• Supply of product not as per order or sample
• Keeping a few costs hidden –
• Not accepting defective product by some small
obscure print condition.
• Changing product specifications without prior
intimation to the customer
• Changing business terms without approval of the
• Delaying the supply of goods to the customer
• Treating 2 customers differently without valid
• Using superlatives for ordinary products
• Not providing after sales service as agreed
upon in the original contract.
• Playing favourites between two customers
regarding price and priority in supplies.
Advertising & Promotion
• Exaggerating product benefits in advertisements
• Supplying products, which are different than
• Giving wrong idea in advertisements regarding
• Not supplying the gift so promised in the
• Increasing the price and then offering a discount
on the price.
• Making derogatory remarks about competitors
• Making comparative advertisements by using
selected parameters alone
• Hiding major flaws of the product
• Not providing the advertised service to the
customers as a part of the promotional plan.
• Giving wrong information about the product.
After Sales Service
• Service technicians not going by the priority and playing
favourites for personal gain.
• Using substandard material during service and charging
for the genuine parts
• Using wrong equipment which endangers the product
itself during service
• Not taking service calls, if the location is distant or not
easy to reach while free service was promised for that
• Making temporary repairs only to the product, so that it
can be repeatedly brought for service
• Over-billing the service charges
• Not keeping the service records properly so that
the problem has to be looked into afresh.
• Using substandard components or rejected
• Refusing to service the product on some pretext
or the other
• Exchanging genuine parts with spurious ones,
when the product comes for service.
• Research done to reflect a particular viewpoint
• Research is focused on areas which need not be
• Deep in-depth research is undertaken when preliminary
research would have satisfied the research objective
• Old research is repackaged as new
• Biased report
• Selling the research report to competition also
• Suppressing parts of the report/data to the managers.
• Entrusting the Marketing Research to a novice.