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biomechanical aspects of workplace design Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Biomechanical Aspects of Workplace Design Presented By- Pushkar Ghatole Roll no.56
  • 2.  
  • 3. Workplace : A closer look
  • 4. Factors Contributing To Problems In Work Tasks
    • Awkward postures
    • • Repetitive motions
    • • Forceful exertions
    • • Pressure points (e.g., local contact stress)
    • • Vibration
    • Miscellaneous
      • Environmental Factors
      • The duration of tasks
      • The length and frequency of muscle relaxation breaks
      • Activities outside workplace
      • Personal Factors
    WHY?
  • 5. Awkward Postures
    • Posture affects which muscle groups are active during physical activity
    • Awkward postures can make work tasks more physically demanding, by increasing the exertion
    Reaching Twisting Bending Working overhead Holding of fixed positions Pinch grips Visual Effort
  • 6. Repetitive motions
    • In repetitive work the same types of motions are performed over and over again using the same muscles, tendons, or joints
    • The amount of repetition can be affected by:
      • The pace of work
      • The recovery time provided
      • The amount of variety in work tasks
  • 7. Forceful exertions
    • Exerting large amounts of force can result in fatigue and physical damage to the body
    • The amount of force exerted depends on:
      • Load shape, weight, dimensions, and bulkiness
      • • Grip type, position, and friction characteristics
      • • Amount of effort required to start and stop the load when moving it
      • • Length of time continuous force is applied by the muscles
      • • Number of times the load is handled per hour or work shift
      • • Amount of associated vibration
      • • Body posture used
      • • Resistance associated with moving the load
      • • Duration of the task over the work shift
      • • Environmental temperature
      • • Amount of rotational force (e.g., torque from tools or equipment
  • 8. Pressure points
    • Sides of the fingers
    • • Palms
    • • Wrists
    • • Forearms
    • • Elbows
    • • Knees
  • 9. Vibration
    • Fatigue
    • Pain
    • Numbness
    • Tingling
    • Increased sensitivity to cold
    • Decreased sensitivity to touch in the fingers hands and arms.
  • 10. Miscellaneous
  • 11. Biomechanical Aspects of Workplace Design Prof. Don Chaffin The University of Michigan Center for Ergonomics
    • Computerized biomechanical models of the human musculoskeletal system
    • This knowledge can help ergonomists:
    • Evaluate the extent to which existing jobs place physical demands on the workers.
    • 2. Simulate alternative work methods and determine potential reduction in physical
    • demands.
    • 3. Provide a basis for employee selection and placement procedures.
  • 12. Background
  • 13. Factors determining workplace layout
    • Shoulder-dependent Overhead Reach limitations
    • Shoulder and arm Dependent Forward reach Limits
    • Neck/Head posture work limitations
    • Torso postural Considerations in workplace height limitations
  • 14. Shoulder-dependent Overhead Reach limitations
    • Hands should not have to reach frequently or be held for sustained periods above the shoulder
    • Shoulder flexed and held above 90 0 causes muscle fatigue even in no load
    • For tossing ,the receiving container should be placed low to minimize arm elevations , above 50 0 from vertical
  • 15. Shoulder-dependent Overhead Reach limitations
  • 16. Shoulder and arm Dependent Forward reach Limits Expected time to reach significant shoulder muscle fatigue for different FORWARD ARM REACH POSTURES (Chaffin, 1973). When reaching forward, a load of 56N held in hands will create a load moment at shoulder , for average female and 115 N for average male
  • 17. Shoulder and arm Dependent Forward reach Limits
  • 18. Shoulder and arm Dependent Forward reach Limits
  • 19. Shoulder and arm Dependent Forward reach Limits Hand orientation + Arm Postures - Design of hand tools ,tote boxes handles, control on machines
  • 20. Shoulder and arm Dependent Forward reach Limits
  • 21. Shoulder and arm Dependent Forward reach Limits Forearm rotation strengths
  • 22. Neck/Head posture work limitations
    • The requirement of work postures with the neck flexed forward can occur because of a combination of:
    • The seat height being too high
    • The seat placement being too far back from the work area
    • A workbench or table being too low
    • The visual demands of the task requiring a specific eye location
    • ( e.g. to look into a near-vertical microscope)
    • Maximum - 30 0
  • 23. Torso postural Considerations in workplace height limitations
    • At 30 0 inclination of torso from the erect posture, the load moment is 50% of its maximum value achieved at 90 0 .
    • Prolonged forward stooped posture
    • Low height of the working table.
    • Back pain
    • Back muscle endurance times in various stooped postures decreased when posture required more than about 30% of isometric strength.
    • Most men and 80-90% women can maintain 20 0 stooped posture during a day.
  • 24. The final design
    • Work area 5cm below the elbow when standing or seated in an erect posture.
      • Adequate clearance for necessary elbow and forearm motions
      • Requires little stooping or shoulder rotations
    • Workbench height adjustable between 94 and 115 cm
    • Heavy objects to be kept at 75cm. – Concept is to provide the location of the load close to the body of operator.
  • 25. The final design
  • 26. The final design
  • 27. There is no single ‘Correct’ Posture
  • 28. Adjustable Chair
  • 29. The Computer Problem
  • 30. References
    • Control and Display Design/Anthropometry Lecture Outline
    • Easy Ergonomics, A Practical Approach for Improving the Workplace developed by the Education and Training Unit, Cal/OSHA Consultation Service, California Department of Industrial Relations
    • How to identify, control, and reduce musculoskeletal disorders in your workplace! - Presented by the Public Education Section Department of Business and Consumer Business Oregon OSHA
    • Practical solutions for a safer workplace- Prepared by WISHA Services Division Washington State Department of Labor and Industries