DNAaishman

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DNAaishman

  1. 1. DNA Replication By: Alli Ishman
  2. 2. 3’ 5’ DNA Replication is the duplication of DNA during cell division. Replication takes place in the nucleus and starts at the origin of replication. Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine 5’ 3’ Cytosine
  3. 3. DNA Helicase unwinds doublestranded DNA at the origin of replication by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands. In more simple terms, it is kind of like a zipper unzipping. DNA Helicase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  4. 4. DNA Helicase unwinds doublestranded DNA at the origin of replication by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands. In more simple terms, it is kind of like a zipper unzipping. DNA Helicase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  5. 5. DNA Helicase unwinds doublestranded DNA at the origin of replication by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands. In more simple terms, it is kind of like a zipper unzipping. DNA Helicase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  6. 6. DNA Helicase unwinds doublestranded DNA at the origin of replication by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands. In more simple terms, it is kind of like a zipper unzipping. DNA Helicase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  7. 7. DNA Helicase unwinds doublestranded DNA at the origin of replication by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands. In more simple terms, it is kind of like a zipper unzipping. DNA Helicase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  8. 8. DNA Helicase unwinds doublestranded DNA at the origin of replication by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands. In more simple terms, it is kind of like a zipper unzipping. DNA Helicase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  9. 9. DNA Helicase unwinds doublestranded DNA at the origin of replication by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands. In more simple terms, it is kind of like a zipper unzipping. DNA Helicase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  10. 10. DNA Helicase unwinds doublestranded DNA at the origin of replication by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands. In more simple terms, it is kind of like a zipper unzipping. DNA Helicase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  11. 11. DNA Helicase unwinds doublestranded DNA at the origin of replication by breaking hydrogen bonds between complementary strands. In more simple terms, it is kind of like a zipper unzipping. DNA Helicase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  12. 12. 5’ 3’ Single-strand binding proteins react with the single-stranded regions of the DNA and stabilize it. Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine Single-strand binding protein 3’ 5’
  13. 13. An RNA primase constructs an RNA primer to mark a starting point. RNA Primase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  14. 14. DNA Polymerase III can then add deoxyribonucleotides to synthsize the new complementary strand of DNA. The leading strand adds nucleotides going down in the animation shown, and the lagging strand adds nucleotides going up in a discontinues fashion. RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III RNA Primase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  15. 15. DNA Polymerase III can then add deoxyribonucleotides to synthsize the new complementary strand of DNA. The leading strand adds nucleotides going down in the animation shown, and the lagging strand adds nucleotides going up in a discontinues fashion. RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III RNA Primase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  16. 16. DNA Polymerase III can then add deoxyribonucleotides to synthsize the new complementary strand of DNA. The leading strand adds nucleotides going down in the animation shown, and the lagging strand adds nucleotides going up in a discontinues fashion. RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III RNA Primase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  17. 17. DNA Polymerase III can then add deoxyribonucleotides to synthsize the new complementary strand of DNA. The leading strand adds nucleotides going down in the animation shown, and the lagging strand adds nucleotides going up in a discontinues fashion. RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III RNA Primase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  18. 18. When the DNA polymerase III reaches the RNA primer on the lagging strand it is replaced by DNA polymerase I. RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III RNA Primase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  19. 19. DNA polymerase I removes the RNA and replaces it with DNA. DNA Polymerase I RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  20. 20. DNA ligase then attaches and forms phosphodiester bonds. This is just a bond between the phosphate of one nucleotide to the sugar of another nucleotide. DNA Polymerase I RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III DNA ligase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  21. 21. DNA ligase then attaches and forms phosphodiester bonds. This is just a bond between the phosphate of one nucleotide to the sugar of another nucleotide. DNA Polymerase I RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III DNA ligase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  22. 22. DNA Polymerase I RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III DNA ligase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  23. 23. DNA Polymerase I RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III DNA ligase Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  24. 24. The DNA is further unwound, new primers are made, and DNA polymerase III begins synthesizing other okazaki fragments. Okazaki fragments are just short fragments of DNA made on the lagging strand during replication. RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  25. 25. The DNA is further unwound, new primers are made, and DNA polymerase III begins synthesizing other okazaki fragments. Okazaki fragments are just short fragments of DNA made on the lagging strand during replication. RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  26. 26. The DNA is further unwound, new primers are made, and DNA polymerase III begins synthesizing other okazaki fragments. Okazaki fragments are just short fragments of DNA made on the lagging strand during replication. RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  27. 27. Again, once DNA polymerase III reaches the RNA primer it is replaced by DNA polymerase I. RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  28. 28. DNA polymerase I removes the RNA primer. DNA Polymerase I RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  29. 29. DNA ligase then attaches and forms phosphodiester bonds. This is just a bond between the phosphate of one nucleotide to the sugar of another nucleotide. DNA ligase DNA Polymerase I RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Guanine Cytosine
  30. 30. DNA ligase then attaches and forms phosphodiester bonds. This is just a bond between the phosphate of one nucleotide to the sugar of another nucleotide. DNA ligase DNA Polymerase I RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Sugar (Deoxyribose) Phosphate Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  31. 31. DNA ligase then attaches and forms phosphodiester bonds. This is just a bond between the phosphate of one nucleotide to the sugar of another nucleotide. DNA ligase DNA Polymerase I RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  32. 32. DNA ligase RNA Primer DNA Polymerase III Phosphate Sugar (Deoxyribose) Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine
  33. 33. 5’ 3’ 3’ 5’
  34. 34. What happens in DNA Replication? First DNA helicase unwinds the double helix shape of DNA. Then an RNA Primase constructs an RNA primer to mark a starting point. DNA polymerase III then adds nucleotides to make the new strand of DNA. When DNA polymerase III reaches the RNA primer, DNA polymerase I comes in and removes the primer and finally DNA ligase then attaches and forms phosphodiester bonds. DNA replication occurs during S phase in the nucleus.
  35. 35. In my own words • Telomeres- keep ends of various chromosomes in the cell from accidentally becoming attached to each other • Okazaki Fragments- a section of the synthesized DNA on the lagging strand • DNA Ligase- stick the okazaki fragments together like glue • Telomerase- an enzyme that adds telomere repeat sequence • Cancer- tissue that is able to grow in large amounts quickly • Transplanted Cells- cells that have been taken, added to and then given back • Cloning- taking a piece of something and making another copy • Aging- the steady shrinking of cells in the body
  36. 36. Why does DNA replicate? If DNA did not replicate then there would be no DNA to pass on to the next generation, no way to provide the cell with the information necessary for processes, and no way to maintain the cell’s living.
  37. 37. Mistakes (Mutations) • DNA mutations happen when there are changes in the nucleotide sequence that makes up the strand of DNA. This can be cause by random mistakes in DNA replication or even an environmental influence like UV rays or chemicals. Changing even just one nitrogen base in a sequence can change the amino acid that is expressed by the DNA codon which can lead to a completely different protein being expressed. These mutations range from being non-harmful all the way up to causing death.
  38. 38. Works Cited • http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/si tes/dl/free/0072437316/120076/micro04.swf::DNA Replication Fork • http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/olcweb/cgi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/si tes/dl/free/0072437316/120076/bio23.swf::How Nucleotides are Added in DNA Replication • “DNA Helix.” Photograph. “Nucleobases and Their Production during the Photolysis of Astrophysically-relevant Ices.” The Astrophysics & Astrochemistry Lab. NASA Ames Research Center, 2013. Web. 7 February 2014.

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