Laken flipbook

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Laken flipbook

  1. 1. Protein Synthesi s Process
  2. 2. There are different steps in making a protein. The first step in building an amino acid chain is called transcription. This process takes place within the nucleus of a cell. During this process an enzyme called RNA Polymerase binds to a DNA strand.
  3. 3. To bind to the DNA it begins in an area called the promoter region. Once the RNA Polymerase is bound to the DNA strand it then begins to unwind the DNA, reading the the DNA nucleotides. While reading the DNA strand the RNA Polymerase synthesizes a single mRNA strand.
  4. 4. Once at the end of the DNA strand the RNA Polymerase breaks off. It is no longer needed for the rest of the protein synthesis process. The DNA strand is then reattached in the double helix structure that it originally was in.
  5. 5. The newly formed mRNA strand is the messenger RNA that carries the genetic code of DNA. It leaves the nucleus of the cell through a nuclear pore. The strand is now in the cytoplasm. This is where the next stage, translation, takes place.
  6. 6. In this stage no enzymes are needed. Instead there are different molecules that are used. Ribosomes and tRNA are both needed for this step.
  7. 7. A ribosome attaches to the mRNA strand at the start codon. tRNA carries an amino acid and anticodons. The tRNA carries an anticodon and amino acid to the corresponding nucleotides on the mRNA strand.
  8. 8. Two tRNA molecules are working in the ribosome at once. Once the third tRNA comes, the first one leaves, leaving behind the amino acid it carries and taking the anticodon. The amino acid bonds to the amino acid on another tRNA with a peptide bond.
  9. 9. The process continues. Once the ribosome reaches the stop codon, the process is over. There isn’t a tRNA for the stop codon, therefore there isn’t an amino acid that comes from it. The process simply just ends. The ribosome breaks off of the mRNA strand. The mRNA strand, the ribosome and the tRNA molecules are no longer needed.
  10. 10. Now all that is left is a polypeptide chain, formed by all the amino acids that linked together. The last step in protein synthesis is the folding of the polypeptide chain into a tertiary structure.
  11. 11. Observe the following steps to get a better understanding of protein synthesis process.
  12. 12. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  13. 13. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  14. 14. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  15. 15. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  16. 16. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  17. 17. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  18. 18. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  19. 19. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  20. 20. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  21. 21. Nucleus Cytoplasm
  22. 22. Nucleus
  23. 23. DNA Nucleus
  24. 24. T A A C T C G T G A A T C G G T C G A T C A G A C T T A C G DNA G T G C A C C G C T A A G T A T G G A T G C A C A C T A G T A T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C G T G C A T T C A C G A T A Nucleus
  25. 25. T A T DNA T C A G A A T C T C G T A G T C C A A A T G G G C Nucleus C G C A A T C C G T A A G T G T C C A C A C C G T T A G G T G T A G A T A T C G C G A T A T C C A G T T C A C G A G T T A G
  26. 26. T A A C T C G T G A A T C G G T C A G T C A G A C T T A C G G A A T C G C T A A G T G T C A T G G A T G C A C A C T A G G C T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C C A T T C A C G A G T T A DNA Nucleus
  27. 27. DNA G G A T T C A A T C G T A G C C Nucleus G A C T C G C T A A G T G G A T G C A C A C T A G G T G C C T A C G T G T G A T C A C C A T T C A C G A G T T A C T A T G G A
  28. 28. DNA A T T A C C G G A G T A C C T G A C T G C A G T T A A G T C Codon Codon Codon Codon Codon
  29. 29. Promoter Region RNA Polymerase A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  30. 30. Promoter Region RNA Polymerase A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  31. 31. Promoter Region T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C RNA Polymeras e A T G G A T G C A C A C T A G
  32. 32. mRNA Strand Promoter Region A T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C RNA Polymeras e G U T A G G A T G C A C A C T A G
  33. 33. mRNA Strand Promoter Region G U G A G T T C C T A C G T G T G A T C A U RNA Polymeras e A A G A T G C A C A C T A G
  34. 34. U mRNA Strand G A Promoter Region G G U C T T A A G T T C A G C C G T G T G T C A A A RNA Polymeras e A G C A C A C T A G
  35. 35. mRNA Strand U G A Promoter Region G C A G U A A T T A A G T T G A G A C C A C T C A C T A G G G T G A T C RNA Polymeras e C C C
  36. 36. U mRNA Strand A G Promoter Region G A C G U A C A T T T T A G A C C G G A C T C C G A G A G C T A G T G A T C RNA Polymeras e A C A U
  37. 37. U mRNA Strand A G Promoter Region G A C G U A C A T T T T A G A C C G G A C T C C G A G ras A G C T A G T G A T C A C A U
  38. 38. U mRNA Strand A G Promoter Region G A C G U A C T T A T A G T C C A G A G T C C G A C T G A T C A C A U G A G C T A G
  39. 39. mRNA Strand G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A Promoter Region A T T A G A C T T G A G C C C A G T C A G T T A A C T G G C
  40. 40. mRNA Strand G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  41. 41. mRNA Strand G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  42. 42. mRNA Strand G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A A T T A C G C A T C G T A G G A C T A G T A T C A C T G G C
  43. 43. A C A U G U C A C G A A U G G A T T A C G A G T G T G C A T A T C A C A C G T A G T G C C
  44. 44. U A G C A U A C A C G U A G G Nucleus C G A T G T C G T A C C T A T G C A G C A G A T T G A C T A Cytoplasm
  45. 45. T A A C T C G T G A A T C G G T C G A T C A G A C T T A C A G C A U A G C A C G U A G Nucleus G T G C A C C G C T A A G T A T G G A T G C A C A C T A G T A T A C C T A C G T G T G A T C G T G C A T T C A C G A T A G U Cytoplasm
  46. 46. U A G C A U A C A C G U A G Nucleus G Cytoplasm
  47. 47. Nuclear Pore U A G Nucleus C A U A C A C G U A G G Cytoplasm
  48. 48. Nuclear Pore Nucleus G A U C A C A C G G U U A A G Cytoplasm
  49. 49. Nuclear Pore Nucleus G A U C A C A C G G U U A A G Cytoplasm
  50. 50. Nuclear Pore Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A Cytoplasm
  51. 51. Nuclear Pore Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A G G Cytoplasm U A
  52. 52. Nucleus Nuclear Pore A G U C A C A C G U U G A G A Cytoplasm
  53. 53. Nucleus Nuclear Pore A G U C A C A C G U U G G A A Cytoplasm
  54. 54. Nucleus G A U C Nuclear Pore A C A C G U A G G U A Cytoplasm
  55. 55. Nucleus Nuclear Pore G A U C A C A C G U A G G U Cytoplasm A
  56. 56. Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A Cytoplasm G U G A
  57. 57. Nucleus G A Cytoplasm U C A C A C G U A G U G A Cytoplasm
  58. 58. Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A G U G A Cytoplasm
  59. 59. Nucleus G A U C A C A C G U A G U G A Cytoplasm
  60. 60. Nucleus Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U A G U G A Cytoplasm
  61. 61. Nucleus Ribosomes Cytoplasm G A U C A C A C G U A G G U A
  62. 62. Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm A G G U A
  63. 63. Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm A G G U A
  64. 64. Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm A G G U A
  65. 65. Ribosomes G A U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm A G G U A
  66. 66. Ribosomes A G U C A C A C G U Cytoplasm U G G A A
  67. 67. G Ribosomes A U C A C A C G U U G G A Cytoplasm A
  68. 68. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  69. 69. Ribosome Cytoplasm Large Subunit Small Subunit G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  70. 70. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  71. 71. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  72. 72. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  73. 73. Ribosome Cytoplasm Amino Acid tRNA CAU Anticodon G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  74. 74. Ribosome Cytoplasm CAU G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  75. 75. Ribosome Cytoplasm CAU G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  76. 76. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon CAU A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  77. 77. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  78. 78. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  79. 79. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  80. 80. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  81. 81. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  82. 82. Ribosome Cytoplasm AUC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  83. 83. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A U C U A G AUC A C G Codon U A G Codon Start Codon
  84. 84. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A U C U A G AUC A C G Codon U A G Codon Start Codon
  85. 85. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon AUC U A U C U A G A G Codon Start Codon
  86. 86. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  87. 87. Ribosome Cytoplasm UGC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  88. 88. Ribosome Cytoplasm UGC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  89. 89. Ribosome Cytoplasm UGC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  90. 90. Ribosome Cytoplasm UGC G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  91. 91. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon UGC A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  92. 92. Ribosome Cytoplasm G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon UGC A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon A U C U A G Start Codon
  93. 93. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon UGC A C G Codon CAU A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  94. 94. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon CAU A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  95. 95. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon CAU
  96. 96. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon CAU
  97. 97. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon CA
  98. 98. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  99. 99. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  100. 100. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  101. 101. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  102. 102. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon A U C U A G Codon G U A Start Codon
  103. 103. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon U G C A C G Codon AUC U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  104. 104. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon AUC G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  105. 105. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U A G Stop Codon Codon Codon Codon G U A Start Codon AUC
  106. 106. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U A G Stop Codon Codon Codon Codon G U A Start Codon AUC
  107. 107. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U A G Stop Codon Codon Codon Codon G U A Start Codon A
  108. 108. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  109. 109. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G U G C A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  110. 110. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond UGC G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  111. 111. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond UGC G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  112. 112. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon UGC G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  113. 113. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon UGC G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  114. 114. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon UGC
  115. 115. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon U
  116. 116. Ribosome Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U G U G A C G C A C U Stop Codon Codon Codon G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  117. 117. Cytoplasm Ribosome GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  118. 118. Cytoplasm Ribosome GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  119. 119. Cytoplasm Ribosome GUG G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  120. 120. Cytoplasm Ribosome G G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  121. 121. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  122. 122. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  123. 123. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  124. 124. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  125. 125. Cytoplasm Ribosome G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon Peptide Bond A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  126. 126. Cytoplasm Peptide Bond G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  127. 127. Cytoplasm Polypeptide Chain G A U C A C Stop Codon Codon A C G Codon Peptide Bond U G U A A G Codon Start Codon
  128. 128. Polypeptide Chain in Tertiary Structure Protein
  129. 129. The End

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