Protein Synthesis Bowser

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Protein Synthesis Bowser

  1. 1. Protein Synthesis BY: Danielle Bowser
  2. 2. Transcription Ribosomes Cell Nucleus Cytoplasm Transcription is the process of putting DNA into another print (RNA) that is small enough to move through the nuclear membrane of a cell.
  3. 3. Transcription Ribosomes Cell Nucleus Nuclear Membrane Cytoplasm Transcription begins in the nucleus of a cell where DNA is located.
  4. 4. Transcription Inside the Nucleus DNA Backbone made of phosphates and sugar Hydrogen Bonds TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA DNA is a double strand with a phosphate and sugar backbone and hydrogen bonds between the bases (A,T,G,C). T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  5. 5. Transcription Inside the Nucleus TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA RNA polymerase is an enzyme that reads the DNA is a 3 prime to 5 prime direction and makes the new RNA strand in a 5-3 prime direction. RNA polymerase starts at the promoter region (T,A,C), separates hydrogen bonds, synthesizes complementary RNA nucleotides, and stops at the termination sequence. T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  6. 6. Transcription Inside the Nucleus TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA Promoter Region RNA polymerase is an enzyme that reads the DNA is a 3 prime to 5 prime direction and makes the new RNA strand in a 5-3 prime direction. RNA polymerase starts at the promoter region (T,A,C), separates hydrogen bonds, synthesizes complementary RNA nucleotides, and stops at the termination sequence. T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  7. 7. Transcription Inside the Nucleus TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA Promoter Region RNA polymerase is an enzyme that reads the DNA is a 3 prime to 5 prime direction and makes the new RNA strand in a 5-3 prime direction. RNA polymerase starts at the promoter region (T,A,C), separates hydrogen bonds, synthesizes complementary RNA nucleotides, and stops at the termination sequence. T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  8. 8. Transcription Inside the Nucleus TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA Promoter Region RNA polymerase is an enzyme that reads the DNA is a 3 prime to 5 prime direction and makes the new RNA strand in a 5-3 prime direction. RNA polymerase starts at the promoter region (T,A,C), separates hydrogen bonds, synthesizes complementary RNA nucleotides, and stops at the termination sequence. T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  9. 9. Transcription Inside the Nucleus mRNA Strand TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA Promoter Region RNA polymerase is an enzyme that reads the DNA is a 3 prime to 5 prime direction and makes the new RNA strand in a 5-3 prime direction. RNA polymerase starts at the promoter region (T,A,C), separates hydrogen bonds, synthesizes complementary RNA nucleotides, and stops at the termination sequence. T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  10. 10. Transcription Inside the Nucleus mRNA Strand TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA Promoter Region Coding Region Termination Sequence The area between the promoter region and termination sequence is called the coding region. The single strand of RNA produced is called mRNA or messenger RNA. T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  11. 11. Transcription Inside the Nucleus mRNA Strand TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA Promoter Region Coding Region Termination Sequence The area between the promoter region and termination sequence is called the coding region. The single strand of RNA produced is called mRNA or messenger RNA. T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  12. 12. Transcription Inside the Nucleus mRNA Strand TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA Promoter Region Coding Region Termination Sequence The area between the promoter region and termination sequence is called the coding region. The single strand of RNA produced is called mRNA or messenger RNA. T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  13. 13. After RNA polymerase finishes, the hydrogen bonds snap back into place. The mRNA strand has complementary nucleotides of the top DNA strand. The only difference is that Thymine is replaced with Uracil. Transcription Inside the Nucleus mRNA Strand A U G C C U A UCAAUUAA TACGGATACTTAATT ATGCCTATGAATTAA T-Thymine A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  14. 14. Transcription Ribosomes Cell Nucleus Nuclear Membrane / Nuclear Pores Cytoplasm The mRNA strand is now ready to leave the nucleus through tiny nuclear pores and head to the cytoplasm.
  15. 15. Transcription Ribosomes Cell Nucleus Nuclear Membrane / Nuclear Pores Cytoplasm The mRNA strand is now ready to leave the nucleus through tiny nuclear pores and head to the cytoplasm.
  16. 16. Transcription Ribosomes Cell Nucleus Nuclear Membrane / Nuclear Pores Cytoplasm The mRNA strand is now ready to leave the nucleus through tiny nuclear pores and head to the cytoplasm.
  17. 17. Transcription Ribosomes Cell Nucleus Nuclear Membrane / Nuclear Pores Cytoplasm The mRNA strand is now ready to leave the nucleus through tiny nuclear pores and head to the cytoplasm.
  18. 18. Translation mRNA Strand We are now taking a more in depth look at the mRNA strand for the process called translation. A ribosome attaches on to the start codon, which is a specific set of three nucleotides, and the process of converting the mRNA nucleotide sequence into amino acids starts. AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA Stop Codon Start Codon Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  19. 19. Translation We are now taking a more in depth look at the mRNA strand for the process called translation. A ribosome attaches on to the start codon, which is a specific set of three nucleotides, and the process of converting the mRNA nucleotide sequence into amino acids starts. AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  20. 20. Translation We are now taking a more in depth look at the mRNA strand for the process called translation. A ribosome attaches on to the start codon, which is a specific set of three nucleotides, and the process of converting the mRNA nucleotide sequence into amino acids starts. Ribosome AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  21. 21. Translation tRNA molecules now come into play to attach complementary anticodons. The start codon always has the anticodon sequence of U, A, C. Ribosome AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  22. 22. Translation GAU tRNA molecules are made up of amino acids and the anticodon. After the ribosome reads the first codon it moves on the next one while the first codon gets it’s anticodon. This continues until the ribosome reaches the stop codon and drops off the chain. Anticodon Amino Acid Ribosome AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  23. 23. Translation GAU tRNA molecules are made up of amino acids and the anticodon. After the ribosome reads the first codon it moves on the next one while the first codon gets it’s anticodon. This continues until the ribosome reaches the stop codon and drops off the chain. Anti-Codon Amino Acid Ribosome AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA tRNA Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  24. 24. Translation GAU tRNA molecules are made up of amino acids and the anticodon. After the ribosome reads the first codon it moves on the next one while the first codon gets it’s anticodon. This continues until the ribosome reaches the stop codon and drops off the chain. Anti-Codon Amino Acid Ribosome AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA AGG Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine CAU
  25. 25. Translation GAU As the ribosome moves on peptide bonds form between the amino acids. Also, the tRNA molecules fall off leaving the amino acids with peptide bonds behind. Anti-Codon Amino Acid Ribosome AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA GAU Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine AGG
  26. 26. Translation GAU As the ribosome moves on peptide bonds form between the amino acids. Also, the tRNA molecules fall off leaving the amino acids with peptide bonds behind. Anti-Codon Amino Acid Ribosome AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA AUU GAU Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  27. 27. Translation GAU As the ribosome moves on peptide bonds form between the amino acids. Also, the tRNA molecules fall off leaving the amino acids with peptide bonds behind. Anti-Codon Amino Acid Ribosome AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA AUU Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  28. 28. Translation GAU As the ribosome moves on peptide bonds form between the amino acids. Also, the tRNA molecules fall off leaving the amino acids with peptide bonds behind. Anti-Codon Amino Acid Ribosome AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  29. 29. Translation GAU The ribosome is now done with it’s job. The amino acids left behind will fold up on themselves to give their functions. Anti-Codon Amino Acid AUGCCUAUCAAUUAA Cytoplasm U-Uracil A-Adenine C-Cytosine G-Guanine
  30. 30. The ribosome is now done with it’s job. The amino acids left behind will fold up on themselves to give their functions. Translation Final Protein Tertiary Structure
  31. 31. EXTRA INFORMATION Large Subunit Ribosome Small Subunit Ribosomes are made up of rRNA and they have a large and small subunit.
  32. 32. Summary of Transcription Transcription is the process of coping a DNA sequence in the nucleus and transporting it to the cytoplasm. DNA is too large to fit through the nuclear pores and not everything needs to be copied at one time. So, RNA polymerase attaches to the DNA strands copies what it needs and that new strand is called an mRNA strand or messenger RNA. The single stranded mRNA contains complementary nucleotides to the DNA strand; the only difference being that thymine is uracil. mRNA is small enough to fit through the nuclear pores and go to the cytoplasm where it will run into the ribosomes and start the translation process.
  33. 33. Summary of Translation Translation is the process of converting the mRNA strand into a code that ribosomes can understand and make amino acids. This process starts when the mRNA strand runs into a ribosome or rRNA (ribosomal RNA). The ribosome reads the mRNA sequence in 3 nucleotides or codons. Each codon gets a specific anticodon (complementary codon) from a tRNA or transport RNA. tRNA’s contain amino acids at one end an anticodon on another end. The tRNA temporarily binds with the codon and peptide bonds form between the amino acids. The ribosome continues down the mRNA sequence until it reaches the stop codon where it falls off. tRNA fall off as the ribosome continues down the strand as well. The amino acid chain folds up on itself giving it’s function as the final step in translation.
  34. 34. THE END!

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