Literature Review<br />September 8, 2011<br />EDCI 59100<br />Dr. Frampton<br />Magno, C., & Schiff, M. (2010). Culturally...
Literature review
Literature review
Literature review
Literature review
Literature review
Literature review
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Literature review

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Literature review

  1. 1. Literature Review<br />September 8, 2011<br />EDCI 59100<br />Dr. Frampton<br />Magno, C., & Schiff, M. (2010). Culturally Responsive Leadership: Best Practice in <br />Integrating Immigrant Students. Intercultural Education, 21(1), 87-91. <br />Retrieved from EBSCOhost.<br />As immigration begins to shift from urban centers to suburban areas, school leaders must be prepared for this shift. This article speaks of two different approaches in dealing with an influx of immigrants into a primarily “White” school. In a study of 14 school leaders, most found that assimilation was the answer. However, one principal, Mr. Bolls of Navan High School, has taken a completely different approach. Mr. Bolls celebrates diversity in his school and coaches his staff to understand how diversity will impact student learning. Mr. Bolls has created a school culture that looks at the history of the school but also deals with the ideals and norms of today. As a leader, he is immersed in the instructional program of English Language Learners. He not only approves all class schedules and changes, he also gets to know all the strengths and weaknesses of the immigrant students. This school has seen many achievements due to a strong school culture that has a dedicated leader. However, as in any school plan, there is constant assessment. There are still issues, such as getting parents of immigrants more involved with the school. The school is a model for suburban schools that are currently experiencing a growing population of immigrants. As with any school, the leader is at the forefront to create a strong team culture to enhance student learning.<br />Benjamin, S. (2011). Simple Leadership Techniques. Phi Delta Kappan, 92(8), 25. <br />Retrieved from EBSCOhost.<br />It seems the one constant in education and classroom instruction is change. It is the job of the leaders to gain high achievement and growth of students. In order to meet the lofty goals, they create many strategies they expect teachers to implement in their classroom. Their strategies are based on experience, research, observations, as well as a variety of other information and data. They give the plan to the teachers and expect it to be implemented. This is where the first cause of schools failing to sustain high performance. Teachers get the plan, and have the idea that they just need to wait it out because another new plan will soon come along. The other cause of schools failing to sustain high performance is the vast amount of information and research that is available. Benjamin suggests simplifying the process for school leaders by first having them answer four questions. 1. What are the most important goals we are trying to achieve? 2. What are the key organizational strategies that we believe will help us achieve our goals? 3. How well are the strategies being implemented? 4. Are the strategies working? The article then states that after the plan is implemented, school leaders should use rubrics, checklists, and collaboration. The rubrics are used to let teachers know what is expected of them. The checklists are used to help teachers know what they are accomplishing. Finally, the collaboration is everyone working towards the same goal. Meetings should be held to determine if the strategies are working. Although the strategies put in place should remain constant, there should always be room for improvement.<br />Tableman, B. (2004, December). School climate and learning. Best Practice <br />Briefs, (31), 1-10.<br />This article deals directly with school culture and school climate and the impacts on student learning. The article sets out to define, and then further explain what each of the terms mean and why they are so important to continued student learning and school improvement.<br />In an era of standardized tests, rigorous and relevant curriculum and “making the grade” academically, this article talks about the heart of a school and the role that that heart plays in helping students achieve their highest personal goals. Rather than looking at how teaching methods, or specific, scripted curricula are impacting student learning, this article asks us to take a look at the climate and culture of a school, and how we must begin there to truly create lasting change and improvement. The authors of this article point to research that supports the idea that a healthy school environment has a positive effect on student outcomes. Specifically, their research shows that students in such an environment benefit from higher grades, stronger engagement in learning, better attendance, a sense of competence, higher self-esteem, less anxiety and depression and less substance abuse. <br />To make the kinds of sweeping changes that public education desperately needs, we need to think outside the classroom and the books to the school as a whole and realize that we need to meet the environmental needs of our students before we can meet the educational needs. If students are to perform well, they must feel safe, respected and cared for. It is the principal’s primary responsibility to create a school atmosphere that lives and breathes this ideal. We need to work to create that sense of community that is imperative to strong student achievement.<br />http://outreach.msu.edu/bpbriefs/issues/brief31.pdf<br />Opalek, T.L. (2011, September). Best practices of brain research for teaching <br />primary readers. The International TEYL Journal.<br />While this particular article dealt primarily with using the best practice of Brain Based Learning within the classroom to increase literacy performance, it continually spoke to what makes up “best practices” for the elementary classroom. There was much discussion about other literacy best practices, as well as ongoing discussion of the importance of the teachers and administrators in the process of incorporating best practices.<br />This article touched on several of the culture components that we have discussed during class, as well as those supported by Sizer and Meier. Throughout the article there was reference to the importance of true cooperative learning, not just by the students, but by the teachers as well. There was also the feel that support from administration is imperative if initiatives such as these are to succeed. Specifically, collaboration, reflection and professional development were seen as critical to the success of using Brain Based Learning within the classroom. Collaboration, too, was broadened to include not just the school personnel, but also parents, students and outside researchers in the field of brain development – neuroscientists, behavioral psychologists and others – who could deepen the conversations and understandings how they relate to all of the stakeholders.<br />Ultimately, this article on BBL serves as a vehicle for the use of other best-practice strategies within the school framework. It concludes by pointing out that these types of practices allow students to set personal goals, make real-world connections and see the purpose of assessment. It also calls upon us to take a step back from “data-driven” curricula and dig deeper into authentic learning.<br />www.teyl.org/article13.html<br />

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