The Roman Heritage


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The Roman Heritage

  1. 1. Chapter VI: The Roman Heritage (509B.C.- 476A.D.) LAK Chansok Lecturer, Department of International Studies, RUPP Research Fellow, Cambodian Institute for Cooperation and Peace (CICP) Department of International Studies
  2. 2. Contents • Greco-Roman Civilization • Rise of Christianity • Breakdown of Unity in the Empire • Collapse of the Empire
  3. 3. • Can you list the names of city-states/empires that were controlled by Rome by 44B.C.? Hellenistic Civilization Greco-Roman Civilization
  4. 4. Greco-Roman Civilization • How did Greek culture influence Rome? • What contributions did Romans make in science, technology, and law?
  5. 5. Art and Architecture • Statutes: –Shipped and copied from Greeks (Athletes) –Developed Roman styles (realistic Portrait)
  6. 6. • Painting (frescoes and mosaics) –Fresco=wall painting –Mosaics=picture formed of chips of colored stones
  7. 7. • Architecture: –Column and arches –Arches/columns improved to make dome
  8. 8. • Technology and Science: –Bridge supported by arches to across rivers –Strong roads lasting forever (years)
  9. 9. –Aqueducts (canal-like) to carry water from reservoirs –Collected masses of information (encyclopedia) e.g. natural events, medicines, astronomy, etc. • Roman Literature (adopted Greek ideas) –Lyric poetry –Dramas (Comedies and tragedies) –War history and Roman ideas of justice by Caesar and Cicero
  10. 10. • Roman Law –Created a common standard of justice for the entire empire –Some aspects under the Roman Law: (1) Fairness of court’s procedure: -An accused person was considered innocent until proven guilty. -Judge’s decision to penalize the accused only evidence presented in the court -Severe punishments if found guilty (e.g. kill)
  11. 11. Can you raise one of negative aspects under the Roman Law? -Absolute rights of men (e.g. sale of children) • Later on, during Pax Romana, Roman Law was better modified: –Less severe punishment –Limitation of absolution of men –Rights of slaves and women to own property
  12. 12. • During the Pax Romana, a new religion, Christianity, was introduced in Greco-Roman world and became an official religion in 395A.D. • Why did Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire? Easy question!
  13. 13. Rise of Christianity • Romans tolerated religious practices. –Spirits –Old gods (e.g. Jupiter, Mars, Cupid, etc.) –Christianity (Jesus) • Where did Romans find Christianity? –Palestine where Jerusalem is believed to be the place where Jesus was born • How did Rome treat the Jews in Palestine?
  14. 14. Roman Rule in Palestine • People in Palestine called Hebrew or Jews with its old religion tolerated by Rome • Before 66 A.D., a new religion, Christianity, found by Jesus –Born in Bethlehem in Palestine –Grew up in Nazareth –Studies with priests in Synagogue and learned trade of a carpenter
  15. 15. –Preaching to the poor –Miracle Healing of sickness –Jesus believed as a son of God or a Messiah (Savior chosen by God) called “Christos” –Followers of Jesus called Christians • Why was Jesus condemned to death? –Jesus supported much by crowded people –As a threats to the authority of Rome in Palestine (did not worship Roman emperor)
  16. 16. • He was executed according to Roman custom of Crucifixion (nailed to a cross to die of exposure)
  17. 17. • Jesus’s moral teaching: –“Love the lord thy God with all thy heart.” –“Love thy neighbors as thyself.” –Do not let your hearts be troubled. Trust in God; trust also in me. –All the commandments: You shall not commit adultery, you shall not kill, you shall not steal, you shall not covet, and so on, are summed up in this single command: You must love your neighbor as yourself. –Many others of kindness, morality, etc.
  18. 18. Apostles and Paul • Who were Apostles and Paul? – 12 Apostles or 12 disciples (missionaries) to spread Christianity to Rome –Paul, a Greek-speaking Jew, from Asia Minor to create Christian communities in eastern Rome and spread Christianity to Asia Minor –Therefore, Christianity was spread to many places in the world.
  19. 19. • What are reasons of spreading Christianity? –Missionaries to many places and many Christian communities/Churches –The poor and oppress found hope in the God to help them regardless or their social classes (e.g. equality, human dignity, and eternal life) –Woman movement as they believed to be equal to the men
  20. 20. Church Organization
  21. 21. Pope Benedict XVIArchbishop Denis Hart Who is Pope?
  22. 22. • In 66 A.D., the Jews in Palestine revolted against the Rome. • What were results? –Jerusalem destroyed –Jews enslaved –Jewish state abolished –Jews moving to many other places –Jews preserving their own religion and cultures until nowadays
  23. 23. Breakdown of Unity in the Empire • Why did the Pax Romana end? • How Diocletian and Constantine try to strengthen the empire? • Why did reforms fail to stop the decline of Rome?
  24. 24. • After the dead of Augustus and later Marcus Aureilius, the Rome declined as the Pax Romana ended. • Civil wars erupted. • Between 234A.D. and 284A.D. (50 years), at 26 emperors (some holding power for only a few months and some others violently killed)
  25. 25. • What were results of Roman decline? –Civil wars occurred. –Provincial authorities weakened. –Roman law and order declined. –Trade dropped shapely. –Devaluation of coin money increased. –Inflation occurred. –Trade further declined due to the inflation. –Internal and external invaders • Internal invaders: farmers for lands, slaves for freedom, etc. • External invaders: states for independence
  26. 26. Reforms of Diocletian • Who was Diocletian? –General as emperor in around 280s A.D. • What were the reforms of Diocletian? –Empire division into two to effectively controlled (wealthier east controlled by Diocletian; west by co-emperor responsible to Diocletian). –Civil officials solely responsible to the emperor Diocletian
  27. 27. –Enlarged army and training of cavalry to fight invaders –Built roads to facilitate quick move to defense frontiers –Economically, set limit of price and wage and maintained individual jobs • These reforms kept peace for awhile in Rome. Diocletian was sick and retired in 305A.D. • Constantine rose to power as emperor in 312 A.D.
  28. 28. • What were achievements of Constantine? –United Eastern and Western world –New capital, Byzantium, a Greek city of Bosporus, called “Constantinople”
  29. 29. • Why did he build the new capital? –Since Roman was full of “Pagan” or non- Christian. The new capital wanted to be a Christian city. –It was located in the center of Eastern Mediterranean sea easy to trade. –Eastern world more secure than the West (most invaders from the West) Problems still occurred such as corruption, violence, and economic downturn until the death of Constantine in 337A.D.
  30. 30. • The Eastern Roman flourished, while the Western Roman collapse due to internal issues and invaders. • Later on, the Rome collapse!!! WHY?
  31. 31. Collapse of the Empire • How were Germanic tribes organized? • Why did Germanic tribes invade the Roman Empire? • What did political, economic, and social problems lead to the decline of Rome?
  32. 32. Germanic Tribes • Where did Germanic tribes live? –North of the Danube River
  33. 33. • Who were in Germanic tribes? – Different groups of seminomadic herders – Farmers from Scandinavia (now Norway, Sweden, and Denmark) • How many Germanic tribes were there? – Around 16 tribes Alans, Angul(Angels), Aurvandil (Vandals), Burgundus (Burgundians), Cibidus(Cibidi), Dan (Danes), Franks, Gepids, Gothus(Goths), Ingve (Ynglings), Irmin (Irminones), Longobardus (Lombards), Nór (Norwegians), Normans (partial Germanic peoples), Ostrogoths, Rugians, Saxneat (Saxons), Sciri, Teutoni, Valagothus (Valogoths), and Visigoths
  34. 34. North Germanic North Sea Germanic West-Rhine Germanic Elbe Germanic East Germanic Germanic Tribes
  35. 35. • According to Tacitus, a Roman historian, Germanic tribes organized their tribes as follow: Elected King Council of chiefsFree men (not slave) Group of young warriors In exchange for the service - Shield - Javelin - Food - Shelter Elected Responsible (as advisers) Led Strengths: - Strict morality (e.g. fine to injured people) - Strong military discipline - Bravery/courage
  36. 36. Invasion of the Roman Empire • What were causes of the flow of Germanic people into Rome? –Growth of population –Food/shelters –Attack of the Huns from Asia to Europe
  37. 37. • Why were the Germanic people able to invade Rome? –Numerous Germanic troops –Civil wars in Rome –Weakened Roman troops • Finally, Rome sought peace and granted Germanic tribes with much of Southern Gaul and Spain.
  38. 38. (a) Who were the Huns? (b) Where did they come from? (c) Why were they militarily strong?
  39. 39. • The Huns were the super riders and warriors
  40. 40. • “The enemy of my enemy is my friend.” • Rome formed an alliance with Germanics to stop the Huns from further invasion. • Finally, at the battle of Troyes in 451A.D., the alliance stopped the Huns’s advance. • After the withdrawal, the great leader of the Huns, named Attila, died. No longer, it collapsed.
  41. 41. • “My friend today can be my enemy tomorrow.” • After the collapse of the Huns, Germanics continued their invasion. –From Gaul/Spain to North Africa (Cartage) – From Cartage to Italy • In 455A.D., Rome withdrew to protect its capital city in Italy, and finally the Western Roman Empire was taken over by the Germanics.
  42. 42. The Fall of Rome • In 476A.D., a minor Germanic chief, Odoacer, forced Western Roman emperor to give up the throne. • Odoacer proclaimed himself KING of Italy. It is said that it was the “fall of Rome”. • Yet, the Rome did not collapse suddenly. Why?
  43. 43. –People in Western Rome still felt themselves as Romans –Still used Roman Law and Spoke Latin –Until 476A.D., the law and language changed to those of Germanics in Western Rome. –Eastern Rome (Byzantine) still survived for another 1000 years. • Why did Rome decline?
  44. 44. • Political factor: –Felt less responsible toward the government due to: • Wide gap between the rich and the poor • Corruption/high taxes • Incompetent/evil rulers weakening the unity • Officials tended to serve wealthy Eastern Rome rather than the poor West where most of invasion took place • During the period of weakening Rome, some wealthy landowners created their own independent states.
  45. 45. • Economic factor: –Huge spending on army (no wars, no war property) –Separate revenues of the East and the West, so the West had no more money and raised heavy taxes –More invasions from the Huns and later the Germanics resulted in: • Agriculture and trade • Difficulty to collect taxes • Devaluation of money leading to inflation
  46. 46. • Social factor: –Due to poor living condition and bad governance, people served army for money –They lacked discipline and patriotism of the army. –Therefore, they were defeated by Germanic troops with good military training –People’s royalty toward the Roman empire faded away, so they did not care whether the empire was controlled by Roman or Germanic rulers.
  47. 47. • Information: –Eastern Roman Empire could survive for 1000 years after the collapse of the Western Rome (More info: Chapter 11) –From Chapter 8 to 10 (Europe) • Chapter 8: Foundation of European Medieval (Feudalism) • Chapter 9: The Height of European Medieval • Chapter 10: The Building of National Monarchies (France, England, Spain, Scandinavia, etc. and Decline of Medieval
  48. 48. Thank you!