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Laken flipbook
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Laken flipbook

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  • 1. Protein Synthesi s Process
  • 2. There are different steps in making a protein. The first step in building an amino acid chain is called transcription. This process takes place within the nucleus of a cell. During this process an enzyme called RNA Polymerase binds to a DNA strand.
  • 3. To bind to the DNA it begins in an area called the promoter region. Once the RNA Polymerase is bound to the DNA strand it then begins to unwind the DNA, reading the the DNA nucleotides. While reading the DNA strand the RNA Polymerase synthesizes a single mRNA strand.
  • 4. Once at the end of the DNA strand the RNA Polymerase breaks off. It is no longer needed for the rest of the protein synthesis process. The DNA strand is then reattached in the double helix structure that it originally was in.
  • 5. The newly formed mRNA strand is the messenger RNA that carries the genetic code of DNA. It leaves the nucleus of the cell through a nuclear pore. The strand is now in the cytoplasm. This is where the next stage, translation, takes place.
  • 6. In this stage no enzymes are needed. Instead there are different molecules that are used. Ribosomes and tRNA are both needed for this step.
  • 7. A ribosome attaches to the mRNA strand at the start codon. tRNA carries an amino acid and anticodons. The tRNA carries an anticodon and amino acid to the corresponding nucleotides on the mRNA strand.
  • 8. Two tRNA molecules are working in the ribosome at once. Once the third tRNA comes, the first one leaves, leaving behind the amino acid it carries and taking the anticodon. The amino acid bonds to the amino acid on another tRNA with a peptide bond.
  • 9. The process continues. Once the ribosome reaches the stop codon, the process is over. There isn’t a tRNA for the stop codon, therefore there isn’t an amino acid that comes from it. The process simply just ends. The ribosome breaks off of the mRNA strand. The mRNA strand, the ribosome and the tRNA molecules are no longer needed.
  • 10. Now all that is left is a polypeptide chain, formed by all the amino acids that linked together. The last step in protein synthesis is the folding of the polypeptide chain into a tertiary structure.
  • 11. Observe the following steps to get a better understanding of protein synthesis process.
  • 12. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 13. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 14. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 15. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 16. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 17. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 18. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 19. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 20. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 21. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  • 22. Nucleus
  • 23. DNA Nucleus
  • 24. T A A C T C G T G A A T C G G T C G A T C A G A C T T A C G DNA G T G C A C C G C T A A G T A T G G A T G C A C A C T A G T A T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C G T G C A T T C A C G A T A Nucleus
  • 25. T A T DNA T C A G A A T C T C G T A G T C C A A A T G G G C Nucleus C G C A A T C C G T A A G T G T C C A C A C C G T T A G G T G T A G A T A T C G C G A T A T C C A G T T C A C G A G T T A G
  • 26. T A A C T C G T G A A T C G G T C A G T C A G A C T T A C G G A A T C G C T A A G T G T C A T G G A T G C A C A C T A G G C T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C C A T T C A C G A G T T A DNA Nucleus
  • 27. DNA G G A T T C A A T C G T A G C C Nucleus G A C T C G C T A A G T G G A T G C A C A C T A G G T G C C T A C G T G T G A T C A C C A T T C A C G A G T T A C T A T G G A
  • 28. DNA A T T A C C G G A G T A C C T G A C T G C A G T T A A G T C Codon Codon Codon Codon Codon
  • 29. Promoter Region RNA Polymerase A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  • 30. Promoter Region RNA Polymerase A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  • 31. Promoter Region T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C RNA Polymeras e A T G G A T G C A C A C T A G
  • 32. mRNA Strand Promoter Region A T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C RNA Polymeras e G U T A G G A T G C A C A C T A G
  • 33. mRNA Strand Promoter Region G U G A G T T C C T A C G T G T G A T C A U RNA Polymeras e A A G A T G C A C A C T A G
  • 34. U mRNA Strand G A Promoter Region G G U C T T A A G T T C A G C C G T G T G T C A A A RNA Polymeras e A G C A C A C T A G
  • 35. mRNA Strand U G A Promoter Region G C A G U A A T T A A G T T G A G A C C A C T C A C T A G G G T G A T C RNA Polymeras e C C C
  • 36. U mRNA Strand A G Promoter Region G A C G U A C A T T T T A G A C C G G A C T C C G A G A G C T A G T G A T C RNA Polymeras e A C A U
  • 37. U mRNA Strand A G Promoter Region G A C G U A C A T T T T A G A C C G G A C T C C G A G ras A G C T A G T G A T C A C A U
  • 38. U mRNA Strand A G Promoter Region G A C G U A C T T A T A G T C C A G A G T C C G A C T G A T C A C A U G A G C T A G
  • 39. mRNA Strand G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A Promoter Region A T T A G A C T T G A G C C C A G T C A G T T A A C T G G C
  • 40. mRNA Strand G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  • 41. mRNA Strand G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  • 42. mRNA Strand G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A A T T A C G C A T C G T A G G A C T A G T A T C A C T G G C
  • 43. A C A U G U C A C G A A U G G A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  • 44. U A G C A U A C A C G U A G G Nucleus C G A T G T C G T A C C T A T G C A G C A G A T T G A C T A Cytoplasm
  • 45. T A A C T C G T G A A T C G G T C G A T C A G A C T T A C A G C A U A G C A C G U A G Nucleus G T G C A C C G C T A A G T A T G G A T G C A C A C T A G T A T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C G T G C A T T C A C G A T A G U Cytoplasm
  • 46. U A G C A U A C A C G U A G Nucleus G Cytoplasm
  • 47. Nuclear Pore U A G Nucleus C A U A C A C G U A G G Cytoplasm
  • 48. Nuclear Pore Nucleus G A U C A C A C G G U U A A G Cytoplasm
  • 49. Nuclear Pore Nucleus G A U C A C A C G G U U A A G Cytoplasm
  • 50. Nuclear Pore Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A Cytoplasm
  • 51. Nuclear Pore Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A G G Cytoplasm U A
  • 52. Nucleus Nuclear Pore A G U C A C A C G U U G A G A Cytoplasm
  • 53. Nucleus Nuclear Pore A G U C A C A C G U U G G A A Cytoplasm
  • 54. Nucleus G A U C Nuclear Pore A C A C G U A G G U A Cytoplasm
  • 55. Nucleus Nuclear Pore G A U C A C A C G U A G G U Cytoplasm A
  • 56. Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A Cytoplasm G U G A
  • 57. Nucleus G A Cytoplasm U C A C A C G U A G U G A Cytoplasm
  • 58. Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A G U G A Cytoplasm
  • 59. Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A G U G A Cytoplasm
  • 60. Nucleus Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U A G U G A Cytoplasm
  • 61. Nucleus Ribosomes Cytoplasm G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A
  • 62. Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm A G G U A
  • 63. Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm A G G U A
  • 64. Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm A G G U A
  • 65. Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm A G G U A
  • 66. Ribosomes A G U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm U G G A A
  • 67. G Ribosomes A U C A C A C G U U G G A Cytoplasm A
  • 68. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 69. Ribosome Cytoplasm Large Subunit Small Subunit G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 70. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 71. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 72. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 73. Ribosome Cytoplasm Amino Acid tRNA CAU Anticodon G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 74. Ribosome Cytoplasm CAU G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 75. Ribosome Cytoplasm CAU G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 76. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon CAU A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 77. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  • 78. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  • 79. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  • 80. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  • 81. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  • 82. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  • 83. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A U C U A G AUC A C G Codon U A G Codon Start Codon
  • 84. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A U C U A G AUC A C G Codon U A G Codon Start Codon
  • 85. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon AUC U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  • 86. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  • 87. Ribosome Cytoplasm UGC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  • 88. Ribosome Cytoplasm UGC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  • 89. Ribosome Cytoplasm UGC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  • 90. Ribosome Cytoplasm UGC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  • 91. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon UGC A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  • 92. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon UGC A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  • 93. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon UGC A C G Codon CAU A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  • 94. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon CAU A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  • 95. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon CAU
  • 96. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon CAU
  • 97. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon CA
  • 98. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  • 99. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  • 100. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  • 101. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  • 102. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  • 103. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon AUC U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 104. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon AUC G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 105. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U A G Stop Codon Codon Codon Codon G U A Start Codon AUC
  • 106. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U A G Stop Codon Codon Codon Codon G U A Start Codon AUC
  • 107. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U A G Stop Codon Codon Codon Codon G U A Start Codon A
  • 108. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 109. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 110. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond UGC G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 111. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond UGC G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 112. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon UGC G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 113. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon UGC G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 114. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon UGC
  • 115. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon U
  • 116. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 117. Cytoplasm Ribosome GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 118. Cytoplasm Ribosome GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 119. Cytoplasm Ribosome GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 120. Cytoplasm Ribosome G G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 121. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 122. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 123. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 124. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 125. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 126. Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 127. Cytoplasm Polypeptide Chain G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon Peptide Bond U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  • 128. Polypeptide Chain in Tertiary Structure Protein
  • 129. The End

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