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    10 steps to successful presentations(44) 10 steps to successful presentations(44) Document Transcript

    • BUSINESS BOOK SUMMARIES ® Stay on Top of Best in Business Knowledge SM January 6, 201110 Steps to SuccessfulPresentationsASTD Editors©2008 by American Society for Training & DevelopmentAdapted by permission of ASTDISBN: 978-1-56286-514-6IntroductionIt is not unusual for today’s business professional to alike, it is wise to periodically review the basics aboutbe expected to deliver effective communication and structuring and presenting information.presentation skills. Ten Steps to Successful Presen- Step One: Know the Audience and Purpose:tations by the American Society for Training and The Five Ws and MoreDevelopment provides a framework that will helpbusiness people create an effective presentation in a When planning a presentation it is essential to under-short period of time. The tips and examples will help stand: who, what, where, when, and why beforewith both large and small presentations. Potential beginning to create the presentation. This informationpresenters will learn skills such as: how to conduct will provide the direction for creating the presenta-an audience analysis, plan the presentation outline, tion outline.develop content, select visual aids, demonstrate 1. Start with asking the question, who will be in thepolished presentation skills, and use facilitation tech- audience? Analyzing the make-up of the peopleniques to engage the audience. who will be on the receiving end of the infor-PART I: Preparing for the Presentation mation will provide key insights for developing the presentation’s content. No two audiences areStanding in front of a group of people who expect alike, so a presentation that works for one audi-to see an effective presentation can be a frightening ence might miss the mark with another. Knowingexperience. For seasoned professionals and novices who will hear the presentation helps determineBusiness Book Summaries® January 6, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved
    • 10 Steps to Successful Presentations ASTD Editors the purpose of the presentation and also allows the presenter to anticipate what the hot topics might be. Some of the key questions to ask about Key Concepts the audience are: There are ten steps to follow to quickly plan, • Are members of the audience affiliated with a develop, and deliver a successful presentation. particular industry or profession? Step One: Know the audience and purpose. • Are they required to attend the presentation or is it optional? Step Two: Develop and structure the presenta- tion • What is known about their background and knowledge of the topic? Step Three: Create appropriate visual aids2. Once the audience analysis is complete, research Step Four: Make it memorable on the what of the presentation. This involves a Step Five: Make sure the venue and environ- thorough education on the content and subject ment are favorable matter of the presentation. This can involve a Step Six: Review basic communication tech- basic Internet search or it could require conduct- niques ing interviews with subject matter experts. Armed with the knowledge of who is in the audience, the Step Seven: Build in facilitation techniques content can be designed to build upon what the Step Eight: Practice, practice, practice audience already knows or believes about the topic. Step Nine: Pause and refresh3. While audience and topic are at the top of the Step Ten: Deliver a flawless presentation, no list when preparing for a presentation, where the matter what presentation will take place is an important factor g g g g as well. The best prepared speaker can still fail if the facility is sub-par. Difficulties can arise if the sound or lighting is bad, or if it is too cold, hot, Information about this book and other business titles: or overcrowded. An ideal facility ensures that the www.astd.org audience can listen in safety and comfort.4. When the presentation occurs, is another piece of Related summaries in the BBS Library: the presentation puzzle. It can affect not only Speak with Power and Confidence the structure of the presentation, but also the Tested Ideas for Becoming a More types of activities, breakouts, or facilitation tech- Powerful Communicator niques that will be necessary to keep the audience Patrick Collins actively engaged. Words That Work5. The analysis of the audience will provide the It’s Not What You Say, It’s What People Hear bulk of the information required for tailoring the Dr. Frank Luntz presentation, but another part of the planning How to Sell Yourself equation should focus on why the audience is there. Using Leadership, Likeability, and Luck to Succeed Is there a specific action that the audience needs Arch Lustberg to take or a point of view that they should hold when they leave? Knowledge of the desired out- come will play in part in the content development and the structure of the presentation.The information gathered in the who, what, where,Business Book Summaries® January 6, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 2
    • 10 Steps to Successful Presentations ASTD Editorswhen, and why analysis will also play a big factor in easier for the audience to remember them.determining the type of presentation. If it is a short Closing: It should be memorable, provide a briefpresentation and the audience has some knowledge review of key points, and, if appropriate, a call toof the topic or situation, then a briefing might suffice. action.If the audience needs to be persuaded or motivated,a speech might be most effective. If it is a conference When developing the presentation there specificor training session, then a more elaborate, interactive aspects that should be a part of it. It should be valu-presentation may be required. able to the audience. Listeners expect substance and new insights. Also, it must have clarity and beStep Two: Develop and Structure the Presentation tailored for the audience. This means that the keyEvery part of the presentation should be thoroughly points are clearly delineated for the audience andplanned; there should be an attention-grabbing intro- developed based on the audience analysis. The pre-duction, then layering transitions between content sentation should also follow a logical sequence whereelements. It should end by rounding out the final information is provided in a way that is clearly under-summation and closing of the presentation. No matter standable.what the purpose, every presen-tation should include: A successful presentation begins by grabbing the audi-Meeting and greeting the audi- ence’s attention. If you grab them early, you will keepence: This might include meetingindividual participants as they them engagedwalk into the facility or room or, for larger groups, a Part II: Developing the Presentationmore general greeting at the beginning of the presen- Analyzing the audience and determining the struc-tation. ture and content of the presentation are two importantAn opening sequence: Effectively opening a presen- steps, but they are only part of what makes a presen-tation is crucial. It should establish the credibility of tation effective.the speaker, grab the audience’s attention, and set Step Three: Create Appropriate Visual Aidsexpectations. Chances are at least one visual aid will be includedTransitions between sections of content: Smooth in the presentation, because visuals can help providetransitions from point to point help link the presenta- clarity. However, if not planned carefully, they cantion as a whole piece. distract from the presentation rather than add value.Content: The content should specifically support the Visual aids, when used well, help reinforce the pointspurpose and main point of the presentation and meet in a presentation and may help the audience remem-the needs of the audience. It is best to limit the sup- ber them. They also help:porting points to between three and five to make it • the presenter control the flow and structure of the information and maintain the audience’s attention About the Author • communicate messages more efficiently ASTD provides professional development • define relationships within the presentation opportunities, content, networking, and • add interest, variety, and excitement resources for workplace learning and perfor- mance professionals. The organization sets the In order for visual aids to be most effective, selection standards for best practices within the profes- is important. In going back to the audience analy- sion. sis, try determining the audience’s learning profile. What is their current level of expertise with the sub- ject matter? Why are they attending the presentation?Business Book Summaries® January 6, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 3
    • 10 Steps to Successful Presentations ASTD EditorsAlso, look at what is known about the facility. What is audience.the room size? What equipment is available? • Use humor to be inclusive not exclusive.Visual aids can be overused and misused, so there are Step Five: Make Sure the Venue and Environmentsome guidelines to follow. Using more visual aids is are Favorablenot always better. That same also holds true for thecontent illustrated within a visual aid. Try and keep The physical environment for a presentation canto one point per visual and avoid redundant informa- derail the best speaker with the best presentation. Thetion. For example, do not read aloud the information physical setting should match the goals of the presen-that appears on a visual aid. The aid is there to com- tation and the size and needs of the audience.pliment and clarify the message. Seating is a critical factor from the perspective of the audience. From chairs thatGetting the audience physically involved keeps them are comfortable enough to their arrangement in the room, theyengaged and helps them remember your messages are an important factor that can influence the success of a presen-Step Four: Make it Memorable-Add Pizzazz to the tation. There is not a one-size fits all to set up for aPresentation presentation, but some set-ups work better for certain presentations. Rounds are better for larger groups orAdding elements of surprise and interest to the pre- when there will be team or group work. Classroomsentation help to capture and keep the audience style makes it easier to see visual aids and helps toengaged throughout the speech. Attention-grabbing focus attention on the speaker. A u-shape creates aopeners, icebreakers, stories, analogies, tables, graphs, more open environment for sharing and interaction.and demonstrations are all things that can help makea presentation memorable. Other elements to consider when determining the appropriate venue and set up for a presentation, ifBut, just like visual aids, having the right quantity of there are audio visuals, include the positioning ofthese elements without going overboard is crucial. screens and speakers within the room. Are screensAvoid the temptation to “wing it.” Ad-libbing can viewable from all of the seats? Are the speakers ade-take a presentation off schedule and off point very quate? If someone is seated near a speaker, will it bequickly. too loud? Peripheral facilities, such as restrooms and aConsider the strengths of the speaker when planning central place for messages, temperature, lighting, andhow to make a presentation memorable. Someone noise level should all be considered in this process.who does not tell jokes well or cannot remember When preparing for the presentation, informationpunch lines should not try to add them to a presenta- needs to be gathered about the time of day and lengthtion. However, humor does not have to take the form of presentation. This will help inform the need forof a joke, and it can be effective when driving home food and for breaks during the presentation. If fooda point. If humor is to be a part of the presentation, is included, then make sure set up does not interferethere are some guidelines for using it effectively. with the presentation, and it is positioned where it is• Use topic-related cartoons, stories, puns, and easily accessible. anecdotes to reinforce points. Step Six: Review Basic Communication Techniques• Make sure the humorous item is relevant to the Even with a well-researched and crafted presentation presentation and to the point it illustrates. and the best possible facility, a presentation can still• Avoid humor that might offend or alienate or that fail if the presenter’s delivery style is not fine-tuned. is stereotypical. Experienced presenters communicate effectively through both verbal and non-verbal techniques.• Practice the use of it before getting in front of theBusiness Book Summaries® January 6, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 4
    • 10 Steps to Successful Presentations ASTD EditorsVoice inflection can be one of the best assets for cap- • Asking open-ended questions that encourageturing and holding an audience’s attention. There are audience members to ask for clarification andfour key skills to consider: allow for the speaker to determine understanding of certain key points.• Projection: Everyone in the audience must be able to hear the speaker consistently throughout the • Listening to what participants say and repeating presentation. key points to show understanding of their view- point.• Pitch: A monotone is sure to lull the audience to sleep. A well-modulated voice that highlights • Accepting differing opinions and views and being points in the presentation helps keep the audi- prepared to disagree with participants and to cor- ence’s attention. rect any misinformation that is shared• Pronunciation: Clear diction is a must. If the • Use of silence to elicit a response from the audi- audience cannot understand what is being said, ence as pausing gives audience members time to they will tune out very quickly. form their own thoughts and opinions• Pace: Good speakers adjust their rate of speak- Step Eight: Practice, Practice, Practice ing to accentuate a feeling or mood. Nerves make Practice provides the opportunity to polish the some speakers speed up, so it is important to be content, rethink the structure, and to rehearse the attentive to the speed of the presentation. materials and presentation dynamics such as visualNon-verbal communication skills speak just as loudly aids and transitions. For some memorizing the open-as communication. Body language and gestures can ing is a way to help establish calm and confidence inadd emphasis or distraction to the presentation. They the beginning of a presentation when nerves can oftenshould emphasize a point or allow the speaker to be at their worst.connect with the audience. Somespeakers are comfortable walking Do not forget to smile! A smile can pay dividends—itaround so that they can interact can be interpreted as a sign of your confidence, com-with different people in the audi-ence. mitment, and interestIn general, it is best to use quick, positive, and pur- Although, relying on memory for an entire presen-poseful movements of the hands, arms, and head to tation might not be the best plan. Have notecards oremphasize points and connect with the audience. All a piece of paper with the outline and key points ofmovements and gestures should look natural and your presentation on it and place this near the top ofhelp demonstrate enthusiasm and passion about the the table or lectern so that it does not require bendingtopic. over too far to read them. Practice using this aid so that it does not become a distraction during the pre-Step Seven: Build in Facilitation Techniques to sentation.Engage the Audience Some other keys to successful practice sessionsAudience participation in a presentation can be both include:difficult to elicit and difficult to control. A successfulpresenter knows how to use their communication • Practice in front of a mirrorskills to encourage and manage participation. Effec- • Record and play back the presentationtive facilitators are able to create an open environment,set guidelines for participation, acknowledge those • Ask someone to watch and provide feedbackwho participate, and create transitions between par- • Read the presentation out loudticipation and presentation. • Focus on both verbal and nonverbal aspectsSome basic facilitation techniques include:Business Book Summaries® January 6, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 5
    • 10 Steps to Successful Presentations ASTD Editors• Have a dress rehearsal with all equipment and tor bulbs, jump drive visual aids • Extra extension cord and power stripsPart III: Giving the Presentation • Phone numbers for the organizer and facility con-It is natural to be nervous at the start of a presenta- tactstion. The trick is harnessing that nervous energy anddirecting it toward the presentation. Logistical issues are in the hands of the organizers. That is why arriving early to check on things, such asStep Nine: Pause and Refresh room set up, is critical. Tables and chairs can be easilyEven though it is normal to be nervous before a pre- rearranged or adapted to as long as there is enoughsentation, it is possible to minimize the nerves with time to do so. Knowing who to call to make changessome preparation. Wear something that is comfortable to the room set up is important, if the problem willand confidence-inspiring. Arrive early so that there is prevent an effective presentation.time to become familiar with the surroundings. Have The audience can also pose some challenges. Disrup-a preparation checklist that includes checking the tive audience members can be one such challenge. Byequipment, room set up, getting a bottle of water, etc. and large the audience wants the speaker to succeedJust before the presentation do some deep-breathing so that their goal for obtaining information is met.or warm up exercises to help with focus. Some speak- Sometimes the rest of the audience will help curb theers do a mental rehearsal envisioning the presentation disruptive member. However, they also are looking toin their mind and they incorporate positive thinking see how well the speaker handles the disruption andin their preparation. This allows them to be optimistic moves on with the presentation.in their approach and attitude. The most unobtrusive way to handle a disruption• Keep in mind: No matter how large, the audience is to look at the misbehaving audience member for is made up of individuals. several seconds and to move in their direction, if pos- sible. It is almost a non-verbal way of saying, “stop• It is rare that a speaker pleases every member of it.” If this does not work, pause and ask if that person the audience every time. has a question. If it continues, it might be time to take• The preparation that has gone into the presenta- a break and to deal with the participant directly and tion. offline. There is a perfect blend of audi-Positive thinking focuses on being positive in your ence attention and questions. Butapproach and attitude. Don’t waste energy imagining too many questions or too mucheverything that could go wrong silence can be a distraction. Some- times a single participant mightStep Ten: Deliver a Flawless Presentation-No Matter dominate a discussion. Acknowledge that while theWhat Happens interest is appreciated, there are others in the audi- ence who might have questions or comments as well,Even with intense preparation, it is impossible to or offer to stay after the session to ensure that the per-anticipate everything that can happen. However, it is son’s questions are answered.possible to be prepared for the unexpected. Develop-ing a contingency tool kit will help with managing Dead silence is awkward as well, especially when aand mitigating risk. Components of this toolkit should certain amount of time is allotted for questions andinclude: answers. Sometimes audience members might be trying to process the information from the presenta-• Duplicate set of notes and handouts, if applicable tion and a short break is all that is needed. Another• Tape and other office supplies that might be technique is to ask the audience questions and see if needed-whiteboard markers and erasers, projec- that will trigger others to ask questions in return.Business Book Summaries® January 6, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 6
    • 10 Steps to Successful Presentations ASTD Editors g g g gFeatures of the BookReading Time 3-4 hours, 188 Pages in BookIf the idea of making a presentation is overwhelming,10 Steps to Successful Presentations by the Ameri-can Society for Training and Development providesa guide for developing a great presentation and han-dling any issues that might arise. With step-by-stepguidelines, worksheets, and checklists, it is sureto steady anyone’s nerves, and it provides a greatresource for even the most seasoned presenter.ContentsPrefaceIntroductionStep One: Know Your Audience and Purpose: The 5Ws and MoreStep Two: Develop and Structure Your PresentationStep Three: Create Appropriate Visual AidsStep Four: Make It Memorable-Add Pizzazz to thePresentationStep Five: Make Sure the Venue and EnvironmentWork in Your FavorStep Six: Stop-Review Basic Communication Tech-niquesStep Seven: Build in Facilitation Techniques to EngageYour AudienceStep Eight: Practice, Practice, PracticeStep Nine: Pause and Refresh-Relax, You’ll Do FineStep Ten: Deliver a Flawless Presentation-No MatterWhat HappensBibliographyIndexAbout ASTDBusiness Book Summaries® January 6, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 7
    • 10 Steps to Successful Presentations ASTD Editors A Note to Our Readers We at BBS encourage our readers to purchase the business books we summarize. BBS Summaries are intended as a service to busy professionals, as we recommend only those books that are worth your time to read in their entirety. We apply stringent criteria in selecting only the best business books, and in that selection process, strive to help you make informed book-purchasing decisions. This book is available at bookstores and online booksellers. Business Book Summaries® is a service of EBSCO Publishing, Inc. For more information about BBS, to subscribe to BBS, or to provide us feedback, visit our Web site. www.ebscohost.com EBSCO Publishing Inc. 10 Estes Street Ipswich, MA 01938 USA www.ebscohost.com Copyright of Business Book Review and Business Book Summaries is property of EBSCO Publishing Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download or email articles for individual use.Business Book Summaries® January 6, 2011 • Copyright © 2011 EBSCO Publishing Inc. • All Rights Reserved Page 8
    • Copyright of 10 Steps to Successful Presentations - Business Book Summaries is the property of Great NeckPublishing and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without thecopyright holders express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles forindividual use.