Psychological Operations
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  • 1. PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS MAY BE DEFINED AS THE PLANNED AND OFFENSIVE USE OF PROPAGANDA, PERSUATION,COUNTER -SUBVERSION,RUMOUR,CONFUSION,SUBVERSION,PRVOCATION,MOTIVATION AND OTHER FORMS OF SUCH ACTIONS AIMED AT SUPPORTING CURRENT POLICY BY INFLUENCING THE OPENION, EMOTIONS,ATTITUDE, BEHAVIOUR AND WILL OF THE INSURGENTS,NEUTRAL AND FRIENDLY POPULATION IN CONFLICT SITUATION(INSURGENCY)
  • 2. AIM:-
    • GIAINING THE CONFIDENCE ,CO-OPERATION AND SUPPORT OF THE POPULATION.
    • EXPOSING THE FALSITY OF INSURGENTS PROPAGANDA INJECTED IN TO THE PEOPLE’S MIND.
    • LOWERING THE MORALE OF THE INSURGENTS AND BREAKING HIS WILL TO FIGHT,THEREBY ENCOURAGING SURRENDER AND DEFECTION.
    • TO MAINTAIN THE MORALE OF THE C.I.FORCES AT A HIGH LEVEL AND TO PROJECT THEM WELL IN THE PUBLIC ESTEEM.
    • KEEPING THE PEOPLE INFORMED ABOUT GOVT.PLANS ETC.
    • TO SUPPORT THE C.I.OPS.CONDUCTED IN THE VILLAGES.
  • 3. TARGETS :-
    • GUERRILLA UNITS(REGULARS)
    • UNDER GROUND ELEMENTS(IRREGULARS)
    • CIVILIANS SYMPATHETIC TO THE INSURGENTS MOVEMENT.
    • CIVILIANS SYMPATHETIC TO THE GOVT.
    • UNCOMMITTED CIVILIANS (NEUTRALS)
    • C.I. FORCES.
  • 4. TYPES:-
    • OVERT OPERATIONS :- activities acknowledged by the sponsoring party.
    • COVERT OPERATIONS :- which never disclose their true sources.
  • 5. PLANNING
    • A BRIEF ANALYSIS OF THE SITUATION.
    • THE SOURCE OF INFORMATION.
    • A DELINEATION OF THE TARGET AND ITS RELATIVE ACCESSIBILITY.
    • THE THEME TO BE USED .
    • THE MEDIA TO BE USED.
    • THE FORMAL STAFFING & COORDINATION REQUIRED TO EFFECT THE PLAN.
    • WHETHER THE PLAN IS CONSONANT WITH LONG RANGE AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.
    • WHETHER THE PLAN IS USEABLE FOR STRATEGIC/TACTICAL OPERATIONS.
    • FORMAL APPROVAL AND ISSUANCE OF THE PLAN FOR IMPLEMATION.
  • 6. STUDY OF THE SITUATION:-
    • WHAT ARE THE GRIEVANCES, THE INSURGENTS HAVE EXPLOITED, ARE THEY ONLY ECONOMIC, LINGUISTIC,ETHNIC,RELEGIOUS OR COMBINATION OF MORE THEN ONE.
    • TO WHAT EXTEND THESE GRIEVANCES ARE REAL AND CAPABLE OF BEING REMEDIED.
    • DO THE INSURGENTS STRESS DIFFERENT THEMES IN DIFFERENT AREAS.
    • HOW MUCH IMPACT INSURGENT PROPAGANDA HAS ALREADY MADE ON DIFFERENT TARGETS.
    • WHAT ARE THE MEDIA USED BY INSURGENTS FOR DISSEMINATING SUBVERSIVE PROPAGANDA.
  • 7. TASKS (PHASE ONE)
    • TO IMPRESS THE PEOPLE OF GOVT. GOOD INTENTIONS AND TO CUT AT THE INSURGENTS SUBVERSIVE PROPAGANDA.
    • TO EXPOSE AND REMOVE HOSTILE PROPAGANDA ALREADY INJECTED INTO THE MINDS OF THE PEOPLE AND MEMBERS OF THE SERVICES.
    • TO CREATE DIVISION IN THE RANKS OF INSURGENTS, SUPPORTERS AND WEAN AWAY THE MAJORITY FROM THE HARD CORE.
    • EXPOSE THE ACTS OF TERRORISM AND DESTRUCTION COMMITTED BY THE INSURGENTS AND CREATE AND MOBILIZE POPULAR REACTIONS AGAINST THEM.
  • 8. PHASE -11
    • TO DEMORALIZE THE INSURGENTS BY SOWING DISSENSION AMONGST THEM.
    • TO SUPPORT AND JUSTIFY THE ACTIONS OF THE SECURITY FORCES.
    • EXPLAINING THE NEED FOR STRINGENT MOVEMENT AND RESOURCES CONTROL MEASURES.
    • SUPPORTING THE PACIFICATION PROGRAMME.
    • PROMOTING DEFECTION AND SURRENDER FROM INSURGENT ORGANISATION.
    • CATEGORIZING INSURGENTS AS HARDCORE, WAVERING TYPE, BLACKMAILED OR KIDNAPPED,CONSCRIPTS,CRIMINALS AND ADVENTUROUS AND THEN DIRECTING DIFFERENT METHODS AND APPROACHES AGAINST EACH CATEGORY.
    • HIGHLIGHTING GOVT.SUCCESSES AND INSURGENTS FAILURES, PLAYING UP THEIR CAUSALITIES.
    • WIDELY PUBLICIZING SURRENDER AND DEFECTION AND LACK OF POPULAR SUPPORT.
  • 9.
    • OFFER OF FABULOUS REWARDS FOR HIGH RANKING INSURGENTS IS USEFUL DISRUPTIVE MEASURES. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERS AND WOMEN GUERRILLA CAN BE EXPLOITED.
    • METHODS:-
    • AIM AND PURPOSE
    • TARGET
    • CREDIBILITY
    • MEANS OF COMMUNICATION
  • 10. 1)PROPHESIES AND PROGNOSIS 2)RUMOURS 3)WHISPERING CAMPAIGN 4)SONGS,PLAYS,SKITS,OPERAS 5)LETTERS,LEAFLETS,POSTERS,WALL WRITING, TELEGRAM,BOOKS,NEWSPAPERS, JOURNALS,CARTOONS,RADIO,TELEVISION,FILM, VOICE FLIGHTS, VOICE -TRUCKS,SCHOOLS,EDUCATIONAL CENTERS, CULTURAL PROGRAMME, ORIENTATION COURSES, USE OF SIP/CIP, FABRICATED AND FORGED DOCUMENTS, DEMONSTRATION AND MEETINGS AND LOUD SPEAKERS ANNOUNCEMENTS, FILM SHOWS
  • 11. CARDINAL PRINCIPLES
    • IT MUST BE PATTERNED FOR THE TARGET GROUPS TAKING INTO ACCOUNTG ALL ITS CHARACTERISTICS.
    • IT MUST BE CAREFULLY DISGUISED TO APPEAR AS STATEMENT OF FACTS AND NOT MARE PROPAGANDA.
    • IT SHOULD NOT BE TOO RIGID OR STEREOTYPE.
    • IT MUST BE SUBSTANTIALLY BASED ON TRUTH.
    • IT SHOULD NEVER BE REACTION TO THE INSURGENT PROPAGANDA.
    • NEVER MAKE PROMISES WHICH THE GOVT.HAS NO INTENTION TO FULFILL.
    • IT SHOULD BE BASED ON SOUND INTELLIGENCE.
    • BE CAREFUL NOT TO GIVE WIDE PUBLICITY TO THE INSURGENT CLAIM.
  • 12.
    • THE PERSON TO PERSON APPROACH AND SPOKEN WORD ARE THE BEST FORMULA.
    • IT SHOULD NOT BE BASED ON HATERED AND ANIMOSITY.
    • PREACHING AND THEORISING SHOULD BETTER BE AVOIDED.
    • MISTAKE IF COMMITTED SHOULD BE HONESTLY ADMITTED.
    • HELP OF NGOS’ SHOULD BE WELCOMED.
  • 13. COUNTER PROPAGANDA
    • DENIAL OPERATIONS
    • FORESTALLING
    • DIRECT COUNTER PROPAGANDA
    • INDIRECT OR DIVERSIONARY PROPAGANDA
    • SILENCE
    • MINIMISING THE SUBJECT
  • 14. MY LEFT HAND IN FRIENDSHIP AND MY RIGHT HAND IN FORCE