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Chapter 2 blood circulation and transport
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Chapter 2 blood circulation and transport

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  • 1. Chapter 2 Blood Circulation And Transport Human Blood Made by:  Puteri Nurliyana  Nur Ezlyin  Aizatul
  • 2. Introduction A normal adult human has about 5 litres of blood Blood is a fluid tissue that is made up of liquid and solid component The liquid component of blood is called plasma and the solid component comprises blood cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets Both components of blood can be separated using a centrifuge When blood is rotated in a spinning centrifuge, it is separated into blood cells and plasma fluid
  • 3. Centrifuge
  • 4. Blood Components and Their Functions Human blood is a suspension of red blood cells,white blood cells,platelets and plasma
  • 5. Blood Components and Their Functions Plasma - A pale yellowish fluid - Consists of water (90%) and 10% dissolved substances,such as nutrient,blood protein,minerals salts and hormones Function: To carry dissolved substances and heat around the body Red blood cells (erythrocytes) - Have no nucleus - Are biconcave disc-shaped - Contains red pigments called the haemoglobin Function: Carry oxygen in the form of oxyhaemoglobin
  • 6. Blood Components and Their Functions White Blood Cells (leucocytes) - Have a nucleus -Are irregular in shape -Colourless -Usually larger than the red blood cells -The number white blood cells is less than the number of red blood cells in our body Function: Protct the body against diseases by fighting infection Platelets - Have no nucleus - Tiny pieces of cells produced in the bone marrow - Much smaller than the red or white blood cells Function: Help in blood clotting to prevent blood loss
  • 7. Blood Group • Human blood can be classified into four different groups. The four groups are A,B,AB and O • The blood group is determined by the type of protein on the surface of the red blood cells
  • 8. Blood Group Donor To Recipient • Transfusion is the process of transferring blood from a donor to a recipient • Donating and receiving of blood must be carried out correctly accordind to the suitability and compatibility of blood group • When the blood of two incompatible groups are mixed together, the red blood cells of the donor and recipient will clump together. This condition is called agglutination • Agglutination reduces the efficiency of red blood cells in transporting oxygen. It also lead to death of the recipient.
  • 9. Blood Donor To Recipient • Compatibility of blood among the donors and the recipients using ABO identification system • Blood group O known as the universal donor because it can be accepted by a person of any blood group. It can receive blood from the donor who has blood group O only • Blood group AB known as the universal recipient because the person can receive blood from the donor of any blood. It can donate to only group AB recipient
  • 10. The Importance Of Donating Blood • • • • • Blood is needed for major surgery, childbirth, or cancer treatment Donating blood saves lives and bring no harm to the donor A person can donate blood about 4-6 times a year A suitable donor must generally healthy, weighs 50kg and should be above the age of 18 A donor may give up to 0.5 litres of blood at one time.
  • 11. Handling And Storage • The blood is collected in a sterilised bag containing sodium citrate which prevents clotting of the blood. • The sterilised bag of blood then stored in a refrigerator at 5 º C for 10 days or longer if glucose is added • A sample of the blood is removed from the bag of donated  blood. The sample is then tested for its group, the presence of  viruses such as the AIDS virus and other unwanted substances  will be rejected. • Before blood is transfused, it is carefully tested against the  recipient's blood to make sure it is a good match. Then the  blood is transfused into the recipient through a vein in the  recipient's arm at the correct rate and temperature