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Griffin chap18

Griffin chap18






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    Griffin chap18 Griffin chap18 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter Eighteen Managing Interpersonal Relations and Communications
    • Learning Objectives
      • After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
      • Describe the interpersonal nature of organizations.
      • Describe the role and importance of communication in the manager’s job.
      • Identify the basic forms of communication in organizations.
      • Discuss informal communication, including its various forms and types.
      • Describe how the communication process can be managed to recognize and overcome barriers.
    • The Interpersonal Nature of Organizations
      • Interpersonal Dynamics
        • Positive
          • When two parties know each other, have mutual respect and affection, and enjoy interacting with one another.
        • Negative
          • When two parties dislike one another, do not have mutual respect, and do not enjoy interacting with one another.
    • The Interpersonal Nature of Organizations (cont’d)
      • Outcomes of Interpersonal Behaviors
        • Satisfaction of social needs
        • Social support
        • Source of organizational synergy
        • Source of conflict
    • Communication and the Manager’s Job
      • Communication
        • The process of transmitting information from one person to another.
      • Effective Communication
        • The process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intended.
    • The Communication Process
      • Steps in the Communication Process
        • Deciding to transmit a fact, idea, opinion, or other information to the receiver.
        • Encoding the meaning into a form appropriate to the situation.
        • Transmission through the appropriate channel or medium.
        • Decoding the message back into a form that has meaning to the receiver.
        • “ Noise” is anything disrupting the communication process.
    • Figure 18.1: The Communication Process
    • Forms of Communication in Organizations
      • Interpersonal Communication (cont’d)
        • Advantages of oral communication
          • Promotes prompt feedback and interchange in the form of verbal questions and responses.
          • Is easy to use and can be done with little preparation.
        • Disadvantages of oral communication
          • Suffers from problems with inaccuracy in meaning and details.
          • Leaves no time for thought and consideration and no permanent record of what was said.
    • Forms of Communication in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Interpersonal Communication (cont’d)
        • Written communication
          • Memos, letters, reports, notes, and other methods in which the written word is used to transmit meaning.
        • Advantages of written communication
          • Is accurate and leaves a permanent record of the exchange.
          • Leaves for thought and consideration, can be referenced.
          • Is easy to use and can be done with little preparation.
        • Disadvantages of written communication
          • Inhibits feedback and interchange due to burden of the process of preparing a physical document.
          • Considerable delay can occur in clarifying message meanings.
    • Forms of Communication in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Communication in Networks and Work Teams
        • Communication network
          • The pattern through which the members of a group or team communicate.
        • Research suggests:
          • When the group’s task is simple and routine, centralized networks perform with the greatest efficiency and accuracy.
          • When the group’s task is complex and nonroutine, decentralized networks with open communications that foster interaction and exchange of relevant information tend to be most effective.
    • Figure 18.2: Types of Communication Networks
    • Forms of Communication in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Organizational Communication
        • Vertical communication
          • Communication that flows up and down the organization, usually along formal reporting lines.
            • Takes place between managers and subordinates and may involve several levels of the organization.
          • Upward communication
          • Downward communication
          • Horizontal communication
        • Formal communication in organizations
          • Follows the official reporting relationships and/or prescribed channels.
    • Figure 18.3: Formal Communication in Organizations
    • Forms of Communication in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Electronic Communication
        • Formal Information Systems
          • Accomplished (created) by either:
            • A managerial approach
            • An operational approach
      • Electronic Communication
        • Personal Electronic Technology
          • Corporate intranets, the Internet, teleconferences, e-mail
          • Telecommuting
          • Disadvantages: the lack of face-to-face contact, strong personal relationships, falling behind professionally, and losing out in organizational politics.
    • Informal Communication in Organizations
      • Informal Communications
        • May or may not follow official reporting relationships and/or prescribed organizational channels
        • May have nothing to do with official organizational business.
        • Common forms:
          • Management by wandering around
          • The grapevine
          • Nonverbal communication
    • Figure 18.4: Informal Communication in Organizations
    • Figure 18.5: Common Grapevine Chains Found in Organizations
    • Informal Communication in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Management by Wandering Around
        • Managers keep in touch with what’s going on by wandering around and talking to people on all levels in the organization
      • Grapevine
        • An informal communication network that can permeate an organization.
    • Informal Communication in Organizations (cont’d)
      • Nonverbal Communication
        • Any communication exchange that does not use words, or uses words to carry more meaning than the strict definition of the words themselves.
          • Facial expression
          • Inflection and tone of the voice.
        • Only a small portion of the message content is due to the words in the message.
        • Kinds of nonverbal managerial communication:
          • Images
          • Settings
          • Body language
    • Table 18.1: Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Table 18.2: Overcoming Barriers to Communication
    • Improving Communication Effectiveness
      • Individual Skills
        • Being a good listener
        • Providing feedback (two-way communications)
        • Awareness word meaning differences
        • Maintain credibility
        • Sensitive to the receiver’s perspective
        • Sensitive to the sender’s perspective
      • Organizational Skills
        • Following up
        • Regulating information flow
        • Understanding the richness of different media
    • Figure 18.6: More and Less Effective Listening Skills
    • Key Terms
      • effective communication
      • communication
      • oral communication
      • written communication
      • communication network
      • vertical communication
      • horizontal communication
      • grapevine
      • management by wandering around
      • nonverbal communication