Griffin chap18


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Griffin chap18

  1. 1. Chapter Eighteen Managing Interpersonal Relations and Communications
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>After studying this chapter, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the interpersonal nature of organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role and importance of communication in the manager’s job. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the basic forms of communication in organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss informal communication, including its various forms and types. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how the communication process can be managed to recognize and overcome barriers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Interpersonal Nature of Organizations <ul><li>Interpersonal Dynamics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When two parties know each other, have mutual respect and affection, and enjoy interacting with one another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When two parties dislike one another, do not have mutual respect, and do not enjoy interacting with one another. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Interpersonal Nature of Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Outcomes of Interpersonal Behaviors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction of social needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of organizational synergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of conflict </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Communication and the Manager’s Job <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of transmitting information from one person to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effective Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of sending a message in such a way that the message received is as close in meaning as possible to the message intended. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Communication Process <ul><li>Steps in the Communication Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deciding to transmit a fact, idea, opinion, or other information to the receiver. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding the meaning into a form appropriate to the situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission through the appropriate channel or medium. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding the message back into a form that has meaning to the receiver. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Noise” is anything disrupting the communication process. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Figure 18.1: The Communication Process
  8. 8. Forms of Communication in Organizations <ul><li>Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of oral communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes prompt feedback and interchange in the form of verbal questions and responses. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is easy to use and can be done with little preparation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of oral communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suffers from problems with inaccuracy in meaning and details. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves no time for thought and consideration and no permanent record of what was said. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Forms of Communication in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Interpersonal Communication (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Written communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memos, letters, reports, notes, and other methods in which the written word is used to transmit meaning. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages of written communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is accurate and leaves a permanent record of the exchange. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves for thought and consideration, can be referenced. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is easy to use and can be done with little preparation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of written communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits feedback and interchange due to burden of the process of preparing a physical document. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Considerable delay can occur in clarifying message meanings. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Forms of Communication in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Communication in Networks and Work Teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The pattern through which the members of a group or team communicate. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research suggests: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the group’s task is simple and routine, centralized networks perform with the greatest efficiency and accuracy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When the group’s task is complex and nonroutine, decentralized networks with open communications that foster interaction and exchange of relevant information tend to be most effective. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Figure 18.2: Types of Communication Networks
  12. 12. Forms of Communication in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Organizational Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication that flows up and down the organization, usually along formal reporting lines. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Takes place between managers and subordinates and may involve several levels of the organization. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upward communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Downward communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal communication in organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follows the official reporting relationships and/or prescribed channels. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Figure 18.3: Formal Communication in Organizations
  14. 14. Forms of Communication in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Electronic Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal Information Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished (created) by either: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A managerial approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An operational approach </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Electronic Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate intranets, the Internet, teleconferences, e-mail </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommuting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: the lack of face-to-face contact, strong personal relationships, falling behind professionally, and losing out in organizational politics. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Informal Communication in Organizations <ul><li>Informal Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not follow official reporting relationships and/or prescribed organizational channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have nothing to do with official organizational business. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common forms: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management by wandering around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The grapevine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal communication </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Figure 18.4: Informal Communication in Organizations
  17. 17. Figure 18.5: Common Grapevine Chains Found in Organizations
  18. 18. Informal Communication in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Management by Wandering Around </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers keep in touch with what’s going on by wandering around and talking to people on all levels in the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grapevine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An informal communication network that can permeate an organization. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Informal Communication in Organizations (cont’d) <ul><li>Nonverbal Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any communication exchange that does not use words, or uses words to carry more meaning than the strict definition of the words themselves. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facial expression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflection and tone of the voice. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only a small portion of the message content is due to the words in the message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinds of nonverbal managerial communication: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Settings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body language </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Table 18.1: Barriers to Effective Communication
  21. 21. Table 18.2: Overcoming Barriers to Communication
  22. 22. Improving Communication Effectiveness <ul><li>Individual Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being a good listener </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing feedback (two-way communications) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness word meaning differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive to the receiver’s perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive to the sender’s perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Following up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulating information flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the richness of different media </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 18.6: More and Less Effective Listening Skills
  24. 24. Key Terms <ul><li>effective communication </li></ul><ul><li>communication </li></ul><ul><li>oral communication </li></ul><ul><li>written communication </li></ul><ul><li>communication network </li></ul><ul><li>vertical communication </li></ul><ul><li>horizontal communication </li></ul><ul><li>grapevine </li></ul><ul><li>management by wandering around </li></ul><ul><li>nonverbal communication </li></ul>