions of the movement area; 31 March 1971 ANC Visual Aids touchdown zone markings; category II holding position marking and sign; 6 September 1971 Panel and First T-VASIS and AT-VASIS; runway edge lighting; exit taxiway centre line 6 January 1972 Meeting of the ANC lighting; stop bars and clearance bars; emergency access roads; colour Rescue and Fire specifications for lights. Fighting Panel 25 ANC Visual Aids Visual approach slope guidance for long-bodied aircraft. 26 May 1971 Panel 26 September 1971 6 January 1972 26 Seventeenth Session Aerodrome security; water rescue vehicles. 15 December 1971 of the Assembly and 15 April 1972 Middle East/South 7 December 1972 East Asia Regional Air Navigation Meeting 27 ANC Visual Aids Runway centre line light colour coding; maintenance services. 20 March 1972 Panel and Middle 20 July 1972 East/South East Asia 7 December 1972 Regional Air Navigation Meeting 28 Secretariat and Sixth Definition for snow on the ground; frangibility of light fixtures; runway centre 11 December 1972 Meeting of the ANC line marking; taxiway centre line lighting; colour specifications for lights. 11 April 1973 Visual Aids Panel 16 August 1973 29 Council action in Aerodrome security. 7 December 1973 pursuance of 7 April 1974 Assembly 23 May 1974 Resolutions A17-10 and A18-10 30 Eighth Air Runway shoulders and strips; runway end safety areas; aerodrome reference 3 February 1976 Navigation temperature; clearways; holding bays; physical characteristics of taxiways; 3 June 1976 Conference and taxiway shoulders and strips; pavement strength; runway transverse slopes; 30 December 1976 editorial revision of runway braking action; obstacle limitation surfaces; category III runway lighting the Annex and marking; taxiway lighting; stop bars; rescue and fire fighting services; disabled aircraft removal.23/11/0625/11/04 (xii) No. 8
  • 13. Foreword Annex 14 — Aerodromes Adopted/Approved Effective Amendment Source(s) Subject(s) Applicable 31 Seventh Meeting of Obstacle limitation surfaces; light intensity control; inset light temperatures; 13 December 1976 the ANC Visual taxiway centre line lights; apron floodlighting; visual docking guidance systems; 13 April 1977 Aids Panel and Fifth signs; maintenance of visual aids. 6 October 1977 Meeting of the ANC Obstacle Clearance Panel 32 Correspondence and Definition of frangibility; siting and construction of equipment and installations on 14 December 1977 ANC Visual Aids operational areas; colour specifications for lights and markings. 14 April 1978 Panel 10 August 1978 33 Correspondence and Reporting of information on visual approach slope indicator systems; runway, 26 March 1979 Secretariat taxiway and taxi-holding position markings; approach lighting for displaced 26 July 1979 thresholds; runway edge and centre line lights; aerodrome emergency planning. 29 November 1979 34 Eighth Meeting of Apron markings; precision approach lighting systems; visual approach slope 30 November 1979 the ANC Visual indicator systems; circling guidance lights; runway lead-in lighting systems; stop 30 March 1980 Aids Panel bars; visual docking guidance system; aircraft stand manoeuvring guidance 27 November 1980 lights; aircraft stand identification signs; marking and lighting of obstacles. 35 Secretariat and the Reporting of pavement strength; visual approach slope indicator systems; 23 March 1981 ANC Visual Aids approach lighting systems; maintenance of lighting. 23 July 1981 Panel 26 November 1981 36 Aerodromes, Air Aerodrome reference code; runway friction characteristics; runway end safety 22 November 1982 Routes and Ground areas; taxiway separation distances; rapid exit taxiways; taxiways on bridges; 23 March 1983 Aids Divisional holding bays; obstacle limitation surfaces; PAPI; taxi-holding position marking 24 November 1983 Meeting (1981), and lights; runway centre line guidance; visual ground signals; rescue and fire Ninth Meeting of the fighting; apron management service; declared distances; ground servicing of ANC Visual Aids aircraft; units of measure. Panel and Secretariat 37 Secretariat Fuelling. 29 March 1983 29 July 1983 24 November 1983 38 Secretariat and the Aerodrome data; APAPI; colour coding of exit taxiway centre line lights; stop 17 March 1986 ANC Visual Aids bars; taxi-holding position lights; taxiway edge markers; markers for overhead 27 July 1986 Panel wires; obstacle lighting of lighthouses; maintenance of taxiway centre line 20 November 1986 lights; surface marking colours. 39 Secretariat and the 1. Annex to be issued in two volumes as follows: Volume I — Aerodrome 9 March 1990 (Annex 14, ANC Visual Aids Design and Operations (incorporating provisions in the eighth edition of 30 July 1990 Volume I, Panel Annex 14 as amended by Amendment 39) and Volume II — Heliports. 15 November 1990 1st Edition) 2. Take-off runways; aerodrome reference code; reporting of pavement strength; runway friction characteristics; conditions of movement area; separation of parallel runways; taxiway minimum separation distances; taxi- holding position marking; installation tolerances for PAPI; obstacle protection surface; stop bars; signs; taxiway centre line markers; aerodrome security; surface movement guidance and control; aerodrome emergency planning; rescue and fire fighting; maintenance; runway pavement overlay; bird hazard reduction; apron management service; colours for transilluminated signs and panels; aeronautical ground light characteristics. (xiii) 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 14. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I Adopted/Approved Effective Amendment Source(s) Subject(s) Applicable 1 Twelfth Meeting of Definitions of frangible object, precision approach runways, road, road-holding 13 March 1995 (Annex 14, the ANC Visual position, runway guard lights, and taxi-holding position; standard geodetic 24 July 1995 Volume I, Aids Panel and reference system; radio altimeter operating area, minimum distance between 9 November 1995 2nd Edition) Secretariat parallel runways; frangibility; runway and taxiway markings, aeronautical beacons, lighting aids for MLS operations, deletion of specifications on VASIS (AVASIS) and 3-BAR VASIS (3-BAR AVASIS), stop bars, runway guard lights, visual docking guidance system, taxiing guidance signs; obstacle lighting; visual aids for denoting restricted use areas; secondary power supply, electrical systems, monitoring, airport design, surface movement guidance and control systems; rescue and fire fighting, maintenance of visual aids; aeronautical ground light characteristics; form and proportions of information marking; design of taxiing guidance signs; friction characteristics of wet runways. 2 Air Navigation Aeronautical data bases and vertical component of the World Geodetic 20 March 1997 Commission System — 1984 (WGS-84). 21 July 1997 6 November 1997 3 Thirteenth Meeting Definitions of aerodrome traffic density, de-icing/anti-icing facility, de-icing/ 5 March 1999 (Annex 14, of the ANC Visual anti-icing pad, holdover time, Human Factors principles, human performance, 19 July 1999 Volume I, Aids Panel and intermediate holding position, runway-holding position, signs, switch-over time; 4 November 1999 3rd Edition) Secretariat new aerodrome reference code letter F in Table 1-1; runways, taxiways and taxiway minimum separation distances related to code letter F aeroplane operations, sight distance, runway strips, runway end safety areas, clearways, stopways, taxiways on bridges, holding bays, runway-holding positions, intermediate holding positions and road holding positions, de-icing/anti-icing facilities; obstacle-free zone width for code letter F; runway-holding position marking, intermediate holding position marking, mandatory instruction marking, marking of de-icing/anti-icing facilities, approach lighting systems, runway and taxiway centre line lights, stop bars, intermediate holding position lights, lighting of de-icing/anti-icing facilities, runway guard lights, variable message signs, intersection take-off signs; visual aids for denoting obstacles; secondary power supply switch-over time, security measures in airport design, frangibility of non-visual aids on operational areas; Human Factors principles applied to aerodrome emergency planning, rescue and fire fighting, and maintenance, system of preventive maintenance for precision approach runways, categories II and III; colour measurement of aeronautical ground lights; isocandela diagrams for high-intensity taxiway centre line lights and runway guard lights; measurement of the average luminance of a sign, Table 4.1 of Appendix 4; Appendix 6. 4 Secretariat and the Definitions of aerodrome certificate, certified aerodrome, safety management 12 March 2001 Twelfth Meeting of system; certification of aerodromes; obstacle limitation surfaces; specifications 16 July 2001 the ANC Obstacle concerning aerodrome emergency planning; rescue and fire fighting. 1 November 2001 Clearance Panel 5 Secretariat Laser-beam free flight zones and bird hazard reduction. 7 March 2003 14 July 2003 27 November 2003 6 Fourteenth Meeting Definitions of runway turn pad, calendar, datum and Gregorian calendar; 27 February 2004 (Annex 14, of the ANC Visual common reference systems; aerodrome dimensions and related information; 12 July 2004 Volume I, Aids Panel and physical characteristics of runway turn pads; runway turn pad markings and 25 November 2004 4th Edition) Secretariat lights; rapid exit taxiway indicator lights; information marking; stop bars; runway guard lights; intensity of taxiway centre line lights on rapid exit taxiways; Figure 6-2, Examples of marking and lighting of tall structures; electrical power supply systems for air navigation facilities; monitoring of lighting systems; Appendix 1, Colours for Aeronautical Ground Lights, Markings, Signs and Panels; Appendix 2, Aeronautical Ground Light Characteristics; Appendix 5, Aeronautical Data Quality Requirements.23/11/0625/11/04 (xiv) No. 8
  • 15. Foreword Annex 14 — Aerodromes Adopted/Approved Effective Amendment Source(s) Subject(s) Applicable 7 Secretariat, Sixth Note to the definition of runway holding position; certification of aerodromes; 2 March 2005 Meeting of the references to land-use planning and to the balanced approach to aircraft noise 11 July 2005 Committee on management; runway turn pads; taxiways; bird hazard reduction; fencing; 24 November 2005 Aviation pavement maintenance. Environmental Protection 8 35th Session of the Definitions of balked landing, safety programme and safety management 14 March 2006 ICAO Assembly; system; safety management; obstacle free zone 17 July 2006 Fourteenth Meeting 23 November 2006 of the ANC Obstacle Clearance Panel; Eleventh Air Navigation Conference 9 Secretariat Note on the applicability of wheel-to-edge clearances on taxiways. 15 June 2006 — — (xv) 23/11/06 15/6/06 25/11/04 No. 8 9
  • 16. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES CHAPTER 1. GENERAL Introductory Note.— This Annex contains Standards and security are given in Annex 17 and detailed guidance on theRecommended Practices (specifications) that prescribe the subject is contained in the ICAO Security Manual.physical characteristics and obstacle limitation surfaces to beprovided for at aerodromes, and certain facilities and tech-nical services normally provided at an aerodrome. It is notintended that these specifications limit or regulate the 1.1 Definitionsoperation of an aircraft. When the following terms are used in this Annex they have the To a great extent, the specifications for individual facilities following meanings:detailed in Annex 14, Volume I, have been interrelated by areference code system, described in this chapter, and by the Accuracy. A degree of conformance between the estimated ordesignation of the type of runway for which they are to be measured value and the true value.provided, as specified in the definitions. This not onlysimplifies the reading of Volume I of this Annex, but in most Note.— For measured positional data, the accuracy iscases, provides for efficiently proportioned aerodromes when normally expressed in terms of a distance from a statedthe specifications are followed. position within which there is a defined confidence of the true position falling. This document sets forth the minimum aerodrome specifi-cations for aircraft which have the characteristics of those Aerodrome. A defined area on land or water (including anywhich are currently operating or for similar aircraft that are buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be usedplanned for introduction. Accordingly, any additional safe- either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure andguards that might be considered appropriate to provide for surface movement of aircraft.more demanding aircraft are not taken into account. Suchmatters are left to appropriate authorities to evaluate and take Aerodrome beacon. Aeronautical beacon used to indicate theinto account as necessary for each particular aerodrome. location of an aerodrome from the air.Guidance on some possible effects of future aircraft on thesespecifications is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual Aerodrome certificate. A certificate issued by the appropriate(Doc 9157), Part 2. authority under applicable regulations for the operation of an aerodrome. It is to be noted that the specifications for precision approachrunways categories II and III are only applicable to runways Aerodrome elevation. The elevation of the highest point of theintended to be used by aeroplanes in code numbers 3 and 4. landing area. Annex 14, Volume I, does not include specifications relating Aerodrome identification sign. A sign placed on an aero-to the overall planning of aerodromes (such as separation drome to aid in identifying the aerodrome from the air.between adjacent aerodromes or capacity of individualaerodromes), impact on the environment, or to economic and Aerodrome reference point. The designated geographicalother non-technical factors that need to be considered in the location of an aerodrome.development of an aerodrome. Information on these subjects isincluded in the Airport Planning Manual (Doc 9184), Part 1. Aerodrome traffic density.Guidance material on the environmental aspects of the devel-opment and operation of an aerodrome is included in the Air- a) Light. Where the number of movements in the meanport Planning Manual, Part 2. busy hour is not greater than 15 per runway or typically less than 20 total aerodrome movements. Aviation security is an integral part of aerodrome planningand operations. Annex 14, Volume I, contains several b) Medium. Where the number of movements in the meanspecifications aimed at enhancing the level of security at busy hour is of the order of 16 to 25 per runway oraerodromes. Specifications on other facilities related to typically between 20 to 35 total aerodrome movements.ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I 1-1 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 17. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I c) Heavy. Where the number of movements in the mean Barrette. Three or more aeronautical ground lights closely busy hour is of the order of 26 or more per runway or spaced in a transverse line so that from a distance they typically more than 35 total aerodrome movements. appear as a short bar of light. Note 1.— The number of movements in the mean busy hour Calendar. Discrete temporal reference system that providesis the arithmetic mean over the year of the number of the basis for defining temporal position to a resolution ofmovements in the daily busiest hour. one day (ISO 19108*). Note 2.— Either a take-off or a landing constitutes a Capacitor discharge light. A lamp in which high-intensitymovement. flashes of extremely short duration are produced by the discharge of electricity at high voltage through a gasAeronautical beacon. An aeronautical ground light visible enclosed in a tube. at all azimuths, either continuously or intermittently, to designate a particular point on the surface of the earth. Certified aerodrome. An aerodrome whose operator has been granted an aerodrome certificate.Aeronautical ground light. Any light specially provided as an aid to air navigation, other than a light displayed on an Clearway. A defined rectangular area on the ground or water aircraft. under the control of the appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane mayAeroplane reference field length. The minimum field length make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height. required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off Cyclic redundancy check (CRC). A mathematical algorithm mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air applied to the digital expression of data that provides a and zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate level of assurance against loss or alteration of data. aeroplane flight manual prescribed by the certificating authority or equivalent data from the aeroplane manufac- Data quality. A degree or level of confidence that the data turer. Field length means balanced field length for provided meet the requirements of the data user in terms of aeroplanes, if applicable, or take-off distance in other cases. accuracy, resolution and integrity. Note.— Attachment A, Section 2 provides information on Datum. Any quantity or set of quantities that may serve as athe concept of balanced field length and the Airworthiness reference or basis for the calculation of other quantitiesManual (Doc 9760) contains detailed guidance on matters (ISO 19104*).related to take-off distance. De-icing/anti-icing facility. A facility where frost, ice or snowAircraft classification number (ACN). A number expressing is removed (de-icing) from the aeroplane to provide clean the relative effect of an aircraft on a pavement for a surfaces, and/or where clean surfaces of the aeroplane specified standard subgrade category. receive protection (anti-icing) against the formation of frost or ice and accumulation of snow or slush for a limited Note.— The aircraft classification number is calculated period of time.with respect to the center of gravity (CG) position which yieldsthe critical loading on the critical gear. Normally the aftmost Note.— Further guidance is given in the Manual of AircraftCG position appropriate to the maximum gross apron (ramp) Ground De-icing/Anti-icing Operations (Doc 9640).mass is used to calculate the ACN. In exceptional cases theforwardmost CG position may result in the nose gear loading De-icing/anti-icing pad. An area comprising an inner area forbeing more critical. the parking of an aeroplane to receive de-icing/anti-icing treatment and an outer area for the manoeuvring of two orAircraft stand. A designated area on an apron intended to be more mobile de-icing/anti-icing equipment. used for parking an aircraft. Declared distances.Apron. A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of loading or unloading a) Take-off run available (TORA). The length of runway passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or maintenance. declared available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off.Apron management service. A service provided to regulate the activities and the movement of aircraft and vehicles on b) Take-off distance available (TODA). The length of the an apron. take-off run available plus the length of the clearway, if provided.Balked landing. A landing manoeuvre that is unexpectedly discontinued at any point below the obstacle clearance altitude/height (OCA/H). * All ISO Standards are listed at the end of this chapter.23/11/0625/11/04 1-2 No. 8
  • 18. Chapter 1 Annex 14 — Aerodromes c) Accelerate-stop distance available (ASDA). The length Note.— In the Gregorian calendar, common years have 365 of the take-off run available plus the length of the days and leap years 366 days divided into twelve sequential stopway, if provided. months. d) Landing distance available (LDA). The length of Hazard beacon. An aeronautical beacon used to designate a runway which is declared available and suitable for the danger to air navigation. ground run of an aeroplane landing. Heliport. An aerodrome or a defined area on a structureDependent parallel approaches. Simultaneous approaches to intended to be used wholly or in part for the arrival, parallel or near-parallel instrument runways where radar departure and surface movement of helicopters. separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended runway centre lines are prescribed. Holding bay. A defined area where aircraft can be held, or bypassed, to facilitate efficient surface movement ofDisplaced threshold. A threshold not located at the extremity aircraft. of a runway. Holdover time. The estimated time the anti-icing fluidEffective intensity. The effective intensity of a flashing light is (treatment) will prevent the formation of ice and frost and equal to the intensity of a fixed light of the same colour the accumulation of snow on the protected (treated) which will produce the same visual range under identical surfaces of an aeroplane. conditions of observation. Human Factors principles. Principles which apply toEllipsoid height (Geodetic height). The height related to the aeronautical design, certification, training, operations and reference ellipsoid, measured along the ellipsoidal outer maintenance and which seek safe interface between the normal through the point in question. human and other system components by proper consider- ation to human performance.Fixed light. A light having constant luminous intensity when observed from a fixed point. Human performance. Human capabilities and limitations which have an impact on the safety and efficiency ofFrangible object. An object of low mass designed to break, aeronautical operations. distort or yield on impact so as to present the minimum hazard to aircraft. Identification beacon. An aeronautical beacon emitting a coded signal by means of which a particular point of Note.— Guidance on design for frangibility is contained in reference can be identified.the Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 6. Independent parallel approaches. Simultaneous approaches toGeodetic datum. A minimum set of parameters required to parallel or near-parallel instrument runways where radar define location and orientation of the local reference system separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended with respect to the global reference system/frame. runway centre lines are not prescribed.Geoid. The equipotential surface in the gravity field of the Independent parallel departures. Simultaneous departures earth which coincides with the undisturbed mean sea level from parallel or near-parallel instrument runways. (MSL) extended continuously through the continents. Instrument runway. One of the following types of runways Note.— The geoid is irregular in shape because of local intended for the operation of aircraft using instrumentgravitational disturbances (wind tides, salinity, current, etc.) approach procedures:and the direction of gravity is perpendicular to the geoid atevery point. a) Non-precision approach runway. An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing atGeoid undulation. The distance of the geoid above (positive) least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in or below (negative) the mathematical reference ellipsoid. approach. Note.— In respect to the World Geodetic System — 1984 b) Precision approach runway, category I. An instrument(WGS-84) defined ellipsoid, the difference between the WGS- runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids84 ellipsoidal height and orthometric height represents intended for operations with a decision height not lowerWGS-84 geoid undulation. than 60 m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range not less than 550 m.Gregorian calendar. Calendar in general use; first introduced in 1582 to define a year that more closely approximates the c) Precision approach runway, category II. An instrument tropical year than the Julian calendar (ISO 19108*). runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids 1-3 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 19. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I intended for operations with a decision height lower Lighting system reliability. The probability that the complete than 60 m (200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and installation operates within the specified tolerances and that a runway visual range not less than 350 m. the system is operationally usable. d) Precision approach runway, category III. An instrument Manoeuvring area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for runway served by ILS and/or MLS to and along the the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, excluding surface of the runway and: aprons. A — intended for operations with a decision height Marker. An object displayed above ground level in order to lower than 30 m (100 ft), or no decision height indicate an obstacle or delineate a boundary. and a runway visual range not less than 200 m. Marking. A symbol or group of symbols displayed on the B — intended for operations with a decision height surface of the movement area in order to convey aero- lower than 15 m (50 ft), or no decision height and nautical information. a runway visual range less than 200 m but not less than 50 m. Movement area. That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off, landing and taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the C — intended for operations with no decision height manoeuvring area and the apron(s). and no runway visual range limitations. Near-parallel runways. Non-intersecting runways whose Note 1.— See Annex 10, Volume I for related ILS and/or extended centre lines have an angle of convergence/MLS specifications. divergence of 15 degrees or less. Note 2.— Visual aids need not necessarily be matched to Non-instrument runway. A runway intended for the operationthe scale of non-visual aids provided. The criterion for the of aircraft using visual approach procedures.selection of visual aids is the conditions in which operationsare intended to be conducted. Normal flight zone (NFZ). Airspace not defined as LFFZ, LCFZ or LSFZ but which must be protected from laserIntegrity (aeronautical data). A degree of assurance that an radiation capable of causing biological damage to the eye. aeronautical data and its value has not been lost nor altered since the data origination or authorized amendment. Obstacle. All fixed (whether temporary or permanent) and mobile objects, or parts thereof, that are located on an areaIntermediate holding position. A designated position intended intended for the surface movement of aircraft or that extend for traffic control at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles above a defined surface intended to protect aircraft in shall stop and hold until further cleared to proceed, when so flight. instructed by the aerodrome control tower. Obstacle free zone (OFZ). The airspace above the innerLanding area. That part of a movement area intended for the approach surface, inner transitional surfaces, and balked landing or take-off of aircraft. landing surface and that portion of the strip bounded by these surfaces, which is not penetrated by any fixedLanding direction indicator. A device to indicate visually the obstacle other than a low-mass and frangibly mounted one direction currently designated for landing and for take-off. required for air navigation purposes.Laser-beam critical flight zone (LCFZ). Airspace in the Orthometric height. Height of a point related to the geoid, proximity of an aerodrome but beyond the LFFZ where the generally presented as an MSL elevation. irradiance is restricted to a level unlikely to cause glare effects. Pavement classification number (PCN). A number expressing the bearing strength of a pavement for unrestrictedLaser-beam free flight zone (LFFZ). Airspace in the operations. immediate proximity to the aerodrome where the irradiance is restricted to a level unlikely to cause any visual Precision approach runway, see Instrument runway. disruption. Primary runway(s). Runway(s) used in preference to othersLaser-beam sensitive flight zone (LSFZ). Airspace outside, whenever conditions permit. and not necessarily contiguous with, the LFFZ and LCFZ where the irradiance is restricted to a level unlikely to cause Protected flight zones. Airspace specifically designated to flash-blindness or after-image effects. mitigate the hazardous effects of laser radiation.25/11/04 1-4
  • 20. Chapter 1 Annex 14 — AerodromesRoad. An established surface route on the movement area Sign. meant for the exclusive use of vehicles. a) Fixed message sign. A sign presenting only one message.Road-holding position. A designated position at which vehicles may be required to hold. b) Variable message sign. A sign capable of presenting several pre-determined messages or no message, as applicable.Runway. A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft. Signal area. An area on an aerodrome used for the display ofRunway end safety area (RESA). An area symmetrical about ground signals. the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to Slush. Water-saturated snow which with a heel-and-toe slap- an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway. down motion against the ground will be displaced with a splatter; specific gravity: 0.5 up to 0.8.Runway guard lights. A light system intended to caution pilots or vehicle drivers that they are about to enter an Note.— Combinations of ice, snow and/or standing water active runway. may, especially when rain, rain and snow, or snow is falling, produce substances with specific gravities in excess of 0.8.Runway-holding position. A designated position intended to These substances, due to their high water/ice content, will protect a runway, an obstacle limitation surface, or an ILS/ have a transparent rather than a cloudy appearance and, at MLS critical/sensitive area at which taxiing aircraft and the higher specific gravities, will be readily distinguishable vehicles shall stop and hold, unless otherwise authorized by from slush. the aerodrome control tower. Snow (on the ground). Note.— In radiotelephony phraseologies, the expression“holding point” is used to designate the runway-holding a) Dry snow. Snow which can be blown if loose or, ifposition. compacted by hand, will fall apart again upon release; specific gravity: up to but not including 0.35.Runway strip. A defined area including the runway and stopway, if provided, intended: b) Wet snow. Snow which, if compacted by hand, will stick a) to reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a together and tend to or form a snowball; specific runway; and gravity: 0.35 up to but not including 0.5. b) to protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or c) Compacted snow. Snow which has been compressed landing operations. into a solid mass that resists further compression and will hold together or break up into lumps if picked up;Runway turn pad. A defined area on a land aerodrome specific gravity: 0.5 and over. adjacent to a runway for the purpose of completing a 180-degree turn on a runway. Station declination. An alignment variation between the zero degree radial of a VOR and true north, determined at theRunway visual range (RVR). The range over which the pilot time the VOR station is calibrated. of an aircraft on the centre line of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the Stopway. A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end runway or identifying its centre line. of take-off run available prepared as a suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandonedSafety programme. An integrated set of regulations and take off. activities aimed at improving safety. Switch-over time (light). The time required for the actualSafety management system. A systematic approach to intensity of a light measured in a given direction to fall managing safety including the necessary organizational from 50 per cent and recover to 50 per cent during a power structure, accountabilities, policies and procedures. supply changeover, when the light is being operated atSegregated parallel operations. Simultaneous operations on intensities of 25 per cent or above. parallel or near-parallel instrument runways in which one runway is used exclusively for approaches and the other Take-off runway. A runway intended for take-off only. runway is used exclusively for departures. Taxiway. A defined path on a land aerodrome establishedShoulder. An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a prepared as to provide a transition between the pavement link between one part of the aerodrome and another, and the adjacent surface. including: 1-5 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 21. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I a) Aircraft stand taxilane. A portion of an apron designated 1.2.3 Wherever a colour is referred to in this Annex, the as a taxiway and intended to provide access to aircraft specifications for that colour given in Appendix 1 shall apply. stands only. b) Apron taxiway. A portion of a taxiway system located 1.3 Common reference systems on an apron and intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron. 1.3.1 Horizontal reference system c) Rapid exit taxiway. A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and designed to allow landing aeroplanes World Geodetic System — 1984 (WGS-84) shall be used as to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved on other exit the horizontal (geodetic) reference system. Reported taxiways thereby minimizing runway occupancy times. aeronautical geographical coordinates (indicating latitude and longitude) shall be expressed in terms of the WGS-84 geodeticTaxiway intersection. A junction of two or more taxiways. reference datum.Taxiway strip. An area including a taxiway intended to protect Note.— Comprehensive guidance material concerning an aircraft operating on the taxiway and to reduce the risk WGS-84 is contained in the World Geodetic System — 1984 of damage to an aircraft accidentally running off the (WGS-84) Manual (Doc 9674). taxiway.Threshold. The beginning of that portion of the runway usable 1.3.2 Vertical reference system for landing. Mean sea level (MSL) datum, which gives the relationship ofTouchdown zone. The portion of a runway, beyond the gravity-related height (elevation) to a surface known as the threshold, where it is intended landing aeroplanes first geoid, shall be used as the vertical reference system. contact the runway. Note 1.— The geoid globally most closely approximatesUsability factor. The percentage of time during which the use MSL. It is defined as the equipotential surface in the gravity of a runway or system of runways is not restricted because field of the Earth which coincides with the undisturbed MSL of the cross-wind component. extended continuously through the continents. Note.— Cross-wind component means the surface wind Note 2.— Gravity-related heights (elevations) are alsocomponent at right angles to the runway centre line. referred to as orthometric heights while distances of points above the ellipsoid are referred to as ellipsoidal heights. 1.2 Applicability 1.3.3 Temporal reference system 1.2.1 The interpretation of some of the specifications inthe Annex expressly requires the exercising of discretion, the 1.3.3.1 The Gregorian calendar and Coordinatedtaking of a decision or the performance of a function by the Universal Time (UTC) shall be used as the temporal referenceappropriate authority. In other specifications, the expression system.appropriate authority does not actually appear although its 1.3.3.2 When a different temporal reference system isinclusion is implied. In both cases, the responsibility for what- used, this shall be indicated in GEN 2.1.2 of the Aeronauticalever determination or action is necessary shall rest with the Information Publication (AIP), see Annex 15, Appendix 1.State having jurisdiction over the aerodrome. 1.2.2 The specifications, unless otherwise indicated in aparticular context, shall apply to all aerodromes open to public 1.4 Certification of aerodromesuse in accordance with the requirements of Article 15 of theConvention. The specifications of Annex 14, Volume I, Note.— The intent of these specifications is to ensure theChapter 3 shall apply only to land aerodromes. The specifi- establishment of a regulatory regime so that compliance withcations in this volume shall apply, where appropriate, to the specifications in this Annex can be effectively enforced. Itheliports but shall not apply to stolports. is recognized that the methods of ownership, operation and surveillance of aerodromes differ among States. The most Note.— Although there are at present no specifications effective and transparent means of ensuring compliance withrelating to stolports, it is intended that specifications for these applicable specifications is the availability of a separate safetyaerodromes will be included as they are developed. In the oversight entity and a well-defined safety oversight mechanisminterim, guidance material on stolports is given in the Stolport with support of appropriate legislation to be able to carry outManual (Doc 9150). the function of safety regulation of aerodromes.23/11/0625/11/04 1-6 No. 8
  • 22. Chapter 1 Annex 14 — Aerodromes 1.4.1 As of 27 November 2003, States shall certify 1.5.4 A safety management system shall clearly defineaerodromes used for international operations in accordance lines of safety accountability throughout a certified aerodromewith the specifications contained in this Annex as well as other operator, including a direct accountability for safety on therelevant ICAO specifications through an appropriate part of senior management.regulatory framework. Note.— Guidance on safety management systems is con- 1.4.2 Recommendation.— States should certify aero- tained in the Safety Management Manual (SMM) (Doc 9859),dromes open to public use in accordance with these and in the Manual on Certification of Aerodromes (Doc 9774).specifications as well as other relevant ICAO specificationsthrough an appropriate regulatory framework. 1.4.3 The regulatory framework shall include the 1.6 Airport designestablishment of criteria for the certification of aerodromes. 1.6.1 Architectural and infrastructure-related require- Note.— Guidance on a regulatory framework is given in the ments for the optimum implementation of international civilManual on Certification of Aerodromes. aviation security measures shall be integrated into the design 1.4.4 As part of the certification process, States shall and construction of new facilities and alterations to existingensure that an aerodrome manual which will include all perti- facilities at an aerodrome.nent information on the aerodrome site, facilities, services,equipment, operating procedures, organization and manage- Note.— Guidance on all aspects of the planning ofment including a safety management system, is submitted by aerodromes including security considerations is contained inthe applicant for approval/acceptance prior to granting the the Airport Planning Manual (Doc 9184), Part 1.aerodrome certificate. 1.6.2 Recommendation.— The design of aerodromes Note.— The intent of a safety management system is to should take into account, where appropriate, land-use andhave in place an organized and orderly approach in the environmental control measures.management of aerodrome safety by the aerodrome operator.Guidance on an aerodrome safety management system is given Note.— Guidance on land-use planning and environmentalin the Safety Management Manual (SMM) (Doc 9859) and in control measures is contained in the Airport Planning Manualthe Manual on Certification of Aerodromes (Doc 9774). (Doc 9184), Part 2. 1.5 Safety management 1.7 Reference code 1.5.1 States shall establish a safety programme in order to Introductory Note.— The intent of the reference code is toachieve an acceptable level of safety in aerodrome operations. provide a simple method for interrelating the numerous specifications concerning the characteristics of aerodromes so 1.5.2 The acceptable level(s) of safety to be achieved as to provide a series of aerodrome facilities that are suitableshall be established by the State(s) concerned. for the aeroplanes that are intended to operate at the aero- drome. The code is not intended to be used for determining Note.— Guidance on safety programmes and on defining runway length or pavement strength requirements. The code isacceptable levels of safety is contained in Attachment E to composed of two elements which are related to the aeroplaneAnnex 11 and in the Safety Management Manual (SMM) performance characteristics and dimensions. Element 1 is a(Doc 9859). number based on the aeroplane reference field length and element 2 is a letter based on the aeroplane wing span and 1.5.3 States shall require, as part of their safety programme, outer main gear wheel span. A particular specification isthat a certified aerodrome operator implements a safety manage- related to the more appropriate of the two elements of the codement system acceptable to the State that, as a minimum: or to an appropriate combination of the two code elements. The code letter or number within an element selected for design a) identifies safety hazards; purposes is related to the critical aeroplane characteristics for b) ensures that remedial action necessary to maintain an which the facility is provided. When applying Annex 14, acceptable level of safety is implemented; Volume I, the aeroplanes which the aerodrome is intended to serve are first identified and then the two elements of the code. c) provides for continuous monitoring and regular assess- ment of the safety level achieved; and 1.7.1 An aerodrome reference code — code number and letter — which is selected for aerodrome planning purposes d) aims to make continuous improvement to the overall shall be determined in accordance with the characteristics of level of safety. the aeroplane for which an aerodrome facility is intended. 1-7 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 23. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I 1.7.2 The aerodrome reference code numbers and letters corresponds to the greatest wing span, or the greatest outershall have the meanings assigned to them in Table 1-1. main gear wheel span, whichever gives the more demanding code letter of the aeroplanes for which the facility is 1.7.3 The code number for element 1 shall be determined intended.from Table 1-1, column 1, selecting the code numbercorresponding to the highest value of the aeroplane reference Note.— Guidance to assist the appropriate authority infield lengths of the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended. determining the aerodrome reference code is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Parts 1 and 2. Note.— The determination of the aeroplane reference fieldlength is solely for the selection of a code number and is notintended to influence the actual runway length provided. * ISO Standard 1.7.4 The code letter for element 2 shall be determined 19104, Geographic information — Terminologyfrom Table 1-1, column 3, by selecting the code letter which 19108, Geographic information — Temporal schema Table 1-1. Aerodrome reference code (see 1.7.2 to 1.7.4) Code element 1 Code element 2 Code Aeroplane reference Code Outer main gear number field length letter Wing span wheel spana (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 1 Less than 800 m A Up to but not Up to but not including 15 m including 4.5 m 2 800 m up to but not B 15 m up to but not 4.5 m up to but not including 1 200 m including 24 m including 6 m 3 1 200 m up to but not C 24 m up to but not 6 m up to but not including 1 800 m including 36 m including 9 m 4 1 800 m and over D 36 m up to but not 9 m up to but not including 52 m including 14 m E 52 m up to but not 9 m up to but not including 65 m including 14 m F 65 m up to but not 14 m up to but not including 80 m including 16 m a. Distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels. Note.— Guidance on planning for aeroplanes with wing spans greater than 80 m is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual(Doc 9157), Parts 1 and 2.23/11/0625/11/04 1-8 No. 8
  • 24. Chapter 3 Annex 14 — Aerodromes 3.9 Taxiways Code letter Clearance Note.— Unless otherwise indicated the requirements in this A 1.5 msection are applicable to all types of taxiways. B 2.25 mGeneral C 3 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with a wheel base less than 3.9.1 Recommendation.— Taxiways should be provided 18 m;to permit the safe and expeditious surface movement of aircraft. 4.5 m if the taxiway is intended to be used Note.— Guidance on layout of taxiways is given in the by aeroplanes with a wheel base equal toAerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 2. or greater than 18 m. D 4.5 m 3.9.2 Recommendation.— Sufficient entrance and exittaxiways for a runway should be provided to expedite the E 4.5 mmovement of aeroplanes to and from the runway and provisionof rapid exit taxiways considered when traffic volumes are high. F 4.5 m 3.9.3 Recommendation.— The design of a taxiway Note 1.— Wheel base means the distance from the noseshould be such that, when the cockpit of the aeroplane for gear to the geometric centre of the main gear.which the taxiway is intended remains over the taxiway centreline markings, the clearance distance between the outer main Note 2.— Where the code letter is F and the traffic densitywheel of the aeroplane and the edge of the taxiway should be is high, a wheel-to-edge clearance greater than 4.5 m may benot less than that given by the following tabulation: provided to permit higher taxiing speeds. Code letter Clearance Note 3.— This provision applies to taxiways first put into service on or after 20 November 2008. A 1.5 m Width of taxiways B 2.25 m 3.9.5 Recommendation.— A straight portion of a taxi- C 3 m if the taxiway is intended to be way should have a width of not less than that given by the used by aeroplanes with a wheel following tabulation: base less than 18 m; Code letter Taxiway width 4.5 m if the taxiway is intended to be A 7.5 m used by aeroplanes with a wheel base equal to or greater than 18 m. B 10.5 m C 15 m if the taxiway is intended to D 4.5 m be used by aeroplanes with a wheel base less than 18 m; E 4.5 m 18 m if the taxiway is intended to F 4.5 m be used by aeroplanes with a wheel base equal to or greater than 18 m. Note 1.— Wheel base means the distance from the nose D 18 m if the taxiway is intended togear to the geometric centre of the main gear. be used by aeroplanes with an outer main gear wheel span of less Note 2.— Where the code letter is F and the traffic density than 9 m;is high, a wheel-to-edge clearance greater than 4.5 m may beprovided to permit higher taxiing speeds. 23 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with an 3.9.4 As of 20 November 2008, the design of a taxiway outer main gear wheel span equalshall be such that, when the cockpit of the aeroplane for which to or greater than 9 m.the taxiway is intended remains over the taxiway centre linemarkings, the clearance distance between the outer main wheel E 23 mof the aeroplane and the edge of the taxiway shall be not lessthan that given by the following tabulation: F 25 m 3-11 15/6/06 25/11/04 No. 9
  • 25. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I Location of taxiway centre line markings (see 5.2.8.4) Location of taxiway centre line lights (see 5.3.16.11) x/2 x/2 Taxiway width x (see 3.9.5) Minimum wheel clearance (see 3.9.6) Extra taxiway width TAXIWAY The figure shows an example of taxiway widening to achieve the specified wheel clearances on taxiway curves (see 3.9.6). Guidance material on suitable dimensions is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 2. Figure 3-2. Taxiway curve Note.— Guidance on width of taxiways is given in the Junctions and intersectionsAerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 2. 3.9.7 Recommendation.— To facilitate the movement of aeroplanes, fillets should be provided at junctions andTaxiway curves intersections of taxiways with runways, aprons and other taxiways. The design of the fillets should ensure that the 3.9.6 Recommendation.— Changes in direction of minimum wheel clearances specified in 3.9.3 are maintainedtaxiways should be as few and small as possible. The radii of when aeroplanes are manoeuvring through the junctions orthe curves should be compatible with the manoeuvring intersections.capability and normal taxiing speeds of the aeroplanes forwhich the taxiway is intended. The design of the curve should Note.— Consideration will have to be given to thebe such that, when the cockpit of the aeroplane remains over aeroplane datum length when designing fillets. Guidance onthe taxiway centre line markings, the clearance distance the design of fillets and the definition of the term aeroplanebetween the outer main wheels of the aeroplane and the edge datum length are given in the Aerodrome Design Manualof the taxiway should not be less than those specified in 3.9.3. (Doc 9157), Part 2. Note 1.— An example of widening taxiways to achieve thewheel clearance specified is illustrated in Figure 3-2. Taxiway minimum separation distancesGuidance on the values of suitable dimensions is given in theAerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 2. 3.9.8 Recommendation.— The separation distance Note 2.— The location of taxiway centre line markings and between the centre line of a taxiway and the centre line of alights is specified in 5.2.8.4 and 5.3.16.11. runway, the centre line of a parallel taxiway or an object should not be less than the appropriate dimension specified in Note 3.— Compound curves may reduce or eliminate the Table 3-1, except that it may be permissible to operate withneed for extra taxiway width. lower separation distances at an existing aerodrome if an23/11/0625/11/04 3-12 No. 8
  • 26. CHAPTER 4. OBSTACLE RESTRICTION AND REMOVAL Note 1.— The objectives of the specifications in this chapter Inner horizontal surfaceare to define the airspace around aerodromes to be maintainedfree from obstacles so as to permit the intended aeroplane 4.1.4 Description.— Inner horizontal surface. A surfaceoperations at the aerodromes to be conducted safely and to located in a horizontal plane above an aerodrome and its environs.prevent the aerodromes from becoming unusable by the growthof obstacles around the aerodromes. This is achieved by 4.1.5 Characteristics.— The radius or outer limits of theestablishing a series of obstacle limitation surfaces that define inner horizontal surface shall be measured from a referencethe limits to which objects may project into the airspace. point or points established for such purpose. Note 2.— Objects which penetrate the obstacle limitation Note.— The shape of the inner horizontal surface need notsurfaces contained in this chapter may in certain circumstances necessarily be circular. Guidance on determining the extent ofcause an increase in the obstacle clearance altitude/height for the inner horizontal surface is contained in the Airport Servicesan instrument approach procedure or any associated visual Manual (Doc 9137), Part 6.circling procedure or have other operational impact on flightprocedure design. Criteria for flight procedure design are con- 4.1.6 The height of the inner horizontal surface shall betained in Procedures for Air Navigation Services – Aircraft measured above an elevation datum established for such purpose.Operations (PANS-OPS, Doc 8168). Note.— Guidance on determining the elevation datum is Note 3.— The establishment of, and requirements for, an contained in the Airport Services Manual (Doc 9137), Part 6.obstacle protection surface for visual approach slope indicatorsystems are specified in 5.3.5.41 to 5.3.5.45. Approach surface 4.1 Obstacle limitation surfaces 4.1.7 Description.— Approach surface. An inclined plane or combination of planes preceding the threshold. Note.— See Figure 4-1. 4.1.8 Characteristics.— The limits of the approach surface shall comprise:Outer horizontal surface a) an inner edge of specified length, horizontal and perpen- Note.— Guidance on the need to provide an outer horizontal dicular to the extended centre line of the runway andsurface and its characteristics is contained in the Airport located at a specified distance before the threshold;Services Manual (Doc 9137), Part 6. b) two sides originating at the ends of the inner edge and diverging uniformly at a specified rate from theConical surface extended centre line of the runway; 4.1.1 Description.— Conical surface. A surface sloping c) an outer edge parallel to the inner edge; andupwards and outwards from the periphery of the inner hori-zontal surface. d) The above surfaces shall be varied when lateral offset, offset or curved approaches are utilized, specifically, 4.1.2 Characteristics.— The limits of the conical surface two sides originating at the ends of the inner edge andshall comprise: diverging uniformly at a specified rate from the extended centre line of the lateral offset, offset or curved a) a lower edge coincident with the periphery of the inner ground track. horizontal surface; and 4.1.9 The elevation of the inner edge shall be equal to the b) an upper edge located at a specified height above the elevation of the mid-point of the threshold. inner horizontal surface. 4.1.10 The slope(s) of the approach surface shall be 4.1.3 The slope of the conical surface shall be measured in measured in the vertical plane containing the centre line of thea vertical plane perpendicular to the periphery of the inner runway and shall continue containing the centre line of anyhorizontal surface. lateral offset or curved ground track.ANNEX 14 — VOLUME I 4-1 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 27. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I B Conical Transitional A A Approach Approach Take-off climb Inner approach Strip Inner horizontal Conical B Approach Take-off climb Conical Inner horizontal Transitional Section A-A Approach Transitional Inner horizontal Conical Inner approach Section B-B See Figure 4-2 for inner transitional and balked landing obstacle limitation surfaces and Attachment B for a three-dimensional view Figure 4-1. Obstacle limitation surfaces25/11/04 4-2
  • 28. Chapter 4 Annex 14 — Aerodromes track to a specified final width and continuing thereafter 4.2.4 Recommendation.— New objects or extensions of at that width for the remainder of the length of the take- existing objects should not be permitted above the conical off climb surface; and surface or inner horizontal surface except when, in the opinion of the appropriate authority, the object would be shielded by an c) an outer edge horizontal and perpendicular to the existing immovable object, or after aeronautical study it is specified take-off track. determined that the object would not adversely affect the safety or significantly affect the regularity of operations of aero- 4.1.27 The elevation of the inner edge shall be equal to the planes.highest point on the extended runway centre line between theend of the runway and the inner edge, except that when a 4.2.5 Recommendation.— Existing objects above any ofclearway is provided the elevation shall be equal to the highest the surfaces required by 4.2.1 should as far as practicable bepoint on the ground on the centre line of the clearway. removed except when, in the opinion of the appropriate authority, the object is shielded by an existing immovable 4.1.28 In the case of a straight take-off flight path, the object, or after aeronautical study it is determined that theslope of the take-off climb surface shall be measured in the object would not adversely affect the safety or significantlyvertical plane containing the centre line of the runway. affect the regularity of operations of aeroplanes. 4.1.29 In the case of a take-off flight path involving a turn, Note.— Because of transverse or longitudinal slopes on athe take-off climb surface shall be a complex surface containing strip, in certain cases the inner edge or portions of the innerthe horizontal normals to its centre line, and the slope of the edge of the approach surface may be below the correspondingcentre line shall be the same as that for a straight take-off flight elevation of the strip. It is not intended that the strip be gradedpath. to conform with the inner edge of the approach surface, nor is it intended that terrain or objects which are above the approach surface beyond the end of the strip, but below the level of the strip, be removed unless it is considered they may endanger 4.2 Obstacle limitation requirements aeroplanes. Note.— The requirements for obstacle limitation surfaces are 4.2.6 Recommendation.— In considering proposedspecified on the basis of the intended use of a runway, i.e. take-off construction, account should be taken of the possible futureor landing and type of approach, and are intended to be applied development of an instrument runway and consequentwhen such use is made of the runway. In cases where operations requirement for more stringent obstacle limitation surfaces.are conducted to or from both directions of a runway, then thefunction of certain surfaces may be nullified because of morestringent requirements of another lower surface. Non-precision approach runways 4.2.7 The following obstacle limitation surfaces shall beNon-instrument runways established for a non-precision approach runway: 4.2.1 The following obstacle limitation surfaces shall be — conical surface;established for a non-instrument runway: — inner horizontal surface; — approach surface; and — conical surface; — transitional surfaces. — inner horizontal surface; — approach surface; and — transitional surfaces. 4.2.8 The heights and slopes of the surfaces shall not be greater than, and their other dimensions not less than, those 4.2.2 The heights and slopes of the surfaces shall not be specified in Table 4-1, except in the case of the horizontalgreater than, and their other dimensions not less than, those section of the approach surface (see 4.2.9).specified in Table 4-1. 4.2.9 The approach surface shall be horizontal beyond the 4.2.3 New objects or extensions of existing objects shall point at which the 2.5 per cent slope intersects:not be permitted above an approach or transitional surfaceexcept when, in the opinion of the appropriate authority, the a) a horizontal plane 150 m above the threshold elevation; ornew object or extension would be shielded by an existingimmovable object. b) the horizontal plane passing through the top of any object that governs the obstacle clearance altitude/height Note.— Circumstances in which the shielding principle may (OCA/H);reasonably be applied are described in the Airport ServicesManual (Doc 9137), Part 6. whichever is the higher. 4-5 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 29. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I Table 4-1. Dimensions and slopes of obstacle limitation surfaces —Approach runways APPROACH RUNWAYS RUNWAY CLASSIFICATION Precision approach category Non-instrument Non-precision approach I II or III Code number Code number Code number Code number Surface and dimensionsa 1 2 3 4 1,2 3 4 1,2 3,4 3,4 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)CONICALSlope 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5% 5%Height 35 m 55 m 75 m 100 m 60 m 75 m 100 m 60 m 100 m 100 mINNER HORIZONTALHeight 45 m 45 m 45 m 45 m 45 m 45 m 45 m 45 m 45 m 45 mRadius 2 000 m 2 500 m 4 000 m 4 000 m 3 500 m 4 000 m 4 000 m 3 500 m 4 000 m 4 000 mINNER APPROACHWidth — — — — — — — 90 m 120 me 120 meDistance from threshold — — — — — — — 60 m 60 m 60 mLength — — — — — — — 900 m 900 m 900 mSlope 2.5% 2% 2%APPROACHLength of inner edge 60 m 80 m 150 m 150 m 150 m 300 m 300 m 150 m 300 m 300 mDistance from threshold 30 m 60 m 60 m 60 m 60 m 60 m 60 m 60 m 60 m 60 mDivergence (each side) 10% 10% 10% 10% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15%First sectionLength 1 600 m 2 500 m 3 000 m 3 000 m 2 500 m 3 000 m 3 000 m 3 000 m 3 000 m 3 000 mSlope 5% 4% 3.33% 2.5% 3.33% 2% 2% 2.5% 2% 2%Second sectionLength — — — — — 3 600 mb 3 600 mb 12 000 m 3 600 mb 3 600 mbSlope — — — — — 2.5% 2.5% 3% 2.5% 2.5%Horizontal sectionLength — — — — — 8 400 mb 8 400 mb — 8 400 mb 8 400 mbTotal length — — — — — 15 000 m 15 000 m 15 000 m 15 000 m 15 000 mTRANSITIONALSlope 20% 20% 14.3% 14.3% 20% 14.3% 14.3% 14.3% 14.3% 14.3%INNER TRANSITIONALSlope — — — — — — — 40% 33.3% 33.3%BALKED LANDING SURFACELength of inner edge — — — — — — — 90 m 120 me 120 me cDistance from threshold — — — — — — — 1 800 m d 1 800 mdDivergence (each side) — — — — — — — 10% 10% 10%Slope — — — — — — — 4% 3.33% 3.33%a. All dimensions are measured horizontally unless specified otherwise. e. Where the code letter is F (Column (3) of Table 1-1), the width isb. Variable length (see 4.2.9 or 4.2.17). increased to 155 m. For information on code letter F aeroplanes equippedc. Distance to the end of strip. with digital avionics that provide steering commands to maintain and. Or end of runway whichever is less. established track during the go-around manoeuvre, see Circular 301 — New Larger Aeroplanes — Infringement of the Obstacle Free Zone: Operational Measures and Aeronautical Study.23/11/0625/11/04 4-6 No. 8
  • 30. CHAPTER 5. VISUAL AIDS FOR NAVIGATION 5.1 Indicators and signalling devices 5.1.2 Landing direction indicator Location 5.1.1 Wind direction indicators 5.1.2.1 Where provided, a landing direction indicator shall be located in a conspicuous place on the aerodrome.Application 5.1.1.1 An aerodrome shall be equipped with at least one Characteristicswind direction indicator. 5.1.2.2 Recommendation.— The landing direction indi- cator should be in the form of a “T”. 5.1.2.3 The shape and minimum dimensions of a landingLocation “T” shall be as shown in Figure 5-1. The colour of the landing “T” shall be either white or orange, the choice being 5.1.1.2 A wind direction indicator shall be located so as dependent on the colour that contrasts best with the back-to be visible from aircraft in flight or on the movement area ground against which the indicator will be viewed. Whereand in such a way as to be free from the effects of air required for use at night the landing “T” shall either bedisturbances caused by nearby objects. illuminated or outlined by white lights. 5.1.3 Signalling lampCharacteristics Application 5.1.1.3 Recommendation.— The wind direction indi-cator should be in the form of a truncated cone made of fabric 5.1.3.1 A signalling lamp shall be provided at a con-and should have a length of not less than 3.6 m and a trolled aerodrome in the aerodrome control tower.diameter, at the larger end, of not less than 0.9 m. It shouldbe constructed so that it gives a clear indication of thedirection of the surface wind and a general indication of the Characteristicswind speed. The colour or colours should be so selected as tomake the wind direction indicator clearly visible and 5.1.3.2 Recommendation.— A signalling lamp should beunderstandable from a height of at least 300 m, having regard capable of producing red, green and white signals, and of:to background. Where practicable, a single colour, preferablywhite or orange, should be used. Where a combination of twocolours is required to give adequate conspicuity againstchanging backgrounds, they should preferably be orange andwhite, red and white, or black and white, and should bearranged in five alternate bands, the first and last bands beingthe darker colour. 0.4 m 4m 5.1.1.4 Recommendation.— The location of at least onewind direction indicator should be marked by a circular band15 m in diameter and 1.2 m wide. The band should be centredabout the wind direction indicator support and should be in acolour chosen to give adequate conspicuity, preferably white. 0.4 m 4m 5.1.1.5 Recommendation.— Provision should be madefor illuminating at least one wind indicator at an aerodromeintended for use at night. Figure 5-1. Landing direction indicatorANNEX 14 — VOLUME I 5-1 25/11/04
  • 31. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I a) being aimed manually at any target as required; side stripe marking, shall be displayed and the markings of the other runway(s) shall be interrupted. The runway side stripe b) giving a signal in any one colour followed by a signal in marking of the more important runway may be either either of the two other colours; and continued across the intersection or interrupted. c) transmitting a message in any one of the three colours by 5.2.1.2 Recommendation.— The order of importance of Morse Code up to a speed of at least four words per runways for the display of runway markings should be as minute. follows:When selecting the green light, use should be made of the 1st — precision approach runway;restricted boundary of green as specified in Appendix 1, 2.1.2. 5.1.3.3 Recommendation.— The beam spread should be 2nd — non-precision approach runway; andnot less than 1° nor greater than 3°, with negligible lightbeyond 3°. When the signalling lamp is intended for use in the 3rd — non-instrument runway.daytime the intensity of the coloured light should be not lessthan 6 000 cd. 5.2.1.3 At an intersection of a runway and taxiway the markings of the runway shall be displayed and the markings of the taxiway interrupted, except that runway side stripe 5.1.4 Signal panels and signal area markings may be interrupted. Note.— The inclusion of detailed specifications for a signal Note.— See 5.2.8.5 regarding the manner of connectingarea in this section is not intended to imply that one has to be runway and taxiway centre line markings.provided. Attachment A, Section 16 provides guidance on theneed to provide ground signals. Annex 2, Appendix 1 specifiesthe shape, colour and use of visual ground signals. TheAerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 4 provides Colour and conspicuityguidance on their design. 5.2.1.4 Runway markings shall be white.Location of signal area Note 1.— It has been found that, on runway surfaces of 5.1.4.1 Recommendation.— The signal area should be light colour, the conspicuity of white markings can belocated so as to be visible for all angles of azimuth above an improved by outlining them in black.angle of 10° above the horizontal when viewed from a heightof 300 m. Note 2.— It is preferable that the risk of uneven friction characteristics on markings be reduced in so far as practi- cable by the use of a suitable kind of paint.Characteristics of signal area Note 3.— Markings may consist of solid areas or a series 5.1.4.2 The signal area shall be an even horizontal surface of longitudinal stripes providing an effect equivalent to theat least 9 m square. solid areas. 5.1.4.3 Recommendation.— The colour of the signalarea should be chosen to contrast with the colours of the 5.2.1.5 Taxiway markings, runway turn pad markings andsignal panels used, and it should be surrounded by a white aircraft stand markings shall be yellow.border not less than 0.3 m wide. 5.2.1.6 Apron safety lines shall be of a conspicuous colour which shall contrast with that used for aircraft stand markings. 5.2 Markings 5.2.1.7 Recommendation.— At aerodromes where 5.2.1 General operations take place at night, pavement markings should be made with reflective materials designed to enhance theInterruption of runway markings visibility of the markings. 5.2.1.1 At an intersection of two (or more) runways the Note.— Guidance on reflective materials is given in themarkings of the more important runway, except for the runway Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 4.23/11/0625/11/04 5-2 No. 8
  • 32. Chapter 5 Annex 14 — AerodromesCharacteristics appropriate authority, an information marking shall be displayed on the surface of the pavement. 5.2.16.5 A mandatory instruction marking shall consist ofan inscription in white on a red background. Except for a NO 5.2.17.2 Recommendation.— Where operationallyENTRY marking, the inscription shall provide information required an information sign should be supplemented by anidentical to that of the associated mandatory instruction sign. information marking. 5.2.16.6 A NO ENTRY marking shall consist of an 5.2.17.3 Recommendation.— An information (location/inscription in white reading NO ENTRY on a red background. direction) marking should be displayed prior to and following complex taxiway intersections and where operational 5.2.16.7 Where there is insufficient contrast between the experience has indicated the addition of a taxiway locationmarking and the pavement surface, the mandatory instruction marking could assist flight crew ground navigation.marking shall include an appropriate border, preferably whiteor black. 5.2.17.4 Recommendation.— An information (location) 5.2.16.8 Recommendation.— The character height marking should be displayed on the pavement surface atshould be 4 m. The inscriptions should be in the form and regular intervals along taxiways of great length.proportions shown in Appendix 3. 5.2.16.9 Recommendation.— The background should be Locationrectangular and extend a minimum of 0.5 m laterally andvertically beyond the extremities of the inscription. 5.2.17.5 Recommendation.— The information marking should be displayed across the surface of the taxiway or apron where necessary and positioned so as to be legible from the 5.2.17 Information marking cockpit of an approaching aircraft. Note.— Guidance on information marking is contained inthe Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 4. CharacteristicsApplication 5.2.17.6 An information marking shall consist of: 5.2.17.1 Where an information sign would normally be a) an inscription in yellow upon a black background, wheninstalled and is impractical to install, as determined by the it replaces or supplements a location sign; and To runway 09 1 m mnm 1 m mnm Figure 5-9. Mandatory instruction marking 5-15 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 33. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I b) an inscription in black upon a yellow background, when Note 3.— The protected flight zones are established in it replaces or supplements a direction or destination order to mitigate the risk of operating laser emitters in the sign. vicinity of aerodromes. 5.2.17.7 Where there is insufficient contrast between the Note 4.— Further guidance on how to protect flightmarking background and the pavement surface, the marking operations from the hazardous effects of laser emitters isshall include: contained in the Manual on Laser Emitters and Flight Safety (Doc 9815). a) a black border where the inscriptions are in black; and Note 5.— See also Annex 11 — Air Traffic Services, b) a yellow border where the inscriptions are in yellow. Chapter 2. 5.2.17.8 Recommendation.— The character heightshould be 4 m. The inscriptions should be in the form andproportions shown in Appendix 3. Lights which may cause confusion 5.3.1.3 Recommendation.— A non-aeronautical ground light which, by reason of its intensity, configuration or colour, 5.3 Lights might prevent, or cause confusion in, the clear interpretation of aeronautical ground lights should be extinguished, screened or otherwise modified so as to eliminate such a possibility. In particular, attention should be directed to a non-aeronautical 5.3.1 General ground light visible from the air within the areas described hereunder:Lights which may endanger a) Instrument runway — code number 4:the safety of aircraft within the areas before the threshold and beyond the end 5.3.1.1 A non-aeronautical ground light near an aero- of the runway extending at least 4 500 m in length fromdrome which might endanger the safety of aircraft shall be the threshold and runway end and 750 m either side of theextinguished, screened or otherwise modified so as to elimin- extended runway centre line in width.ate the source of danger. b) Instrument runway — code number 2 or 3:Laser emissions which may endangerthe safety of aircraft as in a), except that the length should be at least 3 000 m. 5.3.1.2 Recommendation.—To protect the safety of c) Instrument runway — code number 1;aircraft against the hazardous effects of laser emitters, the and non-instrument runway:following protected zones should be established aroundaerodromes: within the approach area. — a laser-beam free flight zone (LFFZ) — a laser-beam critical flight zone (LCFZ) — a laser-beam sensitive flight zone (LSFZ). Aeronautical ground lights which may cause confusion to mariners Note 1.— Figures 5-10, 5-11 and 5-12 may be used todetermine the exposure levels and distances that adequately Note.— In the case of aeronautical ground lights nearprotect flight operations. navigable waters, consideration needs to be given to ensuring that the lights do not cause confusion to mariners. Note 2.— The restrictions on the use of laser beams in thethree protected flight zones, LFFZ, LCFZ and LSFZ, refer tovisible laser beams only. Laser emitters operated by theauthorities in a manner compatible with flight safety are Light fixtures and supporting structuresexcluded. In all navigable air space, the irradiance level ofany laser beam, visible or invisible, is expected to be less than Note.— See 9.9 for information regarding siting ofor equal to the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) unless equipment and installations on operational areas, and thesuch emission has been notified to the authority and Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 6 or guidance onpermission obtained. frangibility of light fixtures and supporting structures.23/11/0625/11/04 5-16 No. 8
  • 34. Chapter 5 Annex 14 — AerodromesLocation Note.— Tolerances for the bearing value shown on the sign are given in Annex 10, Volume I, Attachment E. It will be 5.4.4.2 A VOR aerodrome check-point sign shall be noted that a check-point can only be used operationally whenlocated as near as possible to the check-point and so that the periodic checks show it to be consistently within ± 2 degreesinscriptions are visible from the cockpit of an aircraft properly of the stated bearing.positioned on the VOR aerodrome check-point marking. 5.4.5 Aerodrome identification signCharacteristics 5.4.4.3 A VOR aerodrome check-point sign shall consist Applicationof an inscription in black on a yellow background. 5.4.5.1 Recommendation.— An aerodrome identifi- 5.4.4.4 Recommendation.— The inscriptions on a VOR cation sign should be provided at an aerodrome where therecheck-point sign should be in accordance with one of the is insufficient alternative means of visual identification.alternatives shown in Figure 5-31 in which: VOR is an abbreviation identifying this as a VOR Location check-point; 5.4.5.2 Recommendation.— The aerodrome identifi- 116.3 is an example of the radio frequency of the VOR cation sign should be placed on the aerodrome so as to be concerned; legible, in so far as is practicable, at all angles above the horizontal. 147° is an example of the VOR bearing, to the nearest degree, which should be indicated at the VOR check-point; and Characteristics 4.3 NM is an example of the distance in nautical miles to 5.4.5.3 The aerodrome identification sign shall consist of a DME collocated with the VOR concerned. the name of the aerodrome. VOR 116.3 147° •••••••••••••• VOR 116.3 147° (A) (B) Where no DME is collocated with the VOR VOR 116.3 147° 4.3NM ••• VOR 116.3 147° 4.3NM (C) (D) Where a DME is collocated with the VOR Figure 5-31. VOR aerodrome check-point sign 5-61 25/11/04
  • 35. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I 5.4.5.4 Recommendation.— The colour selected for the 1) a requirement to obtain ATC clearance; andsign should give adequate conspicuity when viewed against itsbackground. 2) location designator. 5.4.5.5 Recommendation.— The characters should have Note.— Examples of road-holding position signs are con-a height of not less than 3 m. tained in the Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 4. 5.4.7.5 A road-holding position sign intended for night use shall be retroreflective or illuminated. 5.4.6 Aircraft stand identification signsApplication 5.5 Markers 5.4.6.1 Recommendation.— An aircraft stand identifi-cation marking should be supplemented with an aircraft stand 5.5.1 Generalidentification sign where feasible. Markers shall be frangible. Those located near a runway or taxiway shall be sufficiently low to preserve clearance forLocation propellers and for the engine pods of jet aircraft. 5.4.6.2 Recommendation.— An aircraft stand identifi- Note 1.— Anchors or chains, to prevent markers whichcation sign should be located so as to be clearly visible from have broken from their mounting from blowing away, arethe cockpit of an aircraft prior to entering the aircraft stand. sometimes used. Note 2.— Guidance on frangibility of markers is given inCharacteristics the Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 6. 5.4.6.3 Recommendation.— An aircraft stand identifi-cation sign should consist of an inscription in black on ayellow background. 5.5.2 Unpaved runway edge markers 5.4.7 Road-holding position sign Application 5.4.7.1 A road-holding position sign shall be provided atall road entrances to a runway. 5.5.2.1 Recommendation.— Markers should be pro- vided when the extent of an unpaved runway is not clearly indicated by the appearance of its surface compared with thatLocation of the surrounding ground. 5.4.7.2 The road-holding position sign shall be located1.5 m from one edge of the road (left or right as appropriateto the local traffic regulations) at the holding position. Location 5.5.2.2 Recommendation.— Where runway lights are provided, the markers should be incorporated in the lightCharacteristics fixtures. Where there are no lights, markers of flat rectangular or conical shape should be placed so as to delimit the runway 5.4.7.3 A road-holding position sign shall consist of an clearly.inscription in white on a red background. 5.4.7.4 The inscription on a road-holding position signshall be in the national language, be in conformity with the Characteristicslocal traffic regulations and include the following: 5.5.2.3 Recommendation.— The flat rectangular markers a) a requirement to stop; and should have a minimum size of 1 m by 3 m and should be placed with their long dimension parallel to the runway centre line. The b) where appropriate: conical markers should have a height not exceeding 50 cm.23/11/0625/11/04 5-62 No. 8
  • 36. Chapter 6 Annex 14 — Aerodromes b) it is of skeletal type with either a vertical or a horizontal approach the object. The shape of markers shall be distinctive dimension greater than 1.5 m. to the extent necessary to ensure that they are not mistaken for markers employed to convey other information, and they shallThe bands should be perpendicular to the longest dimension be such that the hazard presented by the object they mark isand have a width approximately 1/7 of the longest dimension not increased.or 30 m, whichever is less. The colours of the bands shouldcontrast with the background against which they will be seen. 6.2.8 Recommendation.— A marker displayed on anOrange and white should be used, except where such colours overhead wire, cable, etc., should be spherical and have aare not conspicuous when viewed against the background. The diameter of not less than 60 cm.bands on the extremities of the object should be of the darkercolour. (See Figures 6-1 and 6-2.) 6.2.9 Recommendation.— The spacing between two consecutive markers or between a marker and a supporting Note.— Table 6-1 shows a formula for determining band tower should be appropriate to the diameter of the marker, butwidths and for having an odd number of bands, thus in no case should the spacing exceed:permitting both the top and bottom bands to be of the darkercolour. a) 30 m where the marker diameter is 60 cm progressively increasing with the diameter of the marker to 6.2.5 Recommendation.— An object should be colouredin a single conspicuous colour if its projection on any vertical b) 35 m where the marker diameter is 80 cm and furtherplane has both dimensions less than 1.5 m. Orange or red progressively increasing to a maximum ofshould be used, except where such colours merge with thebackground. c) 40 m where the marker diameter is of at least 130 cm. Note.— Against some backgrounds it may be found necess- Where multiple wires, cables, etc. are involved, a markerary to use a different colour from orange or red to obtain should be located not lower than the level of the highest wiresufficient contrast. at the point marked. 6.2.6 Recommendation.— When mobile objects are 6.2.10 Recommendation.— A marker should be of onemarked by colour, a single conspicuous colour, preferably red colour. When installed, white and red, or white and orangeor yellowish green for emergency vehicles and yellow for markers should be displayed alternately. The colour selectedservice vehicles should be used. should contrast with the background against which it will be seen. Table 6-1. Marking band widths Use of flags Longest dimension 6.2.11 Flags used to mark objects shall be displayed Greater Not around, on top of, or around the highest edge of, the object. than exceeding Band width When flags are used to mark extensive objects or groups of closely spaced objects, they shall be displayed at least every 1.5 m 210 m 1/7 of longest dimension 15 m. Flags shall not increase the hazard presented by the 210 m 270 m 1/9 ’’ ’’ ’’ object they mark. 270 m 330 m 1/11 ’’ ’’ ’’ 330 m 390 m 1/13 ’’ ’’ ’’ 6.2.12 Flags used to mark fixed objects shall not be less 390 m 450 m 1/15 ’’ ’’ ’’ than 0.6 m square and flags used to mark mobile objects, not 450 m 510 m 1/17 ’’ ’’ ’’ less than 0.9 m square. 510 m 570 m 1/19 ’’ ’’ ’’ 570 m 630 m 1/21 ’’ ’’ ’’ 6.2.13 Recommendation.— Flags used to mark fixed objects should be orange in colour or a combination of two triangular sections, one orange and the other white, or one red and the other white, except that where such colours merge withUse of markers the background, other conspicuous colours should be used. 6.2.7 Markers displayed on or adjacent to objects shall be 6.2.14 Flags used to mark mobile objects shall consist oflocated in conspicuous positions so as to retain the general a chequered pattern, each square having sides of not less thandefinition of the object and shall be recognizable in clear 0.3 m. The colours of the pattern shall contrast each with theweather from a distance of at least 1 000 m for an object to be other and with the background against which they will be seen.viewed from the air and 300 m for an object to be viewed from Orange and white or alternatively red and white shall be used,the ground in all directions in which an aircraft is likely to except where such colours merge with the background. 6-3 25/11/04
  • 37. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I A A See 6.3.12 B H C H A Roof top pattern A Plain roof pattern B Curved surface C Skeleton structure Note.— H is less than 45 m for the examples shown above. For greater heights intermediate lights must be added as shown below. N1 X Light spacing (X) in accordance with Appendix 6 Y N2 Number of levels of lights = N = Y (metres) X (metres) Figure 6-2. Examples of marking and lighting of tall structures23/11/0625/11/04 6-4 No. 8
  • 38. Chapter 9 Annex 14 — Aerodromes 9.8.6 Where a surface movement guidance and controlsystem is provided by selective switching of stop bars and a) on a runway strip, a runway end safety area, a taxiwaytaxiway centre line lights, the following requirements shall be strip or within the distances specified in Table 3-1,met: column 11, if it would endanger an aircraft; or a) taxiway routes which are indicated by illuminated b) on a clearway if it would endanger an aircraft in the air. taxiway centre line lights shall be capable of being terminated by an illuminated stop bar; 9.9.2 Any equipment or installation required for air navigation purposes which must be located: b) the control circuits shall be so arranged that when a stop bar located ahead of an aircraft is illuminated, the a) on that portion of a runway strip within: appropriate section of taxiway centre line lights beyond it is suppressed; and 1) 75 m of the runway centre line where the code number is 3 or 4; or c) the taxiway centre line lights are activated ahead of an aircraft when the stop bar is suppressed. 2) 45 m of the runway centre line where the code Note 1.— See Sections 5.3.16 and 5.3.19 for specifications number is 1 or 2; oron taxiway centre line lights and stop bars, respectively. b) on a runway end safety area, a taxiway strip or within Note 2.— Guidance on installation of stop bars and the distances specified in Table 3-1; ortaxiway centre line lights in surface movement guidance andcontrol systems is given in the Aerodrome Design Manual, c) on a clearway and which would endanger an aircraft inPart 4. the air; shall be frangible and mounted as low as possible. 9.8.7 Recommendation.— Surface movement radar forthe manoeuvring area should be provided at an aerodromeintended for use in runway visual range conditions less than a 9.9.3 Existing non-visual aids need not meet thevalue of 350 m. requirement of 9.9.2 until 1 January 2010. 9.8.8 Recommendation.— Surface movement radar for 9.9.4 Recommendation.— Any equipment or installationthe manoeuvring area should be provided at an aerodrome required for air navigation purposes which must be located onother than that in 9.8.7 when traffic density and operating the non-graded portion of a runway strip should be regardedconditions are such that regularity of traffic flow cannot be as an obstacle and should be frangible and mounted as low asmaintained by alternative procedures and facilities. possible. Note.— Guidance on the use of surface movement radar is Note.— Guidance on the siting of navigation aids isgiven in the Manual of Surface Movement Guidance and contained in the Aerodrome Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 6.Control Systems (SMGCS) and in the Air Traffic ServicesPlanning Manual (Doc 9426). 9.9.5 Unless its function requires it to be there for air navigation purposes, no equipment or installation shall be located within 240 m from the end of the strip and within: 9.9 Siting of equipment and installations a) 60 m of the extended centre line where the code number on operational areas is 3 or 4; or Note 1.— Requirements for obstacle limitation surfaces are b) 45 m of the extended centre line where the code numberspecified in 4.2. is 1 or 2; Note 2.— The design of light fixtures and their supporting of a precision approach runway category I, II or III.structures, light units of visual approach slope indicators,signs, and markers, is specified in 5.3.1, 5.3.5, 5.4.1 and 5.5.1, 9.9.6 Any equipment or installation required for airrespectively. Guidance on the frangible design of visual and navigation purposes which must be located on or near a stripnon-visual aids for navigation is given in the Aerodrome of a precision approach runway category I, II or III and which:Design Manual (Doc 9157), Part 6. a) is situated on that portion of the strip within 77.5 m of 9.9.1 Unless its function requires it to be there for air the runway centre line where the code number is 4 andnavigation purposes, no equipment or installation shall be: the code letter is F; or 9-9 23/11/06 25/11/04 No. 8
  • 39. Annex 14 — Aerodromes Volume I b) is situated within 240 m from the end of the strip and inadvertent or premeditated access of an unauthorized person within: onto a non-public area of the aerodrome. 1) 60 m of the extended runway centre line where the Note 1.— This is intended to include the barring of sewers, code number is 3 or 4; or ducts, tunnels, etc., where necessary to prevent access. 2) 45 m of the extended runway centre line where the Note 2.— Special measures may be required to prevent the code number is 1 or 2; or access of an unauthorized person to runways or taxiways which overpass public roads. c) penetrates the inner approach surface, the inner transitional surface or the balked landing surface; 9.10.5 Recommendation.— Suitable means of protectionshall be frangible and mounted as low as possible. should be provided to deter the inadvertent or premeditated access of unauthorized persons into ground installations and 9.9.7 Existing non-visual aids need not meet the require- facilities essential for the safety of civil aviation located off thement of 9.9.6 b) until 1 January 2010. aerodrome. Note.— See 5.3.1.5 for the protection date for existing 9.10.6 As of 23 November 2006, suitable means of pro-elevated approach lights. tection shall be provided to deter the inadvertent or premedi- tated access of unauthorized persons into ground installations 9.9.8 Recommendation.— Any equipment or installation and facilities essential for the safety of civil aviation locatedrequired for air navigation purposes which is an obstacle of off the aerodrome.operational significance in accordance with 4.2.4, 4.2.11,4.2.20 or 4.2.27 should be frangible and mounted as low aspossible. Location 9.10.7 Recommendation.— The fence or barrier should be located so as to separate the movement area and other 9.10 Fencing facilities or zones on the aerodrome vital to the safe operation of aircraft from areas open to public access.Application 9.10.8 As of 23 November 2006, the fence or barrier shall 9.10.1 Recommendation.— A fence or other suitable be located so as to separate the movement area and other facil-barrier should be provided on an aerodrome to prevent the ities or zones on the aerodrome vital to the safe operation ofentrance to the movement area of animals large enough to be aircraft from areas open to public access.a hazard to aircraft. 9.10.9 Recommendation.— When greater security is 9.10.2 As of 23 November 2006, a fence or other suitablebarrier shall be provided on an aerodrome to prevent the thought necessary, a cleared area should be provided on bothentrance to the movement area of animals large enough to be sides of the fence or barrier to facilitate the work of patrolsa hazard to aircraft. and to make trespassing more difficult. Consideration should be given to the provision of a perimeter road inside the 9.10.3 Recommendation.— A fence or other suitable aerodrome fencing for the use of both maintenance personnelbarrier should be provided on an aerodrome to deter the inad- and security patrols.vertent or premeditated access of an unauthorized person ontoa non-public area of the aerodrome. Note 1.— This is intended to include the barring of sewers, 9.11 Security lightingducts, tunnels, etc., where necessary to prevent access. Recommendation.— At an aerodrome where it is deemed Note 2.— Special measures may be required to prevent the desirable for security reasons, a fence or other barrieraccess of an unauthorized person to runways or taxiways provided for the protection of international civil aviation andwhich overpass public roads. its facilities should be illuminated at a minimum essential level. Consideration should be given to locating lights so that 9.10.4 As of 23 November 2006, a fence or other suitable the ground area on both sides of the fence or barrier,barrier shall be provided on an aerodrome to deter the particularly at access points, is illuminated.23/11/0625/11/04 9-10 No. 8