Protein.synthesis.flipbook

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Protein.synthesis.flipbook

  1. 1. Cytoplasm Note: The polypeptide chain then forms into a three-dimensional figure (tertiary structure). AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  2. 2. Protein Synthesis By. Anna Heitzenrater
  3. 3. TACTCTGGCATCACT ATGAGACCGTAGTGA
  4. 4. Cytoplasm Nucleus
  5. 5. Cytoplasm Nucleus
  6. 6. Cytoplasm Nucleus
  7. 7. Nucleus
  8. 8. Cytoplasm TACTCTGGCATCACT ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  9. 9. Cytoplasm TACTCTGGCATCACT ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  10. 10. Cytoplasm TACTCTGGCATCACT ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  11. 11. Cytoplasm TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Promoter Region Nucleus
  12. 12. Cytoplasm TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase mRNA strand ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  13. 13. Cytoplasm TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  14. 14. Cytoplasm A U G TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  15. 15. Cytoplasm AU G AG A TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  16. 16. Cytoplasm AU G AG AC CG TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  17. 17. Cytoplasm AU G AG AC C GU AG TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  18. 18. Cytoplasm AU G AG AC C GU A G UG A TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Nucleus
  19. 19. Cytoplasm AU G AG AC C GU A G UG A TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Termination Sequence Nucleus
  20. 20. Cytoplasm AU G AG AC C GU A G UG A TACTCTGGCATCACT RNA Polymerase ATGAGACCGTAGTGA Termination Sequence Nucleus
  21. 21. A Cytoplasm Note: The mRNA must leave the nucleus through the nuclear pores to reach the ribosomes. C C G U A GU G A GCATCACT CGTAGTGA Nuclear Pore Nucleus
  22. 22. A G A Cytoplasm C C G U A G U G A GCATCACT CGTAGTGA Nucleus
  23. 23. Cytoplasm G A G A C C G U A G U G GCATCACT CGTAGTGA Nucleus A
  24. 24. Cytoplasm A U G AG GCATCACT AC C GU A GUG A CGTAGTGA Nucleus
  25. 25. GCATCACT Cytoplasm A U G AG AC C GU A GUG A CGTAGTGA Nucleus
  26. 26. Cytoplasm GCATCACT A U G AG CGTAGTGA Nucleus AC C GU A GUG A
  27. 27. Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes
  28. 28. Cytoplasm Nucleus mRNA strand Ribosomes
  29. 29. Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes
  30. 30. Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes
  31. 31. Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes
  32. 32. Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes
  33. 33. Cytoplasm Nucleus Ribosomes
  34. 34. AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  35. 35. Ribosome : large subunit AUGAGACCGUAGUGA Small subunit
  36. 36. Cytoplasm Amino acid tRNA U A C Anti-codon AUGAGACCGUAGUGA Codon
  37. 37. Cytoplasm U A C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA Start Codon
  38. 38. Cytoplasm U U C U A C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  39. 39. Cytoplasm U A C U C U AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  40. 40. Cytoplasm U A C U C U AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  41. 41. Cytoplasm U A C U C U AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  42. 42. Cytoplasm Peptide Bond U C U AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  43. 43. Cytoplasm G U G C C U AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  44. 44. Cytoplasm U C U G G C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  45. 45. Cytoplasm U C U G G C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  46. 46. Cytoplasm U C U G G C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  47. 47. Cytoplasm A U C G G C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  48. 48. Cytoplasm G G C A U C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  49. 49. Cytoplasm G G C A U C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  50. 50. Cytoplasm G G C A U C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  51. 51. Cytoplasm G G C A U C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  52. 52. Cytoplasm A U C A U C AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  53. 53. Cytoplasm Note: The stop codon does not make an amino acid. A U C A C U AUGAGACCGUAGUGA Stop Codon
  54. 54. Cytoplasm A U C A C U AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  55. 55. Cytoplasm Polypeptide Chain A C U AUGAGACCGUAGUGA Stop Codon
  56. 56. Cytoplasm A C U AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  57. 57. Cytoplasm Note: The polypeptide chain forms a three-dimensional figure, or its tertiary structure. AUGAGACCGUAGUGA
  58. 58. Summary First, the enzyme RNA polymerase comes in. It unwinds the double helix and adds the complementary nucleotides, there is also a complementary mRNA strand that forms. But, since it is RNA, the thymine is replaced with uracil. Then, the double helix closes back up after RNA polymerase goes through. The mRNA exits through the nuclear pores and travels through the cytoplasm to get to the ribosomes. Once in the ribosomes, the large and small subunit of the ribosomes bind with the mRNA. The ribosome begins at the start codon, that is always AUG. As the ribosome moves down the mRNA strand, the tRNA molecule, with the correct anti-codon sequence, then binds onto the codon. As the ribosome keeps on moving, the amino acids from the previous tRNA falls off and attaches to the next amino acid. This forms a peptide bond and the tRNA molecule falls off. This continues until the ribosome reaches the stop codon, the codon either has a sequence of UAA, UAG, or UGA. The polypeptide chain, that was formed from the amino acid, then folds into a three dimensional figure, also known as its tertiary structure.

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