How its done In DNA replication the double helix is unwound with the help of DNA helicase to look like a ladder. From there the DNA splits, and the DNA polymerase copies a new set of nucleotides for the side which then is zipped up by DNA ligase forming two different DNA strands. The strands then just twist back up into the double helix. This occurs in the interphase part of mitosis. This process is important because it allows for us all to grow by making new cells
Telomeres Telomeres are important to every eukaryotic cell. They are bits of chromosomes at the end of a chromosome that makes it so the chromosomes do not attach to one another. As a person grows older their telomeres become frayed and worn down and when they get to short it can begin to destroy and fray the important part of our genes and lead to cellular death. In cloning the subject would get shortened telomeres, which could lead to a shortened life.
Telomerase Telomerase is an enzyme that adds the telomere code to the end of a chromosome on the 3’ end so it can replicate longer. Cancerous cells find telomerase very useful as most of the cancer cells need them for continuous growth and so the cancer will spread throughout the body.
Transplanted Cells Transplanted cells are now being studied. This is where the infected cells would be taken out, treated, and then would be put back in to the body.
Okazaki Fragments Okazaki fragments are fragments of DNA that are being replicated on the 5’ to 3’ side of the DNA. Replication on the 5’ to 3’ strand cannot be done all at once, so when the DNA fork gets wide enough, the DNA polymerase is able to make a new complementary half for that side. After there are many Okazaki fragments lined up an enzyme called DNA ligase can come through and attach them so you get one continuous strand of DNA.