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  • 1. Name:Puteri Nurliyana Class: 3 Diamond Subject: Science Air Pollution Humans have a pair of lungs. The air that we breathe in may contain substances which are harmful to our respiratory system such as cigarette smoke, toxic gases from factories and vehicles, and microorganisms. Our respiratory system will be afected if it is exposed to the air pollutants. Effects of Harmful Substances A) Cigarette Smoke: I. Tar - Kills cells in the air passages and the lungs. - Burnt tar can dry up mucus on the walls of pharynx and throat. This facilitates bacterial attack on the epithelial cells. - Tar is acidic and it can corrode the cells in the lungs. II. Irritants - Irritate the air passages and alveoli in the lungs.
  • 2. - Kill cells on the surface on the air passages and lungs. III. Nicotine - Cause addiction to cigarette smoking. - Damages brain tissues. - Causes blood to clot more easily which may lead to stroke. - Hardens walls of arteries which may cause heart attacks. IV. Carcinogen - Cause various types of cancer. V. Carbon monoxide - prevents haemoglobin from transporting. - causes a lack of oxygen in our body which may lead to headaches, brain damage or even death. B) Sulphur dioxide - Can corrode the tissues of trachea and alveolus walls. - Corroded alveolus tissues do not allow oxygen to be transported to the blood capillaries. This Condition can lead to death. C) Haze - Can suffocate the respiratory passage leading to breathing difficulty. D) Carbon monoxide -Reduces the formation of oxyhaemoglobin - Supply oxygen to tissues becomes lesser and this can be fatal Various diseases related to the repiratory system The effects of polluted air is as follows: Pneumonia: An inflammatory condition of the lung—affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases. The symptoms are breathing difficulty, excessive production of mucus.
  • 3. Bronchitis: The inflammation of the bronchi caused by tar and the irritants in cigarette smoke. The symptoms of bronchitis are continuous coughing called smoker's cough, constant breathlessnes and sleeplessness Emphysema: The alveoli of the lungs are enlarged and damaged. It is caused by harmful air pollutants especially those in cigarette smoke. The symptoms of emphyseme are breathing difficulty, coughs and tiredness due to lack of oxygen in the body Lung Cancer: Caused by inhaling cancer-causing chemical called carcinogens. Cigarette smoke contains more than 10 different types of carcinogens including tar which can cause lung cancer. Some symptoms of lung cancer include coughs with phlegm and blood, breathing difficulty, loss of appetite, check pain and death Asthma: Caused by inhaling dust, cigarette smoke and industrial fumes. The symptoms of asthma are difficulty in
  • 4. breathing,wheezing or coughing. Way To Improve Air Quality 1. 2. We need to improve the quality of air so that our respiratory system remains healthy We should preserve and conserve the quality of air by: i. ii. iii. iv. Banning open burning of rubbish Using unleaded petrol in motor vehicles Conducting campaigns for the preservation and conservation of good air quality Banning smoking in public areas such as buses, shopping complexes, shopping complexes, hospitals and offices The Practice Of Keeping The Air Clean
  • 5. To keep our clean,we must practive all the thing below:  Carpool or move closer to your workplace.  Ride a bike to work. Or work from home at least one day per week if possible.  Plant deciduous trees on the south and west sides of your house to provide shade in the summer and decrease use of air conditioning.  Unplug any electronic devices that are not in use. (They still use electricity when they’re not on!)  An electronic air filtration such as a HEPA filter in the home can help improve air quality.  Avoid carpeting in the home and stuffed animals in the bedroom. These can be sources of dander, dust mites, and fireplace smoke.  Avoid pets in the bedroom.  Use environmentally-friendly household cleaners to avoid toxic fumes at home.  Consider hiring an eco-friendly home cleaning service to assist with thorough maintenance of the home.
  • 6. To keep our clean,we must practive all the thing below:  Carpool or move closer to your workplace.  Ride a bike to work. Or work from home at least one day per week if possible.  Plant deciduous trees on the south and west sides of your house to provide shade in the summer and decrease use of air conditioning.  Unplug any electronic devices that are not in use. (They still use electricity when they’re not on!)  An electronic air filtration such as a HEPA filter in the home can help improve air quality.  Avoid carpeting in the home and stuffed animals in the bedroom. These can be sources of dander, dust mites, and fireplace smoke.  Avoid pets in the bedroom.  Use environmentally-friendly household cleaners to avoid toxic fumes at home.  Consider hiring an eco-friendly home cleaning service to assist with thorough maintenance of the home.