Cooperative learning rpkps


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Cooperative learning rpkps

  1. 1. COOPERATIVE LEARNING Two are better than one For if they fall, one will lift up his fellow….and though a lion might prevail against one who is alone
  3. 3. EDUCATION PARADIGM TEACHING PROCESS LEARNING PROCESS <ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Based on teacher regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher are the only source of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Can not be applied immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty member is responsible for student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Based on students experiences </li></ul><ul><li>All students are the sources of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Can be applied immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Student’s ability and motivation affects time in a team learning </li></ul>
  4. 4. 3 Types of Learning
  5. 5. Cooperative Learning Conditions <ul><li>1. Positive interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>2. Considerate interaction </li></ul><ul><li>3. Individual accountability and personal responsibility to achieve group goal. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Interpersonal and small-group skills. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Group processing to improve future effectiveness. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Essential Components
  7. 7. Structures “ None of us...are as smart as all of us ”
  8. 8. How do you promote interaction? <ul><li>1. If you have created positive interdependence, you will automatically promote interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Eye to eye, knee to knee </li></ul>
  9. 9. P ositive Interdependence <ul><li>Interdependence occurs when participants cannot succeed unless their group members also succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>Each participant should see his or her work as essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Each participant must make unique contributions. </li></ul><ul><li>Structuring interdependence: common goal, joint rewards, divided resources, complimentary roles </li></ul>
  10. 10. Positive Interdependence <ul><li>1. Learn the assigned material </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ensure that all members of group learn the assigned material </li></ul>
  11. 11. How do you structure learning for positive interdependence? <ul><li>1 . Positive Goal Interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>All have same goal </li></ul><ul><li>2. Positive Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Reward group achievement </li></ul><ul><li>3. Positive Resource Interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Share resources, info, materials </li></ul><ul><li>4. Positive Role Interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Assign roles </li></ul><ul><li>5. Group identity </li></ul>
  12. 12. I ndividual Accountability <ul><li>Facilitator must assess effort contributed by each member to the group’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator must provide feedback to group and individual participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator must help group avoid redundant efforts by members. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitator must ensure that every member is responsible for the final outcome. </li></ul>
  13. 13. How do you assure individual accountability and personal responsibility? <ul><li>1. Assess each member’s effort in contributing to the group’s work </li></ul><ul><li>2. Provide feedback to groups and individuals </li></ul><ul><li>3. Help groups avoid redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>4. Ensure all are responsible for final outcome </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ways to structure individual accountability <ul><li>Keep group size small. </li></ul><ul><li>Give an individual test to each student. </li></ul><ul><li>Randomly call on students orally by calling on one to present group’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe each group and record frequency of each member’s contribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Assign each person a role, especially a checker. </li></ul>
  15. 15. G roup Processing <ul><li>At end of a process, participants reflect to determine what member actions were helpful and which were unhelpful or harmful. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants then make decisions about which actions to continue, change, or delete. </li></ul><ul><li>Such processing allows groups to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on maintaining good working relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learn cooperative skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>think at a metacognitive level as well as cognitive level. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. How do you structure group processing? <ul><li>Describe what member actions were helpful and unhelpful </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions about what actions to continue and change </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate success </li></ul>
  17. 17. S ocial Skills <ul><li>Participants must get to know and trust one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants must communicate accurately and unambiguously. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants must accept and support each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants must resolve conflicts constructively. </li></ul>
  18. 18. How do you promote social and small-group skills? <ul><li>Know & trust each other </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate accurately and uninhibited </li></ul><ul><li>Accept and support each other </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve conflict constructively </li></ul>
  19. 19. Face -to-Face Interaction <ul><li>Interaction occurs as a result of the positive interdependence. </li></ul><ul><li>To maximize opportunity for success: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider jigsaw approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assist participants with guidelines for success. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage acceptance, support, trust, respect. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Domains of Usefulness <ul><li>Team Building </li></ul><ul><li>Class Building </li></ul><ul><li>Mastery </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Information Sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Skills </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Group Processing <ul><li>Small Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on maintaining good working relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates the learning of cooperative skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures members receive feedback on their participation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entire Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher observes all groups and makes observations about how they are functioning </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Cooperative Learning Techniques Dealing with Different Types of Students
  23. 23. The Dominant Student <ul><li>Assign the dominant student a role that is less obtrusive </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate the position of leader </li></ul><ul><li>Have each student present material to group before others may comment </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Slow Student <ul><li>Use jigsaw configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor expert groups carefully so that correct information is being supplied </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Bright, Bored Student <ul><li>Use differentiated instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All learn same basic material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups are then formed to complete another project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Let sharp kids soar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Let slower students continue to learn basic information </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Tips for Group Making
  27. 27. Balance the Character of Each Group <ul><li>Each team should be composed of students whose performance levels range from low to high. </li></ul><ul><li>The average performance level of all the teams in the class should be about equal. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity, race, and gender should be evenly distributed among the teams. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideal size of a cooperative group is 4 students. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Try This Group-Making Technique <ul><li>Write each students’ name in one of four columns depending on his/her academic ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Then attempt to make each column the same length by moving students according to their social maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>A team of 4 students can then be built by choosing one name from each column. </li></ul>Weak Average Above Average Strong
  29. 29. Group-Making Technique <ul><li>Review the teams and make sure they are balanced by ethnicity, race, and gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for irreconcilable trouble spots, where two students can’t be sitting next to one another. Don’t move the students to another group! Good cooperative experiences provide excellent mechanisms to get formerly combative students working together. Be prepared to provide extra support. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Arrange Your Classroom <ul><li>Group members should usually sit in a circle. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ ability to communicate without disrupting other groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of eye contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate working space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to access other resources (computer, VCR, etc.) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Go Over Ground Rules <ul><li>Don’t speak while others are speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to what others have to say. </li></ul><ul><li>Give everyone a chance. Sometimes the strangest idea may turn out to be the best. </li></ul><ul><li>Never take someone else’s materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t be afraid to ask for help. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Students Learn Best When They Explain <ul><li>The primary goal of cooperative learning in schools is to get students to explain relevant content and concepts to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Improve students communication skills </li></ul>
  33. 33. Teamwork is a New and Essential Basic Skill
  34. 34. The Teacher is Important <ul><li>The teacher shoulders the responsibility for motivating and guiding student learning. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher is the one who will be held accountable for student performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Software that facilitates cooperative learning is designed to assist you in that heroic effort. </li></ul>
  35. 35. JIGSAW PROCEDURES Salah satu prosedur berdasar COOPERATIVE LEARNING
  36. 36. DASAR PIKIRAN <ul><li>Jika kita membaca maka kita belajar 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Jika kita membaca, dan mendengar maka kita belajar 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Jika kita membaca, mendengar dan melakukan maka kita belajar 75% </li></ul><ul><li>Jika kita membaca, mendengar, melakukan dan mengajar maka kita belajar 100% </li></ul><ul><li>By Said Irandoust </li></ul>
  37. 37. JIGSAW PROCEDURES <ul><li>COOPERATIVE GROUPS: Bagilah kelas ke dalam kelompok sebesar 4 – 6 orang. Kemudian bagilah satu set instruksi dan materi pada setiap kelompok. Setiap se materi harus tidak boleh saling dilihat antar satu kelompok dengan kelompok yang lain </li></ul><ul><li>PREPARATION PAIRS: mintalah siswa untuk melakukan tugas kooperatif dengan cara menemui anggota kelompok lain yang mempunyai tugas/materi sama, hingga tugas dapat terselesaikan, kemudian: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mintalah siswa untuk menjadi ahli di dalam materi yang diterimanya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menjelaskan pada anggota lain yang memiliki materi berbeda </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. JIGSAW PROCEDURES <ul><li>PRACTICE PAIRS: mintalah siswa untuk bertemu dengan siswa dari kelompok lain yang memiliki materi sama untuk berlatih cara mengajarkan materi dengan jalan yang terbaik </li></ul><ul><li>COOPERATIVE GROUP: mintalah siswa untuk melaksanakan tugas cooperatifnya, yaitu: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mengajar teman satu kelompok yang memiliki materi berbeda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mempelajari materi yang diperoleh dari teman lain dalam satu kelompok </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Preparation Pairs TASKS: a. Menguasai materi yang ditugaskan b. Merencanakan bagaimana mengajarkannya pada orang lain PREPARE TO TEACH: a. Daftar topik utama dari materi yang diajarkan b. Daftar beberapa bahan bacaan mengenai materi yang diajarkan c. Mempersiapkan berbagai macam visual aids d. Mempersiapkan berbagai strategi agar pembelajar dapa bejar COOPERATIVE: Saling Belajar dan mengajarkan PAIR-READ PROCEDURE: (a) Jointly Read All Section Heads for Overview, (b) Silently Read First Paragraph, (c) Explainer: Summarizes in Own Words, (d) Accuracy Checker: Correct, Add, Relate, (e) Reverse Roles and Repeat.
  40. 40. Some Final Pointers <ul><li>Identify clear questions at onset </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve small-group conflicts as soon as they arise </li></ul><ul><li>Create rubrics to be used for guiding the learning process and for assessing final work </li></ul><ul><li>Provide ongoing help for students to reflect on their progress </li></ul>