AN INTRODUCTION TO
Canada is a former colony of Great Britain. Originally a French colony,
the French lost control of New France (now Canada) during the Seven
Years War (French and Indian War).
The first people of Canada were the Native Americans and the Inuit
The Inuit were believed to have originated from the Arctic
The Vikings travelled and settled to the Canadian land in the 1000's
Europeans, notably the French, settled in Canada in the 1500's & 1600's
In the 1700' the Canadian colony was passed to the British
In 1867 the Dominion of Canada was formed and self-government was
granted to Ontario (formerly Upper Canada), Quebec (formerly Lower
Canada), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia
In 1982 the Canadian constitution was adopted
In 1867, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia formed a
On July 1, 1867, the British North America Act declared Canada a
The name "Canada" originally came from a First Nations' word "Kanata"
meaning village which referred to the settlement of Stadacona which was
situated on the site of Quebec City.
Later, European map makers changed it to "Canada" to identify all the
land north of the St. Lawrence River.
In 1965, they adopted the red and white flag with the maple leaf as their
English and French, are the two official languages in Canada.
Canada borders the United States.
The geography of Canada is mostly plains with mountains in the west.
Canada is the second largest country in the world with 10 million
square kilometers of land mass.
The country has a population of approximately 30 million people.
The capital of Canada is Ottawa.
Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on
the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the
Canadian Land Size : 9,984,670 sq km
Canadian Climate / Weather : varies from temperate in south to subarctic
and arctic in north
Canadian Population : 32,507,874 (July 2004 est.)
Canadian Main Industries : transportation equipment, chemicals,
processed and unprocessed minerals, food products; wood and paper
products; fish products, petroleum and natural gas
Currency of Canada : Canadian dollar (CAD)
Canadian Agricultural products : wheat, barley, oilseed, tobacco, fruits,
vegetables; dairy products; forest products; fish
9,984,670 sq. km
9,093,507 sq. km
891,163 sq. km
Population Rate Growth
British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other
European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian,
African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
noun: Canadian(s) adjective: Canadian
Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including
United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%,
Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%,
other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16%
English (official) 58.8%, French (official) 21.6%, other
History of flag
• The St. George's Cross -- an English flag of the 15th century -- was
carried by John Cabot when he reached the east coast of Canada in 1497,
sailing under English colours.
• The fleur-de-lis was a symbol of French sovereignty in Canada from
1534, when Jacques Cartier landed and claimed the new world for
France, until the early 1760s, when Canada was ceded to the United
Kingdom. First flown over Canada in 1621, the Royal Union Flag (the
Union Jack) was used across British North America and in Canada even
after Confederation in 1867.
• From about 1870, various forms of the Canadian Red Ensign were used
on land and sea as Canada's unofficial flag as well as the Union Jack. In
1945, the Canadian government authorized the use of the Red Ensign on
federal buildings within Canada until such time as a new national flag
Description of Canadian Flag
• The Canadian Flag indicates the overall colour is red and white in the
proclamation of the royal arms of Canada
• The official Canadian colours were proclaimed in 1921 by King George V.
• The Canadian flag was designed by George Stanley and inspired by the
Royal Military College of Canada flag
• The basic style shown in the picture of the Canadian flag is described as
Emblem - reflecting the central design of the flag pattern.
• The official ceremony inaugurating the new Canadian flag was held on
Parliament Hill in Ottawa on February 15, 1965, The National Flag of
Canada was approved by Parliament in 1964 and proclaimed by Her
Majesty Queen Elizabeth II to take effect on February 15, 1965.
• The National Flag of Canada is popularly referred to as the Maple Leaf
• The French name is 1'Unifolié meaning the "the one-leaved”.
The Maple Leaf
Well before the coming of the first European settlers, Canada's aboriginal people had
discovered the food properties of maple sap, which they gathered every spring. According
to many historians, the maple leaf began to serve as a Canadian symbol as early as 1700.
Examples of how the maple leaf grew in public consciousness as a symbol of the country
until it finally became official on February 15, 1965:In 1834, Ludger Duvernay is reported to have proposed the maple leaf as an emblem of
Canada when the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste was founded on June 24 of that year.
In 1836, Le Canadien, a newspaper published in Lower Canada, referred to it as a suitable
emblem for Canada.
In August 1860, at a public meeting held in Toronto, the maple leaf was adopted as the
national emblem of Canada for use in the decorations for the Prince of Wales' visit.
In 1914, many Canadian soldiers wore the maple leaf on their military badges, and it was
the dominant symbol used by many Canadian regiments serving in the Great World War I.
In 1939, at the beginning of World War II, numerous Canadian troops once again used the
maple leaf as a distinctive emblem, displaying it on regimental badges and Canadian army
and naval equipment.
In World War 1, Lester Pearson noted that almost every battalion from Canada included the
maple leaf in its insignia, and vowed he would campaign to put it on the flag, and of course
50 years later as prime minister of Canada he was part of the 33-day debate that resulted in
the maple leaf as the Canadian flag.
• Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a federal system, a
parliamentary government, and a democratic tradition dating from the
late 18th century.
• Chief of State: Queen Elizabeth II represented by Governor General
David L. Johnston
Head of Government: Prime Minister Stephen Harper
• Criminal law, based largely on British law, is uniform throughout the
nation and is under federal jurisdiction. Civil law is also based on the
common law of England, except in Quebec, which has retained its own
civil code patterned after that of France. Justice is administered by
federal, provincial, and municipal courts.
• Canada has a market economic system in which the prices of goods
and services are determined in a free price system. Canada is a
member of the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
• Canada, one of the world's wealthiest nations with a high per capita
income, is a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation
and Development (OECD) and Group of Eight (G8).
• Canada is the world’s second largest country after Russia by covering the
northern two-fifths of Northern America. The capital of this country, which
stretches 4.600 km from north to south and 5.380 km from east to west, is
Ottawa. However, Canada is one of the most thinly populated countries.
• The highest mountain of Canada, Mount Logan is situated in the Canadian
Cordillera. Canada’s rivers and lakes are sensations, too.
• 5 rivers, the St. Lawrence River, the Mackenzie River, the Yukon, the
Fraser and the Nelson river, are among the worlds largest 40. Lake
Superior, Lake Huron, both shared with the USA, the Great Bear and the
Great Slave belong to the 11 biggest lakes in the world.
• Canada’s climate is dominated by extreme long and cold winters. With the
exception of the Pacific coast.
• Just 8% of Canada’s land area is farmland, more than 30% of Canada is
forest. The forest between Newfoundland and the Yukon is one of the
worlds biggest. More northern areas are occupied by tundra and the arctic
islands are covered by permanent ice caps.
Foreign Relations Of Canada
•Canada’s biggest international relationship and largest trading
relationship in world is with United States of America
•Canada’s foreign relations are responsibility of Department of
Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) headed by John
•Canada’s foreign aid policy emphasizes on meeting the
Minimum Development Goals while providing assistance to
foreign humanitarian crisis
•Major recipients of Canada’s foreign aid are Afghanistan and
Transportation Of Canada
•Canada has more than 1,400,000 kms of road
•Canada has 10 major international airports and 300 smaller airports
•Canada has 72,093 km of functioning railway track
•Canada has more than 300 commercial airports and harbors
•Transportation sector made up 4.2 % of Canada’s total GDP
•Six Canadian Cities have rapid transit systems and three have commuter
•11 % of Canadians use public transport to go to work compared to 80 %
(car), 6.4 % (walk) and 1.3 % (bike)
•Internationally, Canada has road links with both lower 48 states of USA
•The safety of Canada’s roads is moderately good by international
•Air Transport made up 9 % of Canada’s transportation sector contribution
•Biggest air carrier is Air Canada which has close to 34 million passengers
Energy of Canada
•5th largest producer of energy in world
•Produces 6 % of global energy supplies
•World’s largest producer of natural uranium, producing 1/3rd of
•World’s leading producer of hydro electricity accounting for 13 %
of global production
•Athabasca Oil Sands give Canada third largest reserves of oil after
Saudi Arabia and Venezuela
Economy of Canada
• An affluent, high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class,
Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system,
pattern of production, and affluent living standards
• The Canadian economy was the 11th-largest in the world in 2012
• It is highly integrated with the US economy, which absorbs 75% of its
goods exports and is the source of around 50% of its imported goods
• Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas,
uranium, and electric power.
• Given its great natural resources, skilled labour force, and modern
capital plant, Canada has enjoyed solid economic growth
•The GDP growth rate of Canada in 2012 was 2.1%
2.94% i.e. 1842 USD Billion
2.97% i.e. 1842 USD Billion
Balance of trade
-469 Million USD
-715.31 INR Billion
68886 USD Million
15102 INR Billion
1954 USD Million
Canadian Imports from India
Iron or steel articles
Pearls, precious stones or metals
Boilers, mechanical appliances, etc
Woven clothing and apparel articles
Other textile articles, etc.
Knitted or crocheted apparel
Mineral fuels, oils
Electrical machinery and equipment
Canadian Exports to India
Edible vegetables, roots and tubers
Aircraft and spacecraft
Paper and paperboard
Pearls, precious stones or metals
Mineral fuels, oils
Wood pulp; paper or paperboard
Boilers, mechanical appliances,
Iron and steel
Ores, slag and ash
Canadian companies in India
Canada's foremost purveyor of frozen meals
Has been making dinner quick and easy since 1957
This privately held company claims annual sales in excess of $6 billion and
sells in more than 160 countries
Based on 2012 sales, it is the 30th largest private company in Canada,
according to The Globe and Mail's Report on Business
Since 1998, McCain has been engaged in agriculture R&D and in development
of frozen food market in India and subcontinent countries
A Canadian theatre company which designs and manufactures IMAX cameras and
projection systems as well as performing film development, production, post
production and distribution to IMAX affiliated theatres worldwide
A world-leading manufacturer of innovation solutions, from regional aircrafts
and business jets to rail transportation equipment
Bombardier has maintained a presence in India for more than 35 years
Bombardier Transportation is well positioned to help Indian Railways make
the best use of its rail equipment by improving reliability and extending life
Indian companies in Canada
o Essar Global Limited is a diversified business corporation with a balanced portfolio of
assets in the manufacturing and services sectors of Steel, Oil and Gas, Power,
Communications, Shipping ports and logistics, and Construction.
oEssar Steel Algoma (formerly Algoma Steel) is an integrated primary steel
producer located on the St. Mary's River in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
oIn April 2007, Algoma Steel was purchased by India's Essar
Group for US$ 1.63 billion, continuing operations as a subsidiary known as
Essar Steel Algoma Inc.
oTata Steel Minerals Canada Ltd. develops iron ore deposits in the
provinces of Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador in Canada.
oThe company develops direct shipping ore project, which involves
mining, crushing, washing, screening, drying, and shipping the sinter
fines and pellet feed to the company's European steel making facilities.
oIt also engages in undertaking a feasibility study of iron ore deposits
in northern Canada. The company was founded in 2010 and is based in
Montreal, Canada. Tata Steel Minerals Canada Ltd. operates as a
subsidiary of Tata Steel Global Minerals Holdings Pte Limited.
Indian Oil and Gas Canada
•The Government of Canada established Indian Oil and Gas
Canada in 1987 as a special business-oriented agency
within Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC).
•In April 1993, IOGC was granted Special Operating Agency
(SOA) status within INAC. An SOA is a discrete operational unit
within government departments designed to promote clientfocused service delivery.
Hindalco Industries Ltd.
•Hindalco Industries Ltd. is an aluminum manufacturing company and is a
subsidiary of the Aditya Birla Group. Its headquarters is at Mumbai,
•On 11 February 2007, the company entered into an agreement to acquire
the Canadian company Novelis for US$6 billion, making the combined
entity the world's largest rolled-aluminium producer. At 2007 Novelis was
the world's largest producer of rolled aluminium and a major recycler of
aluminium cans. On 15 May 2007, the acquisition was completed with
Novelis shareholders receiving $44.93 per outstanding share of common
Canadian Army, first came into official use in November 1940
The Canadian Forces is officially know as Canadian Armed Forces
Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Canadian Air Force.
Commander-in-Chief: Queen of Canada, represented by Governor
Minister of National Defense
Chief of the Defense Staff
Total Personnel = 1,15,349
Expenditures: C$ 22.5 billion, (2012–2013)
Canada's military spending ranks 14th highest in the world
6th highest among NATO’s 28 members (North Atlantic Treaty
Percent of GDP:1.3%
Science and technology
• Canada ranks number one in the G7, in terms of higher education
research and development (HERD) as a percentage of GDP.
• Business-financed R&D performed by universities has grown
substantially in Canada.
• Natural Sciences and Engineering research council of Canada
The agency supports university students in their advanced studies,
promotes and supports discovery research, and fosters innovation by
encouraging Canadian companies to participate and invest in
postsecondary research projects. NSERC researchers are on the vanguard
of science, building on Canada’s long tradition of scientific excellence.
• Artificial intelligence has become an important field of study and the
computer science departments of all G-13 universities conduct research
in this field. The Artificial Intelligence Research Group at the University
of Waterloo investigates machine learning and reasoning under
uncertainty, robotics, multi-agent systems, natural language
understanding, computational vision and models of intelligent
• Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and
overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments.
• Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed
by secondary education and post-secondary.
• Canada spends about 7% of its GDP on education.
• According to an announcement of Canadian Minister of Citizenship and
Immigration, Canada is introducing a new, fast-track system to let foreign
students and graduates with Canadian work experience become permanent
eligible residents in Canada.
• The Constitution of Canada provides constitutional protections for some
types of publicly funded religious-based and language-based school systems.
National Game :
Canadian football, basketball, soccer, curling and baseball.
Hockey Canada is the sport's official governing body in Canada.
Member of the International Ice Hockey Federation.
The most popular league is the professional National Hockey League
League Baseball (MLB)
the National Basketball Association (NBA)
the National Football League (NFL)
Total Revenue (bn)
Major League Baseball
Major League Soccer
All figures in U.S. dollars. Data accurate as of 2011.
• Spending associated with the Canadian sport tourism industry reached
$3.6 billion in 2010
• Federal spending might be going down, but at Canadian Heritage the
cash going to fund sports in Canada is expected to rise over the coming
three years to pay for two international competitions in 2015.
• Sport is a powerful means of promoting health, but an even more
powerful means of building social capital.
• Current spend $212.7 million
• Excpected spends$389.7 million (2014-2015)
• 5.3 million Canadians, or 28% of all Canadian volunteers, volunteer
with sport and recreation organizations – more than for any other sector