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  1. 1. NASHVILLE STATE Community College Warehouse & Inventory Management LOGI 1030 Leadership 1
  2. 2. Leadership How do you define leadership?The process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid andsupport of others in the accomplishment of a common taskThe ability to successfully integrate and maximize available resources withinthe internal and external environment for the attainment of organizational orsocietal goals. The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a particular goal. Leadership is creating a state of mind What are some characteristics or traits of a good leader? 2
  3. 3. Common TraitsHonesty or IntegrityHigh level of people skillsTake the initiative, assertive, driven or determinedExcellent communication skills with a willingness to speak up, take a position,or take chargeVisionary (forward looking)Desire and passion to lead and inspireSelf confident, charismatic and have a positive attitudeKnowledge of industry, business, and or group task at handThe ability to overcome adversity or obstaclesBeing a “Servant-Leader”, serving people over self, humbleHave the ability to see adversity as an opportunityHad a mentor at some point in their development as a leader 3
  4. 4. Primary Mechanisms of Successful LeadershipAttention: what do leaders pay attention to?Reaction to Crisis: how do leaders react in a crises?Role ModelingAllocation of RewardsCriteria for Selection and Dismissal 4
  5. 5. Approaches to Leadership • Power-Influence • Traits and skills • Leader Behavior • Situational Approaches 5
  6. 6. Types of PowerReferent: Influence over others which is acquired from being well liked or respected by them.Expert: Power derived through advanced knowledge or experience in a particular subject.Legitimate: Flows from the person’s formal position and gives them authority over defined matters.Reward: Ability to reward another through possessing resources the other person values.Coercive: Ability to obtain compliance through fear or punishment. 6
  7. 7. The Use of Power Source of Influence Commitment Compliance ResistanceReferent Likely Possible PossibleExpert Likely Possible PossibleLegitimate Possible Likely PossibleReward Possible Likely Possible You betcha!Coercive Unlikely Possible Likely Traits 7
  8. 8. Traits of Successful LeadersAdaptable PersistentAlert to the social environment Self-confidentAchievement oriented Tolerant of stressAssertive Willing to assume responsibilityCooperativeDecisiveDependable 8
  9. 9. Skills of Successful LeadersIntelligentCreativeDiplomaticTactfulGood communication (written and spoken)Knowledgeable of group dynamicsPersuasiveGood social skills Behavior 9
  10. 10. Leadership Behavior Effective leaders behave differently than ineffective leaders ….Duh! In 1950 Ohio State conducted a leadership behavior study and here are some of the major findings regarding “consideration” and “initiating structure”:Consideration: mutual trust, concern for others, seeking subordinate participation,respect, and warmthInitiating Structure: planning, organizing, defining, clarifying goals, and monitoring 10
  11. 11. Manager’s Initiating Structure High Low High Performance Low performance Low grievance Low grievanceConsideration Low Turnover Low turnover HighManager’s High performance Low performance High grievance High grievance High turnover High turnover Low 11
  12. 12. Undesirable BehaviorsEmotional instability: Not able to handle pressure, moodiness, angry outbursts, etc…Defensiveness: Signals lack of security and confidence in their positionWeak interpersonal skills: Becomes more problematic at higher levels of responsibilityLack of IntegrityOverconfidence and arrogance Style Sit Ldrshp 12
  13. 13. Situational Leadership Different situations call for different leadership styles• The fundamental underpinning of situational leadership is there is no single“best” style of leadership.• Effective leadership is task-relevant and that the most successful leaders arethose that adapt their leadership style to the maturity of the individual orgroup they are attempting to lead/influence.• Effective leadership varies, not only with the person or group that is beinginfluenced, but it will also depend on the task, job, or function that needs to beaccomplished. 13
  14. 14. Levels of Maturity From Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational TheoryM1 People are both unable and unwilling to take responsibility to do something. They are neither competent nor confident.M2 People are unable but willing to do the necessary job tasks. They are motivated but currently lack the appropriate skills.M3 People are able but unwilling to do what the leader wants.M4 People are both able and willing to do what is asked of them. 14
  15. 15. Levels of Maturity From Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory Adjusting and Matching Style to Level of MaturityM1 People are both unable and unwilling to take responsibility to do something. They are neither competent nor confident. Telling: tells people what, how , when and where (high task direction and low support)M2 People are unable but willing to do the necessary job tasks. They are motivated but currently lack the appropriate skills. Selling: provides both direction and supportive behavior (task direction and support)M3 People are able but unwilling to do what the leader wants. Participating: the main role of the leader is facilitating and communicating, decision making is shared (supportive behavior and little direction)M4 People are both able and willing to do what is asked of them. Delegating: The leader provides little direction and support 15
  16. 16. Leadership Styles Is there a right or a wrong style?Dictator: A leader who uses fear and threats to get the job done. This style of leader also makes all the decisions.Autocratic All decision-making powers are centralized in the leader who does not entertain suggestions or initiative from subordinates. This type of leader does not trust anyone.Participative A leader who favors decision-making by the group. This leader typically gives instruction after consulting the group.Laissez Faire A free rein leader who does not lead, but leaves the group entirely to itself; such a leader allows subordinates to have maximum freedom. 16
  17. 17. Leadership Styles Xformational Ldrshp 17
  18. 18. Transformational Leadership Theory Key PointsDefinition:The process where an individual engages with others and creates a connectionthat raises the level of motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower.• Develop a clear and appealing vision• Develop a strategy for attaining the vision• Articulate and promote the vision• Act confident and optimistic• Express confidence in the follower• Use early success in small steps to build confidence in the individual or team 18
  19. 19. Transformational Leadership Theory (continued) Key Points • Adapt ideology incrementally to the conditions • Identify and eliminate cultural disparities • Articulate the ideology clearly and persistently • Keep actions and decisions consistent with ideology • Use cultural forms to emphasize ideology • Emphasize continuity in socialization practices • Manage the politics of subcultures • Develop cultural maintenance leadership at all levels Ldrshp general 19
  20. 20. Leadership GeneralLeaders wear multiple hats: At the exempt level employees are “agents of the company” Employee advocates Any others?Do not confuse “knowing a lot of technical stuff” with leading. In fact, many leadersdo not know the extreme details about every aspect of the organization, but do knowenough to identify when to raise the “flag”. They also know who to go to in order to“get things done.”It is often stated that leadership is 80% people skills and 20% technical skills General Powell 20
  21. 21. Lessons from General Colin Powell From: A Leadership Primer“Being responsible sometimes means pissing people off”“The day soldiers stop bringing you their problems is the day you have stoppedleading them. They have either lost confidence that you can help them orconcluded that you do not care. Either case is a failure of leadership”“Don’t be buffaloed by experts and elites. Experts often posses more data thanjudgment. Elites can become so inbred that they produce hemophiliacs who bleedto death as soon as they are nicked in the real world.”“ Don’t be afraid to challenge the pros, even in their own backyard.”“ Never neglect details. When everyone’s mind is dulled or distracted the leadermust be doubly vigilant.”“ You don’t know what you can get away with until you try.”“Keep looking below surface appearances. Don’t shrink from doing so (just)because you might not like what you find.” 21
  22. 22. “Organization doesn’t really accomplish anything. Plans don’t accomplishanything either. Theories of management don’t much matter. Endeavorssucceed or fail because of the people involved. Only by attracting the bestpeople will you accomplish great deeds.”“Organization charts and fancy titles count for next to nothing.”“Never let your ego get so close to your position that when your position goes,your ego goes with it.”“Fit no stereotypes. Don’t chase the latest management fads. The situationdictates which approach best accomplishes the team’s mission.”“Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier.”“Powell’s Rules for Picking People: Look for intelligence and judgment, and mostcritically, a capacity to anticipate, to see around corners. Also look for loyalty,integrity, a high energy drive, a balanced ego, and the drive to get things done.” 22
  23. 23. “Great leaders are almost always great simplifiers, who can cut throughargument, debate and doubt, to offer a solution everybody can understand.”“Part I: Use the formula P=40 to 70%, in which P stands for the probability ofsuccess and the numbers indicate the percentage of information acquired.”“Part II: Once the information is in the 40 to 70 range, go with your gut.”“The commander in the field is always right and the rear echelon is wrong,unless proved otherwise.”“Have fun in your command. Don’t always run at a breakneck pace. Take leavewhen you’ve earned it: spend time with your families.Corollary: surround yourself with people who take their work seriously, but notthemselves, those who work hard and play hard.”“ Command is lonely.” “Leadership is the art of accomplishing more than the science Of management says is possible.” 23